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Georgette Jetta Hale 

donated to 
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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1864, by 

Lorenzo Sabine, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 



Laforey, Sir Francis, Baronet, K. C. B. Admiral in 
the British Navy. His great-grandfather was of a noble 
family in Poitou, and went to England with King William 
the Third. Sir Francis himself was born in Virginia, and 
entered the service during the Revolution. In 1791 he at- 
tained the rank of Commander, and in 1793, that of Captain. 
On the increase of the Order of the Bath, in 1815, he was 
nominated a K. C. B. He was promoted to the rank of Vice- 
Admiral in 1819, and of Admiral, in 1832. While employed 
at sea, he captured two French frigates ; and, in command of 
the Spartiate of 74 guns, was engaged in the memorable 
battle of Trafalgar. His last duty seems to have been on 
the Barbadoes station as Commander-in-Chief. He died in 
England, in 1835, unmarried, and left no heir to the Baro- 
netcy. His sister married Captain A. J. P. Molloy, of the 
Royal Navy. 

Lamb, Walter. Of North Carolina. In December, 
1775, he was brought before the Council by a zealous Whig, 
who prayed that he might receive condign punishment. But 
the judgment of the Council was, that the Whig should keep 
Lamb, and produce him for trial before the Committee of 
Safety for the District of Halifax. 

Lambden, Thomas. Of Worcester County, Maryland. 
The Committee of that county published him as an enemy 
to his country, June, 1775. It appears that he was Crier of 
the Court. The proof against him was, that he had declared 
" all those who took up arms, or exercised agreeably to the 
Resolves of the Provincial Convention at Annapolis, were 

VOL. II. 1 


Rebels," and that, in conversation relative to a quantity of salt 
which the Committee at Baltimore had thrown into the water, 

he had said, " the Committee were a parcel of d d rascals, 

and would not be easy until some of them were hanged up." 

Lambton, Richard. Of South Carolina. Deputy Audi- 
tor-General. The Act of 1782 confiscates estate in the pos- 
session of his heirs or. devisees. 

Lancaster, John. Of North Carolina. His property 
was confiscated in 1779. He went to England, and was in 
London in July of that year. 

Lasky, Robert, Sen. Died in King's County, New 
Brunswick, 1803, aged sixty-eight. 

Lawrence, John. Of Monmouth County, New Jersey. 
Born in 1708-9. A surveyor, and justice of the quorum. 
Advanced in life at the Revolutionary era, he was not in 
arms, but the Whigs put him in jail at Burlington, and kept 
him prisoner nine months, for granting British protections. 
Efforts were made to induce him to abandon home, in order 
to confiscate his estate, but he remained. He ran the division 
line between East and West Jersey, known as the " Law- 
rence Line." He died in 1794, aged eighty-six. 

Lawrence, John. Of New Jersey. Physician. Son of 
John Lawrence. Born in 1747, a graduate of Princeton 
College, and of the first class of the Medical College of Phil- 
adelphia. He was arrested by order of Washington, July, 
1776, and directed by the Provincial Congress to remain at 
Trenton, on parole ; but leave was given, finally, to remove 
to Morristown. The ladies of Perth Amboy petitioned for 
greater freedom for him, on professional grounds, but were 
courteously refused. He used to say that his residence at 
Amboy was the happiest part of his life ; for the reason that 
the officers of the Crown who lived there, formed a social 
circle superior to that of New York or Philadelphia. As his 
father and brother held office, he was narrowly watched. 
Fired at, after much annoyance, by a party of militia, he 
retired to New York, where he practised medicine until the 
peace, and where he commanded a company of Volunteers 


raised for the defence of the citv. In 1783 he returned to 
Monmouth County, and passed the remainder of his days 
there unmolested. He died at Trenton, April 29, 1830. 

Lawrence, Elisha. Of Monmouth County, New Jer- 
sey, Colonel of the First Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. 
Son of John Lawrence, and born in 1740. At the beginning 
of the Revolution, he was Sheriff of his county. He raised 
the corps lie commanded, which consisted of five hundred 
men. In 1777 he was taken prisoner on Staten Island, by 
Sullivan. At the peace, he retired with the Royal Army, 
with his rank of Colonel, and half-pay. He received a large 
grant of land in Nova Scotia, to which he removed, but 
finally went to England. He died at Cardigan, Wales, in 
1811. His wife, who deceased in New York during the war, 
was Mary, daughter of Lewis Morris Ashfield, a member of 
the Council, and a relative of Lewis Morris, a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence. 

Lawrence, John Brown. Of New Jersey. Member of 
the Council, and a distinguished lawyer. Born in Monmouth 
County. His inclination was to take no part in the Revolu- 
tion ; but, suspected by the Whigs from the first, because of 
his official relations to the Crown, he was finally arrested, and 
imprisoned in the Burlington jail for a long time. Accused 
of treasonable intercourse with the enemy, he was tried and 

His imprisonment proved a fortunate circumstance. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel John G. Simcoe, commander of the Queen's 
Rangers, was a fellow-prisoner, and when exchanged, said at 
parting, "I shall never forget your kindness." He did not ; 
and when appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Canada, he 
invited Mr. Lawrence to settle there. The invitation was 
accepted, and, favored by the Governor, he acquired a large 
tract of Crown land. The account of him by one of his 
connections, and the materials which I have obtained else- 
where, are conflicting, and this notice may not be entirely 
accurate. Mr. Lawrence died, I conclude from circumstances, 
in Upper Canada, about the year 1796. 


His son, James Lawrence, Captain in the United States 
Navy, was born at Burlington, New Jersey, in 1781, and 
early evinced a strong predilection for the sea ; but Mr. Law- 
rence was anxious that he should adopt his own profession. 
James, at the age of thirteen, began the study of the law, 
accordingly ; left, however, at liberty to gratify his personal 
inclinations at his father's decease, he entered the Navy as a 
midshipman in 1798. He served under Commodore Preble, 
in 1803, in the war with Tripoli ; and in the destruction of 
the frigate Philadelphia, acquitted himself with honor. In 
the war of 1812 with England, he destroyed and sunk the 
sloop-of-war Peacock in less than twenty minutes, and before 
all the crew could be removed to his own ship, the Hornet. 
He was mortally wounded in the command of the frigate 
Chesapeake, in the battle with the Shannon, June 1, 1813, 
and died On the 5th, after suffering intense pain. 

A member of the family communicates the following in- 
teresting incident. After the death of the Loyalist, the land 
above mentioned was forfeited to the Crown, in consequence 
of failure to comply with some condition of the grants, or the 
non-payment of some dues. Years elapsed, and Mary, his 
granddaughter, and child of Captain James Lawrence, as 
heir, claimed its restoration. The case was carried before 
King William the Fourth, in Council. The Monarch asked 
the claimant's name, and the facts. On being told, he said : 
" She is the daughter of a brave sailor, let her take it." 

As I am informed that Commander Chartes S. Boggs, of the 
United States Navy, is a grandson of our Loyalist, I preserve 
a part of his own graphic account of his share in the terrific 
contest on the Mississippi, at the capture of New Orleans, in 
1862. The letter from which I extract was written to his 
family in New Jersey, but was published. The editor of the 
" New York Post," in using it, remarked, that " Captain 
Boggs is too modest to say that he destroyed six out of the 
eleven " steamers of which he speaks. I quote : — 

" Yesterday our great battle was fought. The squadron 
passed the forts under as severe a fire as any fleet probably 


ever endured. The ships were much cut up, and there were 
many killed and wounded. 

" I can only give you a hasty narrative of what occurred on 
board the Varuna, as in that you will take a special interest. 

" We started at 2 o'clock a. m., and received the first fire 
at 3.30, just as the moon was rising. My vessel was terribly 
bruised, but we returned the fire with interest. On passing 
the forts, I found myself the leading ship, and surrounded by 
a squadron of rebel steamers, who annoyed me much by their 
fire ; so that I steered as close to them as possible, giving to 
each a broadside in succession as I passed ; driving one on 
shore, and leaving four others in flames. 

" During this time, the firing of guns, whistling of shot, 
and bursting of shells, w r as terrible ; the smoke dense. As 
this cleared off, finding more steamers ahead, I stopped to 
look for the rest of the squadron. The ship was leaking 
badly ; but thus far none were hurt. Astern I saw the 
Oneida engaged with a rebel steamer. The latter shortly 
after came up the river, when I engaged him, but found my 
shot of no avail, as he was iron-clad about the bow. He 
tried to run me down ; and I to avoid him and reach his 
vulnerable parts. During these movements he raked me, 
killing three and wounding seven, and attempted to board ; 
but we repulsed him. Driving against me, he battered me 
severely ; but in these efforts exposed his vulnerable side, and 
I succeeded in planting a couple of broadsides into him, that 
crippled his engine and set him on fire. He then dropped 
off, and as he moved slowly up the river and passed me, I 
gave him another and parting broadside. 

" I now found my ship on fire from his shells, and it was 
with great difficulty that it was put out. Just then another 
iron-clad steamer bore down, and struck heavily on my port 
quarter, and backed off for a second blow. This second blow 
crushed in my side ; but at the same instant I gave him a 
full compliment of shot and shell that drove him on shore 
and in flames. 

" Finding myself in a sinking condition, I ran my bow into 


the bank and landed my wounded, still keeping up a fire on 
my first opponent, who at last hauled down his flag. My 
last gun was fired as the decks went under the water. 

" No time to save anything ; the officers and crew escaping 
with the clothes they had on their backs. 

" We were taken off by boats from the squadron, who had 
now come up, the crews cheering as the Varuna went down 
with her flag flying, victorious in defeat and covered with 

" I think we have done well. Eleven steamers destroyed 
by the squadron. The old ram Manassas sunk by the Mis- 


Lawrence, Richard. Of Staten Island, New York. In 
1776, Sir William Howe apppointed him master-carpenter of 
the Royal shipyards at that island, and gave him orders to 
seize vessels, timber, and naval stores, owned by the "Rebels." 
He appears to have obeyed with a will. In 1786 he was 
arrested and tried, at the suit of several persons whose prop- 
erty he had taken during the war. Jonathan Morrill re- 
covered judgment for £230 ; John Browne, for £280; and 
Samuel Browne, for £425. Lawrence, from jail in the city 
of New York, prayed the interposition of John Temple, the 
British Consul, who communicated with John Jay, Secretary 
for Foreign Affairs, and the case was submitted to Congress. 
The point in the discussions that followed was whether the 
luckless master-carpenter plead the 6th article of the Treaty 
of Peace, at the trials of these suits.. He averred that he 
did ; Mr. Jay, who examined the records of the Court, de- 
clared that he did not. The last State paper on the sub- 
ject was in 1788, and informed the British Minister for 
Foreign Affairs that the judgments must stand until legally 
reversed in the ordinary course of judicial proceedings. 

Lawton. Four of this name went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, at the peace, of whom three died there : John, of 
Philadelphia, in 1846, aged eighty-nine, leaving a large circle 
of relations and friends ; Thomas, of Rhode Island, in 1803 ; 
and Isaac, residence unknown, in 1810, aged eighty. The 
other, William, was a grantee of the city. 


Leaming, Rev. Jeremiah, D. D. Episcopal minister. 
He was born in 1717, and graduated at Yale College in 1715. 
Ordained in 1718, he officiated at Newport, Rhode Island, eight 
years ; then at Nor walk, Connecticut, twenty-one years ; and 
last, at Stratford, eight or nine years. In the Revolution, a 
mob took his picture, defaced it, and and nailed it to a sign- 
post with the head downward. Subsequently he was confined 
in jail "as a Tory,'' and denied even a bed. His imprisonment 
caused a disease of the hip, which made him a cripple for life. 
In 1783, he was the first choice of his communion for the 
Bishopric of Connecticut ; but his infirmities compelled him 
to decline. He died at New Haven, in 1804, aged eighty-six. 

Lear, Jesse. Of Virginia. At the peace, accompanied 
by his family of four, and two servants, he went from New 
York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted 
him one farm, one town, and one water lot. He became a 
merchant, and, for a time, was very prosperous. The almost 
simultaneous capture of two of his vessels by the French, re- 
duced him to poverty. He died about the year 1805. 

Leavens, Joseph. He was an early settler of Canada, an 
emigrant from New York, and, as I suppose, a Loyalist. He 
was long a preacher of the Society of Friends, and was highly 
beloved. He died at Hallowell, Canada West, May, 1844, 
aged ninetv-two. 

Leavitt, Rev. Jonathan. Of Charlemont, Massachusetts. 
Congregational minister. He was installed in 1767. Difficul- 
ties arose about the year 1777, which produced alienation and 
separation. Some of his flock said he was an Arminian ; 
others disliked his politics. " He did not seem to share his 
people's zeal for the Revolution " ; and he objected to receive 
his salary in depreciated paper currency, except at a rate to 
give him the amount originally agreed upon. After repeated 
attempts to arrange terms of settlement without success, the 
town voted to close the church, and stationed a constable at 
the door to prevent Mr. Leavitt from entering. But he con- 
tinued to preach in a school-house, to those who were friendly 
to him, for several years. He was dismissed in 1785. He 


sued for salary, and for loss on paper money, and recovered 

Lechmere, Richard. Of Boston. An Addresser of 
Hutchinson in 1774 ; appointed Mandamus Councillor, but 
did not accept. In 1776, he went to Halifax, with his family 
of eleven persons, and thence to England. He was proscribed 
and banished in 1778, and included in the Conspiracy Act of 
the next year. In 1780, his home was at Bristol. He died 
in England, in 1814, aged eighty-seven. 

Lechmere, Nicholas. Of Newport, Rhode Island. Offi- 
cer of the Customs. In 1765, fearing the loss of life in the tu- 
mults there of that year, he fled to the Cygnet sloop-of-war, and 
refused to return to his duties without assurance of protection. 
From 1767 to the end of the Royal Government, the disagree- 
ments between him and the popular party were frequent. 
In December, 1775, he refused to take the oath tendered by 
General Lee, and was conveyed, under guard, to Providence. 
He went to England, and in 1780 was at Bristol. 

Lee, Joseph. Of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Judge of 
Common Pleas for the county of Middlesex, and Mandamus 
Councillor ; died at Cambridge, December, 1802, at the age 
of ninety-three years. Though a Loyalist, he was not warm 
in his political sentiments, and escaped particular notice from 
the Sons of Liberty. Of the thirty-six gentlemen appointed 
to the Council, by mandamus, only ten were sworn in ; of 
whom Mr. Lee was one ; but he found it prudent to resign 
the office. He was a graduate of Harvard University, and a 
member of the Class of 1729. 

Lee, Joseph. Of Marblehead, Massachusetts. An Ad- 
dresser of Hutchinson in 1774 ; died at Marblehead, in 1785, 
aged thirty-seven. 

Lee, Samuel. Of Concord, Massachusetts. He was born 
in Boston in 1756, and graduated at Harvard University 
in 1776. During the war, he was a merchant at Castine, 
Maine, a British post. At the peace, he removed to the 
Colonies ; lived at several places, and held various civil and 
military offices. He died at Shediac, in 1805, while on his 

LEE. — LEIGH. 9 

return from Halifax to Ristogouche, aged fifty-six. Sarah, 
his widow, died at Roxbury, Massachusetts, in 1831. 

Lee, John. Of Gardiner, Maine. He fled to the enemy. 
In 1778, the Commissioners on the Estates of " Absentees " 
advertised for claimants to present their demands, at the tavern 
of Lemuel Goodwin, Pownalborough. 

Lee, Joseph. Of New Jersey. Confined in jail at Tren- 
ton, July, 1776, for disaffection, by order of the Provincial 
Congress, subsequently fined <£100, " proclamation money." 
Subsequently, a captain in the New Jersey Volunteers. Set- 
tled in New Brunswick ; was a magistrate in York County in 

Lefferts, Leffert. Of Kings County, New York. Ad- 
dresser of Governor Robertson in 1778. His daughter Cath- 
arine, an amiable and accomplished young lady, in attempt- 
ing to remove a pistol which she feared would be the cause 
of harm to some of the children, was herself instantly killed. 

Leffingwell, Thomas. Of Norwich, Connecticut. A 
man of respectability and talents, who remained loyal 
throughout the contest. He was exposed to many insults ; 
was prosecuted and imprisoned ; and suffered the loss of pro- 
perty in various ways. 

Leigh, Sir Egertox, Baronet. Of South Carolina. He 
was Attorney-General, Surveyor-General, and a member of 
the Council of that Colony. His father, Peter Leigh, who 
died in 1759, was Chief Justice. He was created a Baronet 
in 1772, or the year following. When asked to sign a petition 
for the pardon of the ill-fated Hayne, he answered that he 
" would hunt his hand off rather than do an act so injurious to 
the King's service." This incident is stated on the authority 
of Lord Rawdon himself. The refusal of the Attorney-Gen- 
eral put an end to all hope of saving Hayne ; for, afterwards, 
if we except Lieutenant-Governor Bull, not one Loyalist of 
repute could be "persuaded to interpose. Sir Egerton arrived 
at Dover, England, in the ship Lord Germain, August, 1782. 
His wife, by whom he was the father of three sons and five 
daughters, was Martha, daughter of Francis Bremor, of South 


Carolina. He was succeeded at his decease by his eldest sur- 
viving son, Egarton, who died in 1818. 

Lenox, Peter. Of Philadelphia. In 1782, a Loyalist 
Associator at New York, to settle at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, 
the following year, with his family of seven persons. At Hal- 
ifax, in 1784, he advertised as follows : — " Having opened 
Business at the Pontac, begs leave to thank those Gentlemen 
who have already been kind enough to give him their Encour- 
agement. And as he has now finished off several Rooms, for 

the Reception of the respectable Citizens of this Place, & laid 
in a Stock of the most excellent Liquors, he takes this oppor- 
tunity to assure them that due Attendence will be constantly 
given, except the First Thursday Night in every Fortnight, be- 
ing Assembly Night." 

Lent, Adolphus. Of Tappan, New York. Died in the 
city of New York during the Revolution. 

Lent, Abraham. Of Tappan, New York. Son of Adol- 
phus. Colonel in the militia, but was not very active. Went 
with his brother James to Shelburne in 1783, but returned to 
Tappan in 1790, and purchased his father's mansion with the 
money paid him by the British Government for his losses as a 
Loyalist. He left one daughter. 

Lent, James. Of Tappan, New York. Son of Adol- 
phus. An ensign in the Queen's Rangers. Went to Shel- 
burne, Nova Scotia, at the peace ; removed to Tusket in 1786. 
Died in 1838, aged eighty-five. His wife's brother, Garrit 
Smith, owned the land on which Andre was buried. 

Leonard, Daniel. Of Taunton, Massachusetts. Chief 
Justice of the Bermudas. Son of Colonel Ephraim Leonard, 
who was a zealous Whig. He graduated at Harvard Univer- 
sity in 1760. He became a member of the General Court, 
and a political writer of merit. In 1774 he was one of the 
barristers and attorneys, who were Addressers of Hutchinson 
and the same year was appointed a Mandamus Councillor, 
but was not sworn interoffice. Bullets were fired into his 
house by a mob, and he took refuge in Boston. In 1776, 
with his family of eight persons, he accompanied the British 


Army to Halifax. He was included in the Banishment Act 
of 1778, and in the Conspiracy Act of 1779. I conclude 
that he went to England, and while there received the appoint- 
ment of Chief Justice. He was a man of fortune. He had a 
passion for cards, and was fond of dress. " He wore a broad 
gold lace round the rim of his hat ; he had made his cloak 
glitter with laces still broader ; he had set up his chariot and 
pair, and constantly travelled in it from Taunton to Boston." 
No other lawyer in all Massachusetts, of " whatever age, rep- 
utation, rank, or station, presumed to ride in a coach or a 
chariot." He was the original of Beau Trumps, in Mrs. War- 
ren's Group, A series of papers signed u Massachusettensis," 
which John Adams, as " Novanglus" answered, were, for a 
long time, attributed to Jonathan Sewell ; but it is now as- 
certained that they were written by Mr. Leonard. " Massa- 
chmettensis" bear dates between December, 1774, and April, 
1775 ; and were published three times in a single year : first, 
in the ''Massachusetts Gazette and Post Boy," next, in a pam- 
phlet form ; and last, by Rivington, in New York. Still an- 
other edition appeared in Boston, in 1776. The replies were 
numerous. " Novanglus" bear dates between January and 
April, 1775. Both were reprinted in 1819, with a preface, 
by Mr. Adams, who remarks of " Massachusettensis" that 
"these papers were well written, abounded . with wit, dis- 
covered good information, and were conducted with a sub- 
tlety of art and address wonderfully calculated to keep up the 
spirits of their party, to depress ours," &c, &c. 

The reader of these pages must be content with these brief 
extracts : — 

" I saw the small seed of sedition, when it was implanted : 
it was a grain of mustard. I have watched the plant, until 
it has become a great tree ; the vilest reptiles that crawl upon 
the earth, are concealed at the root ; the foulest birds of the 
air rest on its branches." Fond of figures of speech, he else- 
where likens sedition to a "serpent," and calls the Committee 
of Correspondence the foulest, subtlest, and most venomous 
thing that had ever issued from its eggs. Again, he says the 


dupes of the popular leaders " swallowed a chimera for break- 

In 1780, William Knox, Under Secretary of State for the 
American Department, suggested the division of Maine, and 
a Province of the territory between the Penobscot and St. 
Croix rivers, with Thomas Oliver for Governor, and the sub- 
ject of this notice for Chief Justice. The plan was approved 
by the King and Ministry, but was abandoned because Wed- 
derburne, the Attorney-General, gave the opinion that the 
whole of Maine was included in the charter of Massachusetts. 

Mr. Leonard was in Massachusetts in 1799, and again in 
1808. He died at London, June, 1829, aged eighty-nine. 
His first wife was Anna White, of Taunton ; his second, 
was Sarah Hammock ; one of whom died in 1806, aged 
sixty-five, on the passage from Bermuda to Providence, 
Rhode Island. Had he returned from banishment and been 
admitted to citizenship in Massachusetts, he would have in- 
herited a large estate bequeathed him by his father ; as it 
was, the property passed to his only son, Charles, who, about 
the year 1791, " entered Harvard College, but did not grad- 
uate 1 '; who was " subsequently under the guardianship of 
Judge Wheaton," and who "was found dead in the road," in 
Bristol County, Massachusetts, in 1831. Harriet, his young- 
est daughter, died at London, in 1849, at the age of seventy- 

Leonard, George. Of Norton, Massachusetts. Clark, 
the historian of Norton, calls him a " neutral," and remarks, 
that "though the most influential man in town, he took no 
active part in public affairs during the w r ar." A "neutral" 
in the Revolution was a Loyalist. Mr. Leonard was the son 
of Major George Leonard, w T ho claimed descent from a noble 
family in England, and was born in 1698. He was in office 
from early manhood until old age. After serving his native 
town in almost every capacity, he was appointed a Judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas, in 1725 ; a member of the 
Council in 1741 ; and Judge of Probate, in 1747 ; while in 
the militia, he rose to the rank of Colonel. In 1740, he was 


dismissed from the bench, in consequence of his connection 
with the famous Land Bank scheme ; but was restored six 
years afterwards, and became Chief Justice. He died in 
1778, in his eighty-first year. " Tradition," says Clark, 
"has universally given him a character above reproach, and 
represented him to be a man of much practical wisdom and 
of sterling worth." He married Rachel Clap, of Scituate, 
who bore him four children, and who died in 1783, in her 
eighty-second year. His son, George Leonard, who was 
born in 1729, who graduated at Harvard University in 1748, 
who held several important offices under the Colonial Govern- 
ment, and who, after the adoption of the Federal Constitu- 
tion, was a member of Congress, died in 1819, at the age of 
ninety. Of this gentleman it is said that " he was a genu- 
ine specimen of an American country gentleman ;" that "he 
was a kind and considerate landlord," who never raised his 
rents, and who regarded his old tenants as his friends ; that 
" he was tenaciously attached to old customs, and wore the 
short breeches and long stockings to the day of his death ; " 
that " he would never rear merino sheep on his farm, sell his 
growing rye for the straw manufacture, allow cotton-mills to 
be erected on his streams, or speculate in stocks ; " and that, 
of rigid integrity, he was never " guilty of injustice or op- 

Leonard, George. Of Massachusetts. He settled in 
New Brunswick in 1783, and was much employed in public 
affairs. The year of his arrival, he w T as appointed one of the 
agents of Government to locate lands granted to Loyalists, 
and was soon after made a member of the Council, and com- 
missioned as a Colonel in the militia. He died at Sussex 
Vale, in 1826, at an old age. Sarah, his consort, preceded him 
a year, aged eighty-one. His daughter Caroline married R. 
M. Jarvis, Esq., in 1805, and his daughter Maria married 
Lieutenant Gustavus R. H. M. Rochfort, of the Royal Navy, 
in 1814. His son, Colonel Richard Leonard, of the 104th 
Regiment of the British Army, and Sheriff of the District of 
Niagara, died at Lundy's Lane, Upper Canada, in 1833. 

VOL. II. 2 


Leonard, George, Jr. Son of George Leonard. He 
was a grantee of the city of St. John, New Brunswick, and 
removed there with his father in 1783. He was bred to the 
law, and devoted himself to his profession. He died at Sus- 
sex Vale in 1818. 

Leonard, George. Of New York. He entered the Royal 
Army, and was a sergeant. He emigrated to New Brunswick 
at the peace, and died at Deer Island, in that Province, in 
1829, aged seventy-two. His descendants are numerous. 

Leslie, Alexander. " Head-master of the grammar- 
school of King's (now Columbia) College." In 1776, an 
Addresser of Lord and Sir William Howe. 

Leslie, James. Of Boston. At the peace, accompanied 
by his family and two servants, he went from New York to 
Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted him one 
farm, one town and one water lot. He was living at Shel- 
burne about the year 1805. 

Lesney, Stephen. Of North Carolina. In the battle at 
Cross Creek, 1776, he " shot Captain Dent in cold blood." 
Taken prisoner, and confined in Halifax jail ; sent finally to 

Levett, Francis. Of Georgia. Rice planter. Banished, 
and estate confiscated. He went with his family and negroes 
to Florida, and thence to the Bahamas. His property in 
Georgia was restored, and he returned to that State. One 
account is, that he "introduced" the cotton-plant into the 
United States ; but this is a mistake, beyond question, for that 
plant was known in Maryland and elsewhere nearly half a 
century before his earliest experiment. That he w r as the first 
to cultivate the Sea Island cotton is probable ; for we have 
evidence that, in 1785, he was in Jamaica, in distress ; that 
he was advised to settle on some of the islands on the coast 
of Georgia ; that he acted upon the suggestion ; that Pernam- 
buco cotton-seed was sent to him ; and that, in 1789, he him- 
self announced success beyond his " most sanguine expecta- 
tions." He went to England subsequently, and died there 
in 1805, or the year following, leaving a wife and son who 
came to Savannah in 1807. 


Lewis, Captain . He commanded a band of Loy- 
alists. Towards the close of the war, he and Colonel Peter 
Horry, of Marion's corps, met in deadly conflict. Lewis was 
armed with a musket, while the Whig officer's only weapon 
was a small sword. When in the act of firing at Horry, 
Lewis was shot from the woods by a boy of the name of 
Gwin, and fell dead from his horse. 

Lightfoot, Robert. Of Rhode Island. Judge of the 
Court of Vice- Admiralty for the Southern District of North 
America. He was born in London in 1716 : belonged to a 
family of wealth and respectability, graduated at Oxford, and 
studied law in the Inner Temple. Appointed to the office 
above mentioned, he entered upon his duties, but the climate 
South impaired his health, and he went to Newport for re- 
laxation and restoration. Delighted with the place and with 
the society, he resigned, and became a citizen. He was a 
wit, an epicure, " a perfect encyclopaedia," related anecdotes 
to the admiration of everybody, contradicted nobody, was 
courted by every social and literary circle, and the man at 
the table of the first characters of the day. He detested 
pedants, and, annoyed by one, who was ever quoting Homer 
and Hesiod, he asked him if he recollected this line : — 
" Shoulderoi motion kia posteroi venison." " Yes," replied 
the pedant ; " in Hesiod." On a journey from Newport to 
Pomfret, he was overtaken by a snow-storm, without an 
overcoat ; stopping at a public house, he was importuned by 
the landlady to tell his history and his business, which in his 
own vein, he did. To the question, " How many children he 
had ?" he answered "nine." She screamed out, " Husband ! 
husband ! — come here ; here is a man with nine children, 
and never wears a great-coat, when I have made you a 
dozen, and we never had one ! " 

His sisters, who kept their chariot in London, supported him 
for many years. He removed to Plainfield, Connecticut, and 
died there, suddenly, in 1794. His only daughter, Fanny, 
who was amiable, well informed, and much respected, sur- 
vived him many years, and lived with William Robinson, 
at Newport, until her decease. 


Lightly, William. Probably *an inhabitant of Connec- 
ticut. In 1775 he was employed by Joshua Winslow, a dis- 
tinguished Loyalist of Boston, to proceed in the Brigantine 
Nancy from Stonington to New York, — and thence, as was 
supposed, to Boston, — with a cargo of molasses. The Pro- 
vincial Congress of Massachusetts addressed Governor Trum- 
bull, of Connecticut, on the subject, and suggested the propriety 
of detaining both vessel and merchandise, " rather than to 
suffer them to fall into the hands of General Gage, when they 
would be improved to the support of our enemies." At this 
time (July 12, 1775,) Lightly had been seized, was then in 
custody, and ordered to be committed to jail at Concord, 
Massachusetts. From a letter of Governor Trumbull to 
Washington, at a subsequent period, it appears that the vessel 
and molasses were removed to Norwich, and placed in the 
care of the Committee of Inspection and Correspondence. 
This incident, besides introducing the name of Lightly, will 
seTve to show the manner of disposing of the property of 

Lighton, John. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, 
1822, aged seventy. 

Lillie, Theophilus. Merchant, of Boston. He was 
one of those denounced as " Importers," contrary to the non- 
importation agreement, made by two hundred and eleven 
merchants and traders in 1768, and renewed by the principal 
part of that number in 1770. On the 22d of February, of 
the last named year, some persons erected near his store a 
large w r ooden head, fixed on a pole, on which the faces of 
several " Importers " were carved. One Richardson, who 
was regarded as an " Informer," endeavored to persuade some 
countrymen with teams to run the post down, but they, 
understanding the nature of the pageantry, declined. Rich- 
ardson foolishly attempted to possess himself of the teams, 
when a crowd of boys pelted him, and drove him into his 
house. A multitude gathered ; noise, angry words, and the 
throwing of stones followed, and Richardson, finally, dis- 
charged one musket from his door, and another from his 


window. Christopher Snider, a boy of eleven, received a 
mortal wound in his breast, and was the first martyr of 
liberty. He was buried on the 26th ; four or five hundred 
schoolboys, in couples, preceding his remains ; six of his play- 
fellows supporting his pall ; his relatives, about thirteen hun- 
dred of the inhabitants, and thirty chariots and chaises, fol- 
lowing in procession. From this imposing funeral, until 
March 5th, Boston was in a state of commotion ; and on the 
evening of that day occurred the affray between the people 
and the soldiers, which is known as the Boston Massacre. 
Lillie was an Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and went to 
Halifax, in 1776, at the evacuation. He died previous to 
July 16,- 1778. Jacob Cooper, of Boston, administered on 
his estate. 

Lindsay, Samuel. Of Pennsylvania. He was solicited 
to join the Whigs, and was offered the commission of Major 
in the Continental Army. After his manly avowal of loy- 
alty, he was furnished with a pass to join Sir William Howe, 
who appointed him a Captain in De Lancey's corps, and In- 
spector of the Guides. At the peace he settled in Canada. 
He died at Montreal, in 1818, aged eighty-five. 

Lindsey, Robert. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780 ; also a Petitioner 
to be armed on the side of the Crown. Banished in 1782, 
and property confiscated. He went to England, and died 
there in 1803. 

Linn, John. He was a native of Maryland, but emigrated 
to New Jersey about sixty years prior to his death, and died 
at Belvidere, in that State, June 28, 1841, aged one hundred 
and eight years. He remembered the boyhood of Washing- 
ton ; but, in consequence of his political attachments, was not. 
fond of speaking of the events of the Revolution. He was a 
carpenter, and, when a young man, assisted in building a log 
Court-House near the site of the city of Washington. 

Lippincott, Richard. Of New Jersey. In the military 
service of the Crown, and a captain. He was born in 1745. 
He murdered the Whig captain Joshua Huddy, and obtained 



an infamous and general notoriety for the deed, both in Amer- 
ica and Europe. In March, 1782, the Whigs had made a 
Tory, of the name of Philip White, prisoner, and while con- 
veying him to camp, he attempted to escape. Though warned 
to stop, he continued to run until he was cut down. Soon 
after, Lippincott was sent by the Board of Loyalists at New 
York to Middleton-point, or Sandy Hook, with Huddy and 
two other prisoners ; and on his return, he reported that he 
had exchanged the two, and that " Huddy had been ex- 
changed for Philip White ; " when, in fact, he had hung Hud- 
dy, in retaliation, on a tree on the Jersey shore. Washington 
immediately demanded of Sir Henry Clinton that Lippincott 
should be surrendered, but the Board of Loyalists interposed, 
and the demand was refused. Washington then determined 
to retaliate on a prisoner in his possession, and selected, by lot, 
Captain Asgill, of the Guards, the heir and hope of an ancient 
family of England, and fixed the time for his execution. 
Asgill's mother, on learning the condition of her son, im- 
plored Vergennes, the French Minister, to interfere to save 
him. Her pathetic appeal was published, and excited sym- 
pathy throughout England and France. The unfortunate 
youth was finally released by order of Congress, and lived to 
become Sir Charles Asgill, and a General in the British Army. 
He died in 1823, aged seventy. 

Washington having failed in his application to the British 
Commander-in-Chief, Captain Hyler, a famed partisan leader 
in nautical adventures, projected a plan to make Lippincott 
his prisoner. On inquiry, the Whig ascertained that the 
Loyalist lived in a well-known house in Broad Street, New 
York ; and in disguise proceeded to that city in the night ; 
and, leaving his boat at Whitehall, in charge of his men, went 
directly to Lippincott's abode, but he was absent, " and gone 
to a cock-pit." Hyler, not to be foiled entirely, went on board 
of a sloop at anchor off the Battery, cut her cables, hoisted 
her sails, and by daylight had carried her to Elizabethtown, 
and landed her cargo, which consisted of forty hogsheads of 


Lippincott, after the Revolution, went to England, to claim 
compensation for his services and losses. He obtained the 
half-pay of a captain, for life, and the grant of three thousand 
acres of land in York, (now Toronto,) upon which he settled, 
about the year 1794. He died at Toronto, in 1826, in his 
eighty-second year. His only child, Esther Borden, married 
George Tavlor Dennison. 

As I write, (January, 1861,) more than thirteen years 
have elapsed since the publication of the first edition of this 
work ; and the accuracy of my conclusions, upon the evidence, 
has been disputed, as far as I am informed, barely twice ; — 
namely, in the case of the younger Oliver De Lancey, and in 
that before me. In all courtesy and gentleness to the persons 
who feel aggrieved, I defend the integrity of my text in both. 

As relates to Lippincott, his grandson, George T. Denni- 
son, Jr., addressed me a long letter, December 5, 1849, in 
which he goes over the whole ground ; and concludes that, 
in using the term " murdered," I " inadvertently fell into an 
error, no doubt from the want of better information," &c. 
Mr. Dennison, if my memory serves, was at the time a mem- 
ber of the Provincial Parliament. Be this as it may, the tone 
of his communication is entirely unexceptionable, and shows 
a cultivated mind and a warm and generous heart. His an- 
cestor shall have justice at my hands ; and I gladly transfer 
to these pages such parts of his letter as my limits will allow. 
He remarks that " Captain Lippincott was naturally a person 
of the most harmless and quiet disposition " ; that " White 
was half-brother to his wife," and that he was " exasperated 
by the butchery of an innocent relative," who, " found on a 
visit to his mother's house, was treated by Huddy as a spy " ; 
and, speaking of his grandfather's residence in Canada, he 
says : — " The old man was respected by all who knew him in 
this country, rich and poor, and was well known to all the old 
Loyalists who settled there " ; that " persons came uninvited 
thirty or forty miles to pay their last tribute to his memory " ; 
that " hundreds still living would repudiate the character" 
I give him, " as a man and a soldier " ; that " he was true to 


his Sovereign, both in prosperity and in peril, and nobly 
maintained the Lippincott family motto, ' Secundum dubiisque 
rectus. ,' " 

These are the material points which touch the general 
reputation of the subject of this notice. As concerns the 
particular act in dispute, Mr. Dennison observes : " Indeed the 
truth is, as I have always heard it declared by himself and 
others, that he had authority from Sir Henry Clinton himself 
to hang Huddy in retaliation for White ; — and the sequel 
certainly bears out that position." 

This brings us to an examination of the testimony, from 
which it will be seen that Sir Henry and his successor con- 
demned Lippincott's conduct positively and unequivocally. 
The finding of the British court-martial was in these words : 
— the italics are my own — " The Court having considered 
the evidence for and against the Captain, and it appearing that 
(although Joshua Huddy was executed without proper author- 
ity') what the prisoner did was not the effect of malice or ill 
will, but proceeded from a conviction that it was his duty to 
obey the orders of the Board of Directors of Associated Loy- 
alists, and his not doubting their having full authority to give 
such orders, the Court is of opinion that he is not guilty of the 
murder laid to his charge, and therefore acquit him." 

Such is the record ; and it is a fact of some significance, 
that Governor Franklin, President of the Board under whom 
Lippincott acted, embarked for England before the investiga- 
tion was terminated. And why should not my text stand ? 

April 19, 1782, Washington submitted the case of Huddy 
" to the General and Staff Officers of the Army," of whom 
twenty-five replied in writing ; and affirmed that Lippincott 
committed " murder." Two days after, the Commander-in- 
Chief himself stated his views to Sir Henry Clinton, and re- 
peated the word " murder," and demanded that the " mur- 
derer " should be given up. In July of the same year, Wash- 
ington, in a letter to Sir Guy Carleton, who had succeeded to 
the command of the British Army, again used the term 
" murder." So, too, in communicating with the President 


of Congress, a month later, the Whig Chief spoke of the 
" murder " of Huddy ; and averred that though Lippincott 
had been acquitted by the Board of Refugees, Sir Guy " rep- 
robates the measure in unequivocal terms, and has given as- 
surance of prosecuting a further inquiry." 

Mr. Sparks completes the evidence. I quote his exact 
words : " In the public offices of London," he writes, " I was 
favored with the perusal of all the communications of Sir 
Henry Clinton and Sir Guy Carleton to the Ministry on this 
affair of Captain Huddy ; and justice requires me to say that 
those commanders expressed the strongest indignation and 
abhorrence at his execution, and used every possible effort to 
ascertain the offenders and bring them to punishment." 

In concluding this article, I deliberately pronounce the 
general course of the " Honorable Board of Associated Loy- 
alists " disgraceful. Had they not authorized pillage, had 
not their privateers — nay — their pirate boats, and their 
bands of land marauders plundered houses, and robbed^ and 
insulted unoffending women and children, the warfare in the 
region of Long Island and in New Jersey would have been 
far different ; and horrors, at which humanity revolts, would 
not have stained the records of the Revolutionary era. 

Lister, Thomas. He entered the military service of the 
Crown, and in 1782 was a captain in De Lancey's Third 
Battalion. At the peace he settled in New Brunswick, and 
was a major in the militia. After a residence of some years 
in that Province, he returned to the United States. He re- 
ceived half-pay. 

Lister, Benjamin. In 1782, he was a lieutenant in De 
Lancey's Second Battalion. He settled in New Brunswick at 
the close of the war, and in 1784 a lot was granted to him in 
the city of St. John. In the winter of 1803, while travelling 
in a sleigh on the ice, he broke through and was drowned. 
He received half-pay. 

Little, Woodbridge. Of Pittsfield, Massachusetts. At- 
torney-at-law. Graduated at Yale College in 17G0. In 
1775 his conduct drew upon him the indignation of the 


Whigs, and when a hue and cry was raised against him, he 
fled to New York for safety. He died in 1813. 

Livermore, Jonathan. Of New Hampshire. Congre- 
gational minister. He was born in Northborough, Massachu- 
setts, in 1739, and graduated at Harvard University in 1760. 
In 1763 he was ordained at Wilton. In 1777 he was dis- 
missed from his people, in consequence of political differences. 
He died at Wilton, in 1809, in his eightieth year. 

Livingston, Philip J. He gave notice in 1780 to "those 
who have petitioned for houses and lands of persons in rebel- 
lion," to call on him at Hell Gate, " and receive answers to 
their petitions." The object was, to relieve the loyal subjects 
driven from their possessions, by dividing among them the 
property of the rebels, in small lots, and in proportion to the 
number of claimants from the destitute refugee families. In 
1773 he was petitioner for lands in Nova Scotia. [See Abijah 

Livius, Peter. Of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. A 
member of the Council under the Royal Government ; was 
proscribed by the Act of 1778, and died in England, in 1795, 
aged, it is supposed, about sixty-eight years. Of the mem- 
bers of the Council of New Hampshire, in 1772, seven were 
relatives of the Governor. Having been left out of commis- 
sion as a Justice of the Common Pleas, on the division of the 
Province into counties, when new appointments were made, 
and dissenting from the views of the Council as to the disposi- 
tion of reserved lands in grants made by a former Governor, 
Livius went to England, and exhibited to the Lords of Trade 
several and serious charges against the administration of which 
he was a member. These charges were rigidly investigated, 
but were finally dismissed. Livius appears, however, to have 
gained much popularity among those in New Hampshire who 
were opposed to the Governor, and who desired his removal ; 
and was appointed, by their influence, Chief Justice of the 
Province. But as it was thought that the appointment, un- 
der the circumstances, was likely to produce discord, he was 
transferred to a more lucrative office in the Province of Que- 


bee. Livius was of foreign extraction, and, as would seem, a 
gentleman of strong feelings. He wrote to General John 
Sullivan from Canada, to induce him to abandon the Whig 
cause. The letter was published. Mr. Livius possessed a 
handsome fortune. He was educated abroad, but received an 
honorary degree from Harvard University in 1767. 

Lizenby, Ralph. Of New York. Went to St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1783, and settled at Carleton. After 
the loss of his wife, removed to England, and had charge 
of the King's Dock, in Liverpool. He died in 1823. His 
daughter, Mary, married Andrew Bowman ; her son, John 
Lizenby Bowman, (now deceased,) was a highly respectable 
citizen of Eastport, Maine. 

Lloyd, James. Of Boston. He was born on Long Island 
in 1728 ; was educated in Connecticut ; studied medicine for 
a time in Boston ; attended the London hospitals two years ; 
and, returning to Boston, in 1752, obtained an extensive prac- 
tice. A moderate Loyalist, he remained in that town while 
occupied by the British troops, zealously devoted to his pro- 
fession. In the French war, Sir William Howe (then a 
Colonel) was dangerously ill at Boston, and ever after grate- 
fully and publicly attributed his recovery to the skill and un- 
ceasing attention of Dr. Lloyd ; and when, in 1775, he came 
on the hopeless mission of subduing a wronged and roused 
people, he immediately renewed the acquaintance formed 
under circumstances so interesting to himself, and, as events 
proved, to the Anglo-Saxon race. At the beginning of the 
Revolution, Dr. Lloyd was a happy man. His wife, to whom 
he was ardently attached, was a lady of refinement and in- 
tellect, and his children gave promise of distinction. In his 
profession, he was known abroad as well as at home. He 
mingled in the highest social circles, and was an object of 
universal respect. There came a fearful change. The ex- 
ile of family connections ; the alienation of old and intimate 
friends, who espoused the popular side ; the death of two sons ; 
and the general disorders, animosities, and devastations of civil 
war, caused a depression of spirits from which he recovered 

24 LLOYD. 

slowly, and after the lapse of several years.' He owned an 
estate on Long Island, New York, of which the Royal Army 
took possession, and three thousand acres of which were strip- 
ped of a valuable growth of wood. Fuel was scarce and dear 
at New York, and it is said that fortunes were made by per- 
sons who committed the waste, to supply the troops and the 
inhabitants of the city. In 1789, he went to England to ob- 
tain compensation. On being told that an allowance would 
be granted on declaring himself a British subject, he at once 
declined. Informed that a declaration of his intention to be- 
come such, at a future period, would serve to bring him within 
the rule adopted by the Government in considering the claims 
of Loyalists for losses ; he replied, that he had no design to 
renew his allegiance, and would neither affirm nor intimate a 
falsehood. He returned to Boston, without success ; but with 
his integrity and self-respect unimpaired. 

He was highly accomplished in all branches of his profes- 
sion ; and in surgery and midwifery was without a superior, 
probably, in New England. He kept a genteel equipage, and 
entertained company with great liberality. He was an Epis- 
copalian, and worshipped at Trinity Church. He died in 
1810, aged eighty-two. Sarah, his wife, deceased in 1797, 
aged sixty-three. His son, Hon. James Lloyd, was Senator 
to Congress from Massachusetts. 

Lloyd, Henry. Of Boston. Agent of the contractors 
for supplying the Royal Army ; was an Addresser of Gage 
in 1775. In 1776 he went to Halifax, and was proscribed 
and banished in 1778. He died at London late in 1795, or 
early in 1796, aged eighty-six. 

Lloyd, Henry. Of New York. Brother of James Lloyd. 
He was born August 6, 1709. He was attainted, and in the 
Act is denominated, " Henry Lloyd, the elder, late of Massa- 
chusetts Bay." Some time after the confiscation of his estate, 
his brother John purchased it of the Commissioners of For- 
feitures. The Lloyds were ancient and extensive land own- 
ers ; the manor of Queen's Village, Long Island, having been 
in possession of the family as early as 1679. 


Locklin, Martin. Of Charleston, South Carolina. In 
June, 1775, he was tarred and feathered, and carted through 
the streets of that city. It is believed that he and Dealey, 
who was his companion in this punishment, were the first 
victims to tar and feathers in South Carolina. The Secret 
Committee of Charleston was at this time composed of the 
most distinguished Whigs, and they must — from the circum- 
stances — have permitted, if they did not directly authorize, 
the outrage. 

Locook, Aaron. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. Was banished in 
1782, and his property confiscated. He was a member of 
the Provincial Congress in 1775, when his sympathies, very 
probably, were with the Whigs. 

Loder, Jacob. Died at Sheffield, New Brunswick, 1817, 
aged seventy-one years. 

Logan, Walter. Comptroller of the Customs at Perth 
Amboy, New Jersey. In December, 1775, when about to 
remove his family from Needham, Massachusetts, to that 
port, he was ordered by Washington to remain on parole. In 
September, 1776, his official relations to the Crown were at 
an end ; and, distressed in circumstances, lie petitioned the 
Council of Massachusetts for leave to embark for England, 
with his wife and son. Permission was granted. 

Long, John. The following incident occurred on the 
Waldo Patent, Maine. " Among the many who were drawn 
to this quarter from other places for the sake of carrying on 
intercourse with the British [at Castine] was one Captain 
John Long, who frequently passed to and fro, plotting 
schemes of mischief. Being found at Warren, on one occa- 
sion, the people undertook to arrest him. Seeing himself 
surrounded, with no chance of escape, he brandished his 
knife, and threatened the life of any one who should ap- 
proach. This caused a little hesitation ; but the circle grad- 
ually contracted around him, till he was seized by John 
Spear, from whose grasp, once fixed, there was no disengage- 
ment, and was disarmed, pinioned, and taken to Waldo- 

VOL. II. 3 


borough, on horseback. A party there undertook to conduct 
him to the county jail, but, somehow or other, he found 
means to effect his escape this time ; though in 1781 he was 
again apprehended in Camden, and sent all the way to Bos- 
ton, under the care of Philip Robbins of Stirlington." 

Loxg, Thomas. Of New Jersey. Executed in that 
State, in 17T9. 

Loosely, Charles. Landlord of the King's Head Tavern, 
Long Island, New York. On the birthdav of the Prince of 
Wales, 1780, he wished to see his Loyal friends, he said, — 
would give them dinner at three, entertain them with good 
music, and fireworks and illuminations ; and he expected 
that Rebels would come no nearer to him than the Heights 
of Brooklyn. So, on the anniversary of the coronation of 
the King, the same year, he would celebrate the event, and 
would have the Rebels keep as far away as Flatbush Wood. 
Again, in 1780, and during the horse-race appointed on Flat- 
lands Plain, gentlemen fond of fox-hunting would meet at 
his house at daybreak, where Grod save the King would be 
played every hour. Still again, in 1781, on the occasion of 
a bull-baiting " after the true English manner," he would 
give a dinner exactly British, at two o'clock ; and, near the 
close of the vear, a dav or two before another hunt, he would 
give a guinea or more for "a good strong fox." These inci- 
dents inform us of some of the pastimes of the British officers 
and Loyalists while in and near the city of New York. 

We follow Loosely to far different scenes, and to Shelburne, 
Nova Scotia. A fellow-Loyalist who was there January, 
1785, said : " All our golden promises are vanished in smoke. 
We were taught to believe that this place was not barren and 
foggy, as had been represented, but we find it ten times 
worse. We have nothing but his Majesty's rotten pork and 
unbaked flour to subsist on. ' But can't you bake it, seeing 
it is a wooden country ? ' Only come here yourself, and 
you '11 soon learn the reason. It is the most inhospitable 
clime that ever mortal set foot on. Loosely keeps hotel 
here." I will barely add that the real, every-day history of 


Shelburne, in its sudden rise and disastrous fall, would add an 
interesting chapter to the distresses of the unhappy Loyalists. 

Lord, Joseph. Of Cumberland County, New Hamp- 
shire Grants. In 1766 he was appointed Judge of the Court 
of Common Pleas. His loyalty is seen in a letter to Governor 
Tryon in 1772, when he wished to resign. He was in his 
sixty-eighth year, he said ; was infirm, and wished to retire 
" to concern himself in nothing else but doing good, 
praying for the King, your Excellency, and all others the 
King's officers," &c. 

Loring, Joshua. Of Massachusetts. A Mandamus 
Councillor. Proscribed and banished. He went to England, 
and died at Highgate in 1781. He was sometimes called 
" Commodore Loring," by persons here ; and in the notice of 
his decease it is said he was " one of the oldest Captains in 
the Royal Navy, and late Commodore on the Lakes of North 
America." In May, 1779, the Committee on Confiscated 
Estates advertised for sale his " large mansion-house, con- 
venient outhouses, and gardens, planted with fruit-trees, to- 
gether with about sixty-five acres of mowing land," &c, in 
Roxbury, Jamaica Plain ; also a large dwelling-house and 
garden in Boston, "next to the South writing-school, adjoin- 
ing on the Common." 

Loring, Joshua, Jr. Of Massachusetts. An Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. One of the 
last official acts of the latter in Boston was his proclamation 
of June 7, 1775, appointing Mr. Loring " sole vendue-master 
and auctioneer." In 1776 he went to Halifax with the 
Royal Army ; and, early the next year, he was appointed 
Commissary of Prisoners by Sir William Howe. In 1778 
he was proscribed and banished. He died in England, in 
1780, aged forty-five. The writers of the Revolutionary 
time charge him with great cruelties to the unfortunate 
Whigs, of whom he had the care ; but it is not easy to as- 
certain the truth, or to determine his personal responsibility 
in the treatment of prisoners. His wife was a Miss Lloyd, 
to whom he was married at the house of Colonel Hatch, Dor- 


Chester, in 1769. His son, John Wentworth Loring, was 
born in 1775 ; his son, Henry Lloyd Loring, died in 1832, 
Archdeacon of Calcutta. 

Loring, Benjamin. Of Boston. Surgeon. At the 
peace, accompanied by his family of five persons, and by one 
servant, he went from New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia. 
His losses in consequence of his loyalty were estimated at 
c£3000. He returned to the United States, and died at Bos- 
ton, in 1798, aged sixty-five. 

Lorrain, William. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. He 
died there in 1803. 

Lott, Abraham. Of New York. Treasurer of the 
Colony. In March, 1776, the Committee of Safety gave 
him permission to go on board the ships-of-war to adjust his 
accounts. In September of the same year, lie was ordered 
to attend the Whig Convention, with his books, papers, and 
money, as Treasurer, to settle and to pay the balance to his 
successor, on pain of apprehension and confinement under 
guard. In August, 1781, some Whigs, in a whale-boat, went 
to his residence and robbed him of about six hundred pounds, 
and carried off two slaves. The same, or another, and a 
similar lawless and inexcusable act, is related as follows : The 
noted Captain Hyler surprised Colonel Lott in his house at 
night, and himself and two of his negroes were taken pris- 
oners to New Brunswick. The Colonel was known to be 
rich ; and plunder was the object of his Whig captors. They 
found some silver in a cupboard, and, in the course of their 
search, two bags which they supposed contained guineas. 
After their departure, and while going up the Raritan, they 
agreed to divide their booty ; but to their disappointment the 
bags were found to contain only halfpennies, which belonged 
to the church at Flatlands. Determined, however, to make 
the best of the exploit, Colonel Lott was compelled to ransom 
his slaves, when he was himself released, and permitted to 
return home. 

In 1785, the Legislature passed an Act " more effectually 
to compel Abraham Lott, late Treasurer of the Colony of 


New York, to account to the Treasurer of this State for such 
sums of money as the said Abraham Lott has received while 
he was Treasurer of the said Colony, and for which he has 
not accounted." He died at New York, in 1794, aged sixty- 

Lott, Jeromus. Of Long Island, New York. Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel in the militia. Charged with cruelty to Whig 
prisoners ; Addresser of Governor Robertson in 1778 and in 
1780 ; and of Commissary Scott in 1782. Seized and carried 
to New Jersey in 1781. His negro boy, Jack, who had on 
an iron collar marked " J. L." ran away in 1783. 

Lott, Maurice. Of Long Island, New York. Sheriff 
of King's County. An Addresser of Commissary Scott in 
1782. The next year he was violently assaulted in his own 
house, and robbed of upwards of four hundred guineas and 
other property. 

Loughborough, John. Of the manor of Mooreland, 
Pennsylvania. Followed the Royal Army to New York. 
Attainted of treason and estate confiscated. Settled at Penn- 
field, New Brunswick. 

Lounsbury, William. Of New York. He took a de- 
termined stand for the King from the beginning. He was 
imprisoned, escaped, and went on board of the Asia, in New 
York harbor ; and in August, 1776, returned secretly with a 
commission from Sir William Howe to raise a company of 
Rangers, but his place of concealment was discovered, and 
he was surrounded by a party of militia. His recruits, after 
a short resistance, surrendered, but he himself refused to sub- 
mit, and died fighting. He was a remarkably bold and 
ardent man, remarks a correspondent, and his fate is dis- 
tinguished in the annals of West Chester, as the first blood 
shed there in the Revolution. 

Love, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. Banished, and estate 
confiscated. Ho returned in 1784, was arrested, but dis- 
charged according to the provision of the treaty of peace. 

Lovell, John. Of Boston. IIo graduated at Harvard 



University in 1728. After some years of service as assistant 
of the South Grammar, or Latin School, he was placed at the 
head of it in 1738. He was the master nearly forty years, 
and many of the principal Whigs of Massachusetts had been 
his pupils. He accompanied the British Army to Halifax at 
the evacuation, and died at that place, in 1778, aged about 
seventy. He was a good scholar, a rigid disciplinarian, yet 
humorous, and an agreeable companion. His son James was 
a Whig, and it is a singular circumstance, that the father 
went to Nova Scotia a Loyalist, while the son was a prisoner 
of his protectors, and both were at Halifax at the same time. 
James, after his release, returned to Boston, and was elected 
a member of Congress. He was Collector of Boston under 
the Confederation, and afterwards, under the present Consti- 
tution, Naval Officer of Boston and Charlestown. He died 
in that office, in 1814, aged seventy-six. It is worthy of 
mention that Master Lovell delivered the first Address in 
the Cradle of Liberty in 1743. The occasion was on the 
death of Peter Faneuil, Esq., the founder ; and in the course 
of his funeral oration, Mr. Lovell said : " May this Hall be 
ever sacred to the interests of Truth, of Justice, of Loyalty, 
of Honor, of Liberty. May no private views nor party 
broils ever enter within these walls." Thus was Faneuil 
Hall dedicated. The Rebel General, Mansfield Lovell, who 
graduated at West Point, and entered the United States 
Army, and who commanded the Rebel troops at the capture 
of New Orleans in 1862, is a great-grandson of the subject 
of this notice. 

Lovell, . Of Boston. Son of John Lovell. His 

name is connected with the battle of Bunker's Hill, strangely 
enough. When the British troops had landed in Charles- 
town, it was discovered that the cannon balls were too large, 
and boats returned to Boston for a supply of the right size. 
The mistake was made, as the story is, by the subject of this 
notice, who had been appointed to a place in the Ordnance, 
for which he was unfit, by Colonel Cleveland, of that De- 
partment. The tale further is, that young Lovell owed his 


place to a love affair between his sister and the Colonel. 
" This wretched blunder of over-sized balls " (words at- 
tributed to Sir William Howe) " arose from the dotage of 
an officer of rank in the Ordnance Department, who spends 
all his time with the schoolmaster's daughter." To this 
incident, the British ascribe the failure of two of their attacks. 
In a sons which refers to this : — 


" Our conductor, he got broke 
For his misconduct, sure, sir : 
The shot he sent for twelve-pound guns, 
Were made for twenty-four, sir." 

Lovell, Benjamin. Of Boston. Graduated at Harvard 
University in 1774. He retreated to Halifax, and finally to 
England, where he was settled in the ministry, and died, 
March, 1828, aged seventy-three years. He was the youngest 
son of John Lovell. 

Lovell, Shubael. Of Massachusetts, and, I suppose, of 
Barnstable. Apprehended and sent to Washington. Colonel 
Joseph Otis wrote : — " Lovell is one we have always looked 
upon as a Tory, and something busy in the Opposition. He 
has a large family of small children that want his assistance. 
I pity the man's folly/' Lovell's letter to Captain Ayscough 
(of the ship-of-war Swan,') shows that he was a stout Loy- 
alist. In the Council, (December 18, 1775,) ordered that he 
be sent to Plymouth jail, there to be supported at his own 

Lovejoy, Abiel. Of Vassalborough, Maine. In 1781 
he was elected to the Legislature, and his right to a seat dis- 
puted, because he " was not friendly to the cause of Amer- 
ica." The case was taken up in the House, but referred to 
the next session ; meantime, Lovejoy to take no part in the 
proceedings. Previous to the time assigned for a decision, he 
agreed that " he would not attempt to sit in the honorable 
house again ; " and here the matter ended. 

Lovelace, Thomas. In 1781 he was found within the 
American lines, with a British commission in his possession ; 

32 LOW. 

and by order of General Stark, who had established his head- 
quarters at Saratoga, was brought before a court-martial, 
tried, condemned, and executed, as a spy. He had family 
connections in the neighborhood who sought to avert his fate, 
by addressing a remonstrance to the Commander-in-Chief, 
but Washington refused to interfere. The country included 
in Stark's command was, at this time, overrun with spies and 
traitors. Of a band of these miscreants, Lovelace was the 

Low, Isaac. Of New York. He favored the popular 
cause, and was indeed a prominent Whig. He made a judi- 
cious speech at a public meeting of the merchants of New 
York, in May, 1774, and was an active member of the Com- 
mittee of Fifty, appointed to correspond with sister Colonies. 
In a published appeal to the people at that period, Mr. Low 
used the following spirited language : — " Let us," said he, 
" with the brave Romans, consider our ancestors and our off- 
spring. Let us follow the example of the former, and set an 
example to the latter. Let us not be like the sluggish people, 
who, through a love of ease, ' bowed themselves, and became 
servants to tribute ; ' and whom the inspired prophet, their 
father, justly compared to asses. Had I the voice which 
could be heard from Canada to Florida, I would address the 
Americans in the language of the Roman patriot," &c. 

He was elected a member of* the First Continental Con- 
gress, and took his seat in that body, and participated in its 

" We breakfasted with Mr. Low," — said John Adams, in 
1774, — " a gentleman of fortune and in trade. His lady is 
a beauty." He was a member of the New York Provincial 
Congress in 1775, for the city and county of New York, but 
his name soon after disappears from the Revolutionary his- 
tory. In 1782, he was President of the New York Chamber 
of Commerce. He was attainted, and his property was con- 
fiscated. He went to England. In consequence of his 
course in the early part of the struggle, his application to be 
compensated for his losses as a Loyalist was not at first favor- 

LOW. - LUDLOW. 33 

ably considered. He died in 1791. His brother, Nicholas, 
who died at New York, in 1826, at the age of eighty-seven, 
was a firm Whig throughout the struggle, and was often 
honored. Mrs. Low, a daughter of Cornelius Cuyler, Mayor 
of Albany, was admired for the charms of her person and 
the loveliness of her character. The late Sir Cornelius Cuy- 
ler, Baronet and Lieutenant-General, was her brother. She 
died at London, in 1820, aged eighty. Mr. Low's only son, 
Isaac, is now (1855) a Commissary-General in the British 
Army, and living near Lyndhurst, in the New Forest, Hants. 

Low, Jacobus. Of Ulster County, New York. In 
April, 1775, he was admonished by the Whig Committee to 
discontinue the sale of tea ; but he declared that he had and 
would sell tea ; whereupon a public meeting published him 
to the country, as an enemv to the rights and liberties of 

Low, John. Of Philadelphia. At the peace, accompanied 
by his family of five persons, he went from New York to 
Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted him one 
town lot. He died at St. Andrew, New Brunswick, June, 
1844, aged ninety-two years. He emigrated to that town 
when it was an unbroken wilderness. 

Lucius, Samuel Frederic. Of South Carolina. Epis- 
copal minister. Entered upon his duties in 1770 ; adhered to 
the Crown, and in 1776 went to England. 

Ludlow, George Duncan. Of New York. He served 
an apprenticeship with an apothecary, but, disliking the 
business, resolved to study law. In consequence of sickness, 
his tongue was too large and his speech defective, and his 
friends, anticipating his certain failure at the bar, opposed his 
design. But he persisted, and completed his studies. Those 
who were interested in his success, attended Court on the first 
trial of his powers, predicting, as they went, that his discom- 
fiture and their own mortification were certain. Much to 
their surprise, he was fluent, and argued the case intrusted to 
him with great skill and judgment. His rise was rapid ; and 
at the Revolutionary era, he was one of the Judges of the Su- 


preme Court, and one of the most considerable characters in 
the Colony. In 1779 his house at Hempstead was plundered, 
and it is said that the Judge himself escaped being made prison- 
er by getting upon the roof, through the scuttle, and hiding 
behind the chimney. In 1780 he was appointed Master of the 
Rolls, and Superintendent of Police on Long Island, " with 
powers or principles of Equity to hear and determine contro- 
versies, till civil government can take place." The Whigs of 
New York formed a Constitution as early as 1777, organized a 
government, and appointed Judges ; but the party who adhered 
to the Crown considered Judge Ludlow to be in office until 
the peace, when he was compelled to leave the country. His 
seat at Hyde Park, and his other property, passed to the 
State under the Confiscation Act. He retired to New Bruns- 
wick in 1783, where he occupied the first place in public af- 
fairs. He was a member of the first Council formed in that 
Colony, and as senior Councillor administered the Govern- 
ment ; and he was the first Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court. His place of residence was at Fredericton, the capi- 
tal, and he died there, February 12, 1808. Frances, his wid- 
ow, and daughter of Thomas Duncan, Esq., died at St. John, 
in 1825, at the age of eighty-seven. Elizabeth, his daughter, 
and wife of the Honorable John Robinson, of St. John, died 
in France in 1828. 

Ludlow, Gabriel G. Of New York. He entered the 
military service of the Crown, and in 1782 was Colonel and 
and Commandant of De Lancey's Third Battalion. He re- 
treated to New Brunswick at the peace, and the next year the 
Commissioners of Confiscation sold his estate of one hundred 
and forty acres at Hyde Park. In 1792 he held the office of 
Judge of Vice-Admiralty, and was a member of the Council, 
and a Colonel in the militia. In 1803 Governor Carleton 
embarked for England, when Colonel Ludlow was sworn in 
as Commander-in-Chief. He died in 1808, aged seventy-two. 
Ann, his widow, died at Carleton, New Brunswick, in 1822, 
at the age of eighty. Frances, his second daughter, died at 
New York in 1840, aged seventy-four. 


Ludlow, Cary. Of New York. Surrogate and Master 
in Chancery. He died at that city, in 1815, aged seventy- 

Lufburow, Nathaniel. Rider in the New Jersey Vol- 
unteers. Taken prisoner on Staten Island in 1777, and sent 
to Trenton. Settled at Pennfield, New Brunswick, in 1783. 

Lugrin, Peter and Simeon. Grantees of St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1783. The former died there in 1814, 
aged sixty-one. The latter was a schoolmaster. 

Lutwyche, Edward Goldstone. Of New Hampshire. 
He was a gentleman of some consideration, and as early as 
17G7 commanded a regiment of militia. He fled to Boston, 
and in 1776 accompanied the British Army to Halifax. In 
1778 he was proscribed and banished, and his estate con- 
fiscated. In 1780, Matthew Thornton, a signer of the Dec- 
laration of Independence, became the purchaser of his farm. 
He was at New York in 1783, and a petitioner for a grant of 
lands in Nova Scotia. 

Lyde, Byfield. Of Boston. Graduated at Harvard 
University in 1723. He was an Addresser of Hutchinson 
in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the same year, 
and in 1775 an Addresser of Gage. In 1776 he accompa- 
nied the Royal Army to Halifax, and died there the same 

Lyde, Edward. Merchant, of Boston. Was proscribed 
and banished in 1778. He died at New York, in 1812, aged 

Lyde, George. Of Boston. In 1770 he was appointed 
Collector of the Port of Falmouth, Maine, and continued 
there until the beginning of the Revolution. The Custom- 
House, at that period, was kept in a dwelling-house at the 
corner of Kino; and Middle Streets, and was burnt when 
Mowatt set fire to the town, in 1775. Mr. Lyde was an 
Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and in 1778, was pro- 
scribed and banished. He was in England in 1780. 

Lyman, Piiineas. Of Connecticut. A distinguished 
man, but one of the most unfortunate in our history. He 

36 LYMAN. 

was born at Durham, in 1716 ; graduated at Yale College in 
1738 ; was appointed tutor in 1739 ; and continued in that 
office three years, when he devoted himself to the profession 
of the law, and became eminent. In civil life, he was em- 
ployed to adjust a disputed boundary between Massachusetts 
and Connecticut, and held the offices of Representative to the 
Assembly, and member of the Council. In 1755 he was 
appointed Major-General and Commander-in-Chief of the 
Connecticut forces, and was in service throughout the 
French war. In the battle of Lake George, Sir William 
Johnson, of New York, who commanded, was soon wounded ; 
when Lyman maintained the conflict for five hours, and was 
himself personally exposed the whole time. But Sir William 
Johnson obtained the rewards of the splendid victory which 
was achieved over the French by the Colonial troops on this 
occasion. In 1758 General Lyman served with Abercrombie, 
and was with the gallant and estimable Lord Howe when he 
was killed. In 1762 Lyman was again engaged in the impor- 
tant enterprise against Havana, and was in command of the 
Colonial forces employed in the expedition. His wisdom, integ- 
rity, bravery, and military skill, won universal commendation. 
Several British officers, who had been his associates, solicited 
him to visit England after the peace ; and, having connected 
himself with a company composed principally of Colonial 
officers and soldiers who had been engaged in the war, and 
whose object was to obtain a grant of lands of the British 
Government on the Mississippi and Yazoo, he accordingly 
went to the mother country, in 1763, as agent of these per- 
sons, who styled themselves " Military Adventurers." He 
remained in England for eleven years, in all the misery, 
suspense, anxiety, delay, and false promises of attendance 
upon the Court, and a victim to the suffering which ever 
awaits the endeavors of a sensitive mind, employed in an 
arduous and unsuccessful undertaking. In a word, he well- 
nigh sunk into hopeless imbecility ; and, rather than return 
to America without accomplishing his purpose, he resolved to 
remain and die in England. But, about the year 1774, the 

LYMAN. 37 

grant was obtained. Many of the original projectors were 
then dead, and others had become too advanced in life, or so 
changed in circumstances, as to have lost their desire to emi- 
grate to a wilderness. But General Lyman, soon after arriv- 
ing in Connecticut from his embassy, resolved upon carrying 
through an enterprise that had cost him so much time and 
anxiety ; and, in 1775, accompanied by his oldest son and a 
few settlers, he arrived upon the land which he had secured 
for himself and others of the company. His preparatory 
arrangements were hardly made before he died, at the age of 
fifty-nine. Yet, the year following, in 1776, Mrs. Lyman, 
attended by her only brother, Colonel Dwight, and her re- 
maining children, — the second son excepted, — accomplished 
a journey to the same country. She, a woman, who in en- 
dowments and education was superior to most of her sex, had 
been broken down during her husband's long absence, by the 
distresses in which the family had become involved; and died 
the same year. Her brother lived only until the next sum- 
mer. The survivors continued in the country, and in the 
neighborhood of Natchez, for several years. When it was in- 
vaded by the Spaniards, in 1781 and in 1782, they abandoned 
it, and attempted to make their way to Savannah. The war, 
and their political sympathies, rendered a direct journey dan- 
gerous ; and they accordingly selected a route which caused 
them to travel upwards of thirteen hundred miles, and occu- 
pied one hundred and forty-nine days. They were all mounted 
on horseback, but the ruggedness of the ground often required 
them to travel long distances on foot. Women and children, 
and infants at the breast, formed a part of the returning and 
suffering band. Some were sick ; all endured the most ex- 
hausting fatigue ; were in constant dread of meeting with 
savages ; and were sometimes without sufficient food and 
water. After reaching Georgia, the party formed themselves 
into two companies. One division became the. prisoners of 
the Whigs ; the other, after surmounting many difficulties, 
reached Savannah in safety. The captives were soon re- 
leased. Among those who arrived at Savannah, were two 

VOL. II. 4 

38 LYMAN. 

daughters of General Lyman, both of whom died at that 
place. Such was the calamitous issue of the life of a gentle- 
man who enjoyed, before the Revolution, a reputation pos- 
sessed by few of our countrymen ; such, too, the sad end of 
several members of his family. 

Lyman. The five sons of General Phineas Lyman adhered 
to the Crown. Four were alive at the close of the contest ; 
of whom three accompanied their mother, as already related ; 
but of them little else is known. All were born and educated 
to high hopes. The ascertained fate of two, will show how 
prematurely their prospects declined, and how utterly the 
expectations of their youth were blasted. The eldest son of 
General Lyman was educated at Yale College, and received 
a commission in the British Army, but he resigned, and de- 
voted himself to the study of the law. The distresses conse- 
quent upon the long absence of his father, and various other 
causes, combined to ruin his health ; and when the parent 
finally returned, he found him in a state of confirmed insanity. 
In the hope that a change of scene and climate would con- 
duce to his restoration, the afflicted father took him to West 
Florida. But the broken-hearted maniac died in 1775, soon 
after completing the journey. The second son was sent to 
England, in 1774, by his grief-worn mother, to solicit his 
father to remain no longer abroad ; and while there, received 
a commission in the British Army. Soon after his return, he 
was ordered to join his regiment, at Boston ; and repairing 
thither, he continued in service until 1782, when he sold his 
commission. His disappointments and mental sufferings had 
rendered him almost reckless of pecuniary affairs, and receiv- 
ing a part of the purchase-money, he gave credit for the bal- 
ance, and lost it by neglect ; and lending a considerable part 
of what he did receive, without taking evidence of the loan, 
he returned to Connecticut nearly pennyless. He was urged 
to take a school, and consented. But he made no effort to 
collect the payments which became due for his" services, and 
failed to provide himself with articles of necessity, from the 
scanty funds that came into his possession. His friends, when 


his clothing had become indecent, bought and carried him 
garments of which he stood in need ; but he was too sad, too 
sorely stricken, to wear them ; and in a little time, "joined 
his friends in the grave." Thus ended the career of the fourth 
child of General Lyman, and of a man who was u brilliant, 
gay, and ingenious, beyond most of mankind." The ultimate 
fate of the three who returned with the survivors of the " Mil- 
itary Adventurers," as related in the notice of the father, is 
unknown. One of them, at the evacuation of Georgia by the 
Royal forces, went to New York, and subsequently to Con- 
necticut, for the purpose of disposing of the remains of his 
father's estate ; another retired to Nova Scotia ; and the third 
went to New Providence. Of a truth, this was a doomed 

Lyman, Daniel. Of New Haven, Connecticut. He 
graduated at Yale College in 1770. He accepted a military 
commission under the Crown, and in 1782 was a Captain in 
the Prince of Wales's American Volunteers. At the peace 
he was a Major. He settled in New Brunswick, and was a 
member of the House of Assembly, and a magistrate. He 
went to England, and died in London, in 1809, one of the 
" Royal Invalids " ; and yet he seems to have left property in 
New Brunswick, since P. Frazer was appointed administrator 
in 1811. 

Lymburner, Matthew. Of Maine. He came from Scot- 
land, to the mouth of the Penobscot, a few years prior to the 
Revolution ; removed to New Brunswick before the peace ; 
finally settled in New Hampshire or Vermont. 

Lynah, James. A physician,, of South Carolina. He was 
in commission under the Crown after the fall of Charleston, 
in 1780, and his estate was confiscated. In 1809, there died 
at Charleston, Doctor James Lynah, physician and director- 
general of all the military hospitals in South Carolina. 

Lynch, Thomas. Of New York. "Dealer in liquors 
and negroes." In 1770, an Addresser of Lord and Sir Wil- 
liam Howe. 

Lynue, Benjamin. Of Salem. Chief Justice of Mas- 

40 LYON. - MABEE. 

sachusetts. He graduated at Harvard University in 1718. 
For many years he was a member of the Council. He pre- 
sided at the trial of Captain Preston, who was held to answer 
to the tribunals for the Boston Massacre, so called, in 1770. 
In 1772 Mr. Lynde resigned his seat on the bench. In 
1774 he was one of the Salem Addressers of Gage. He died 
in 1781, aged eighty-one. His father was the Hon. Benjamin 
Lynde, a Chief Justice of Massachusetts, who died in 1745, 
aged seventy-nine. 

Lyon, Rev. James. Of the State of New York. Epis- 
copal minister. In 1775 General Wooster wrote Governor 
Trumbull, that, while Lyon was " a pretty sensible fellow," 
he was a man of infamous character ; that he had considera- 
ble money at interest, and had obtained ascendency over the 
debtors ; that, by writing and preaching, and in every other 
way, he had opposed the popular movement ; and that the 
Whig Committee of several towns thought he was a danger- 
ous person, and should be arrested. I ascertain from another 
source, that his wife belonged to one of the best families in 
that section, and that he treated her cruelly ; that he visited 
taverns to wrangle with his neighbors ; that he possessed an 
ample estate, but denied himself necessary food and clothing ; 
that he suffered his house to go to ruin rather than expend 
money in repairs ; that his children grew up without cul- 
ture of body or mind ; and that he wore dirty linen, long 
nails, and unclean hands. The Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel in Foreign Parts dismissed him from their ser- 

Lyon, Rev. John. Of Virginia. Episcopal minister. He 
went from Rhode Island to a parish in Accomac, Virginia, in 
1774, and was Rector several years. " Being more of the 
Encdishman than the American in his feelings, his time was 
very uncomfortable during the Revolutionary struggle ; but 
being married into a respectable family, his principles were 
tolerated and his person protected." 

Mabee. Of New York. William arrived at St. John, 
New Brunswick, in the ship Union, in the spring of 1783. 


Jasper died in that city, very ao;ed, in 1822. Jeremiah 
died at Kingston, New Brunswick, 1824, aged eighty-five. 

Mabee, Jacob. Of New York. Fled to the British lines, 
thence to the city of New York, where he remained during 
the war. At the peace of 1783, he retired to St. John, New- 
Brunswick, and thence to St. Stephen, in the same Province, 
at which place he died about the year 1820, aged upwards of 
eighty years. His property in New York was confiscated. 
His son Solomon was impressed into the British Navy, and 
served during the contest; at its close he went to St. Stephen, 
but removed to Eastport, Maine, in 1795, and died there in 
1828, aged sixty-six years. 

Macauley, Rev. Angus. Of Charleston, South Carolina. 
Teacher of a school in that city. Driven into exile before 
August, 1777, because he refused to swear allegiance to the 
Whig Government. 

Macbeth, Alexander. Of Charleston, South Carolina. 
An Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. He was ban- 
ished in 1782, and his property confiscated. A person of this 
name died at Baltimore in 1807. 

Mackay, John. Of North Carolina. Went to England. 
In 1779 he was an Addresser of the King. 

Mackenzie, Robert. Of Virginia. This gentleman was 
a friend of Washington, and one of the very few of his letters 
devoted to the subject of the Revolutionary controversy, writ- 
ten before the appeal to arms, was to him. It was dated at 
Philadelphia, October 9, 1774 ; and Mr. Sparks, in a note, 
remarks of Mackenzie, that " he had been a captain in the 
Virginia regiment commanded by Washington in the French 
war, and a friendly intimacy seems always to have subsisted 
between them. Mackenzie had obtained a commission in the 
regular army, and was now attached to the forty-third regi- 
ment of foot. He was wounded at the battle of Bunker's 
Hill, while fighting in that regiment/' At a later period, 
there was a Major Mackenzie of the Royal Welsh Fusileers, of 

which Sir William Howe was the Colonel ; perhaps the same. 
4 * 


Macknight, Thomas. Of North Carolina. He was a 
member of the Assembly under the Royal Government ; and 
so far sided with the Whigs as to take a seat in the Conven- 
tion of 1775, which Governor Martin denounced. But he 
refused to sanction the proceedings, and was censured by his 
associates, in a Resolve of great severity and bitterness. Still 
a member of the Assembly, he was placed on a committee 
with Hewes, Hooper, and other Whigs, to frame an answer 
to the Governor's speech. In April, 1776, the Provincial 
Congress ordered possession of all his negroes and estate, sub- 
ject to future order. In 1779 his property was confiscated. 
He was in England in 1784, a petitioner for relief. 

Macrae, Rev. Alexander. Of Virginia. Episcopal 
minister. He graduated at Edinburgh. After completing 
his theological studies, he was ordained by the Bishop of 
London, about the year 1765. He declined a professorship, 
and came to America. In 1773, he settled at Littleton, Vir- 
ginia, as Rector, and officiated there until 1776. Three years 
later, he was professionally employed in the county of Surry. 
For his real or supposed attachment to the Crown, he was a 
great sufferer. Lured from home at night, on the pretence 
that a sick neighbor was dying and wished to see him, and 
pursued by three men armed with clubs, he was knocked from 
his horse, after proceeding about a mile, whipped, and left 
naked in the woods. One of his assailants was killed, subse- 
quently, on the same spot, and another, when on the eve of 
execution for a capital crime, revealed the whole affair. 

An attempt was made to banish Mr. Macrae from the 
State ; but Patrick Henry, who was a member of the Gov- 
ernment, resisted the measure, and declared that the act, if 
consummated, would deprive Virginia of one of her best citi- 
zens. Our clergyman remained with his people ; but letters 
were placed in his pulpit, in which he was threatened with 
death. Disregarding everything, he continued to perform 
his usual duties without intermission. He died at his resi- 
dence in Powhattan County, in 1808, aged seventy-four. His 


wife was a daughter of John Harris, of Virginia. Three 
daughters were living in 1857. His son, Alexander McRae, 
was a distinguished lawyer, and one of the counsel on the side 
of the Government in the trial of Burr for treason. 

Maidens. [See Women]. 

Malnwaring, Edward. A captain in the King's Rangers. 
In November, 1782, he had retired to the Island of St. John, 
Gulf of St. Lawrence. But he obtained a commission in the 
British Army subsequently, and continued in service until his 
decease in England in 1803. 

Malcolm, John. A custom-house officer, at Portland, 
Maine. Early in 1774 he was seized at Boston, tarred and 
feathered, and carried through the streets in derision. A few 
days before this occurrence he struck a tradesman, who, as he 
alleged, had frequently insulted him, when a warrant was 
issued against him ; but as the constable had not been able to 
find him, a mob gathered about his house, and broke his win- 
dows. Malcolm was in the house, and pushing his sword 
through a broken window, wounded one of the assailants. 
The multitude then made a rush, broke in, and finding him 
in a chamber, lowered him by a rope into a cart, tore off his 
clothes, and tarring and feathering him, dragged him through 
several streets to the Liberty Tree, and thence to the gallows 
on the Neck, where he was beaten and threatened with death. 
Having been detained under the gallows for an hour, he was 
conveyed to the extreme north part of the town, and thence 
back to his house. He was kept stripped four hours, and was 
so bruised and benumbed by the cold, that his life was de- 
spaired of. His offences — besides striking the person above 
mentioned — appear to have consisted in seizing a vessel at 
Portland for want of a register, and in using great freedom 
and rudeness of speech at Boston, in condemning the proceed- 
ings of the Whigs. 

Mallard, Thomas. During the war, he was in the city 
of New York. The following receipt has been preserved : — 

" New York, 13 Novbr. 1780. Rec'd by order of the 
Commander in Chief of Mr. Thomas Mallard thirty pounds, 


being half a year's rent due the 1st inst. for No. 522 Hanover 
Square, for the use express'd in said order. 

£3<HhO John Smyth, ColPr of rents." 

It may be remarked, that the above is one, probably, of many 
hundred receipts given by John Smyth for payment of rents 
while the Royal Army occupied New York. After the evac- 
uation, the question arose, whether the persons who had occu- 
pied buildings under the authority of the British Commander- 
in-Chief could plead payments to Smyth in bar of actions 
commenced against them by the owners. This question, be- 
fore it was finally disposed of, caused much excitement among 
the people, in the Courts, and in the Legislature. Mr. Mal- 
lard settled in New Brunswick in 1783, and died at St. John 
about the year 1803. 

Mallett, Peter. Of North Carolina. He left the State ; 
but early in 1782, went in a flag of truce from Charleston to 
Wilmington, determined to remain and hazard the conse- 

Man, Ensign. Of Petersham, Massachusetts. He grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1764, and taught school in 
Lancaster two or three years. In 1767, probably, he re- 
moved to Petersham to pursue the same employment. At 
this time he was a warm Whig; and was continually involved 
in difficulties with persons of the Royal party, of whom seve- 
ral were educated men. The Rev. Aaron Whitney, the min- 
ister of the town, was among his opposers. There came a 
change. Before the appeal to arms, " Mr. Man had been 
wounded and taken captive by a subtler warrior, and a hero 
of more conquests than ever went clad in armor of metal. 
The minister could not convert him from his idol worship at 
the shrine of Liberty, nor all the armies of the Royal George 
subdue or blind his spirit ; but the minister had a gentle 
daughter, the glance of whose eyes smote his shield through 
and through, cleft his helmet in twain, and left him defence- 
less. At the feet of Miss Alice Whitney, he had, by this 
time, surrendered at discretion, renouncing utterly the politics 


of his earlier manhood." l Mr. Man died in 1829 ; and this 
fact is all I have been able to ascertain. [See Thomas Bea- 
man, and Aaron Whitney] . 

Mann, George. A gentleman of great wealth and influ- 
ence, who resided in the interior of New York. He was dis- 
tinguished for his attachment to the Royal cause, and the 
King's Commissioners met at his house for the purpose of ad- 
ministering the oath of allegiance to the surrounding inhabit- 
ants. On one occasion, in 1778, when upwards of one hund- 
dred had thus signified their loyalty, and had been paraded 
before Mann's door with the red badge upon their hats, and 
he had commenced a most stirring and loyal oration, a body 
of Whig cavalry dashed in, spoiled the speech, and caused the 
speedy flight of all present. Word was given to pursue 
Mann, and bring him in alive if possible, but to bring him in, 
dead or alive. Mann sheltered himself upon the top of a 
wheat-stack, where he was discovered by the son of a Whig, 
a lad of sixteen, who made known the order, that if he did 
not surrender he must be shot. Mann implored for mercy, 
but the stripling repeated the terms. The boy's heart, how- 
ever, failed him, for his prisoner had lived a neighbor to his 
father, and had been kind to him. It was night, the rain de- 
scended in torrents, and Mann contrived to escape to the 
mountains, where he remained fifteen days. He subsequently 
gave himself up, on condition, made through friends, that he 
should receive no personal harm, and was taken to Albany 
and kept in confinement to the close of the war. His estate 
was not confiscated, and he was suffered to repossess himself 
of it, and to live and die upon it. 

Mann, John. Of New York. Settled in Nova Scotia, 
and had charge of a parish. He died at Newport, Nova 
Scotia, 1817, aged seventy-three. 

Manlove, Boaz. Of Delaware. Fled to New York, in 
1777. Proclamation in 1778 that unless he should surrender 
himself to be tried for treason, within a specified time, his 
property would be confiscated. 

1 Address of Rev. Edmund 13. Willson, at Petersham, July 4, 1854. 


Mansfield, Rev. Richard, D. D. Of Connecticut. 
Episcopal minister. He was born at New Haven in 1724, 
and graduated at Yale College in 1741. He was bred a Con- 
gregationalist. In 1748, a convert to Episcopacy, he was 
ordained in London, and appointed a missionary by the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 
He returned to Connecticut in 1749, and officiated at Derby, 
West Haven, Waterbury, and Northbury. After the year 
1755, his labors were confined to Oxford and Derby. In 
1775 he was compelled to fly from his parishioners and from 
his home, to escape violence. He even feared imprisonment 
and death ; and found, he said, " a temporary asylum in the 
loyal town of Hempstead." He said, too, that, of one hun- 
dred and thirty families under his pastoral care, one hundred 
and ten were steadfast adherents to the Crown, and " abhor 
the present unnatural rebellion, and all those measures which 
have led to it." When driven into exile, his family consisted 
of his wife, an infant just weaned, four other small children, 
and four of adult age, who, he wrote, " were overwhelmed 
with grief and bathed in tears, and but very slenderly provided 
with the means of support." His offence appears to have 
been a letter to Governor Tryon, in which he expressed the 
opinion that, if the King's troops were sent to protect the 
Loyalists, several thousand men in the three Western coun- 
ties of the Colony would join them. 

He died in 1820, aged ninety-six. His wife was Anna 
Hull, of the family of Isaac Hull, Captain in the United 
States Navy. Nine of his thirteen children lived to years of 
maturity, one of whom graduated at Yale College. 

Mansfield, Isaac. Of Marblehead, Massachusetts. An 
Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774. A Loyalist of this name, 
and a Sandemanian, died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1835, 
aged eighty-four. 

Mansin, Henry. Native of Prussia. Emigrated to 
Philadelphia, from London, about 1772. Went to Jamaica, 
and thence to North Carolina. After the rising of the people 
at Ninty-Six, South Carolina, he joined John Stuart, Super- 


intendent of Indian Affairs, and retired to St. Augustine, 
Florida, when lie was appointed Captain in the corps of 
Rangers. He sold his commission ; acted as Stuart's agent 
for awhile ; and in 1777, went to New York, and was com- 
missioned Lieutenant in the Queen's Rangers, by Sir William 
Howe. He went with the Royal Army to Philadelphia, and 
was taken prisoner. 

Manson, Daniel. Of Charleston, South Carolina. In 
1782 he was Major of the North Carolina Volunteers. He 
went to England at the peace, having served throughout the 
war. He died at Berwick, in 1816, aged seventy-seven. 

Manson, . Of South Carolinia, or Georgia. He 

appeared before Georgetown, and demanded permission to 
land, and was refused. Thereupon, he sent a party on shore 
to apply the torch to a number of buildings near the water. 
Under cover of his guns, this was done. Next, he di- 
rected his crew to open a fire upon the burning dwellings, in 
a way to prevent the inhabitants from extinguishing the 
flames, or removing their property. The result was, that 
forty-two houses were reduced to ashes. 

Marchington, Philip. Of Pennsylvania. His estate 
was confiscated. He was at New York, some part of the 
war, a merchant. He settled at Nova Scotia, and died at 
Halifax, in 1808, aged seventy-two. His daughter Mary 
married Lieutenant-Colonel John Wellsford, 101st Regiment, 
British Army, and died at Halifax, 1842, at the age of fifty- 
six. Major Wellsford, a son of this daughter, and Captain 
Parker, were slain in the Crimean war, in the attack on the 
Redan ; and a cenotaph has been erected to their memory at 

Marks, Nehemiah. He was born at Derby, Connecticut. 
Soon after the war commenced, he repaired to New York, 
and engaged with the British Commander there to act as a 
despatch agent. At the peace he retired to Nova Scotia, but 
in the spring of 1784 he settled at St. Stephen, New Bruns- 
wick, where he died, July, 1799, aged fifty-two years. His 
wife, Betsy, died at the same place in 1812, aged sixty. Eight 


children survived him. His son Nehemiah, a highly enter- 
prising ship-owner of St. Stephen, was Lieutenant-Colonel of 
Charlotte County Militia, and a magistrate. His daughter 
Hannah married General John Brewer, a distinguished 
citizen of Robinstown, Maine. 

Marr, Laurence. Of New Jersey. He was one of 
James Moody's party, in the attempt to break into the State 
House, and carry off the books and papers of the Continental 
Congress ; and one of the two who were made prisoners. 
He was tried as a spy, and executed at Philadelphia, Novem- 
ber, 1781. He forgave his betrayer, he said, the night before 
his death, as freely as he himself hoped to be forgiven by his 

Marr, James. Of New York. In 1776 he conducted 
two soldiers in search for u Rebels," and in profane epithet 
threatened to plunder a lady who was suspected of harboring 
Whigs, and who, indeed, had one in the house asleep in his 

Marshall, James. Captain in the New York Volunteers. 
Went to England in 1779, and died there the same year. 

Marston, Benjamin. Son of Colonel Benjamin Marston, 
of Salem, Massachusetts. Graduated at Harvard University 
in 1749. Merchant of Marblehead. In 1774 an Addresser 
of Hutchinson. He went to Halifax in 1776, but returned 
in September of that year, when he was arrested and put in 
Plymouth jail. A month later, the Council of Massachusetts 
ordered his transfer to the jail of Bristol County. In 1778 
he was proscribed and banished. In 1792 he was Deputy 
Surrogate in New Brunswick. He died on the coast of 
Africa, in 1793, while in the service of the African Company. 

Martin, Josiah. Last Royal Governor of North Caro- 
lina. He entered the British Army, in 1756, as an ensign, 
and held the rank of major, five years later. He entered on 
the administration of the affairs of North Carolina in 1771. 
His first duty seems to have been to conciliate the Regulators, 
who had been in open rebellion and in arms during the ad- 
ministration of his predecessor. His efforts were successful, 


and a very considerable proportion, and perhaps a majority, 
of the Regulators — singular as is the fact — adhered to the 
Crown in the Revolution. But Try on had bequeathed the 
far more serious and general controversy with the Whigs ; 
and Martin soon became involved in difficulties. In his last 
speech to the Assembly in April, 1775, he reviews the whole 
course of affairs at length, and with more than common 
ability. The House returned a spirited answer, and he im- 
mediately dissolved it. As Governor Martin had no military 
force, his sole dependence now, to carry on the Government, 
was on such of the Council as remained faithful to the in- 
terests of the Crown. He proposed, or at least suggested, 
the propriety of issuing writs for the election of a new 
Assembly, but his advisers recommended delay. But he 
commenced fortifying the palace, and the embodying of a 
force of Loyalists. These hostile preparations, and the knowl- 
edge that he had written to Gage, at Boston, for arms and 
ammunition, soon produced an open rupture. Some bold 
Whigs seized and carried off the cannon which he had planted, 
while he and his Council were in session, on the 24th of 
April. On that day, the records of the Royal Government 
in North Carolina cease ; and in the evening, Governor 
Martin fled to Fort Johnston, on the Cape Fear River. But 
the Whigs pursued, and drove him from the Fort to the 
sloop-of-war Cruiser, from which ship, on the 8th of August, 
he issued a proclamation, and one of the longest, probably, 
on record. The battle of Moore's Creek, in which the 
Loyalists, under McDonald, were defeated and dispersed by 
Colonel Caswell, followed in February, 1776 ; and Governor 
Martin, embarking on board the fleet of Sir Peter Parker, 
arrived at Charleston, South Carolina, early in June of that 
year. His estate in North Carolina was confiscated. The 
documents which relate to his administration show that he 
was a man of remarkable force and energy of character. 
" I have constantly received the most zealous assistance," 
said Lord Cornwallis, in a despatch, in 1781, " from Gov- 
ernor Martin during my command in the Southern district. 

VOL. II. 5 


Hoping that his presence would tend to excite the loyal sub- 
jects in this Province to take an active part with us, he has 
chearfully submitted to the fatigues of our campaign ; but his 
delicate constitution has suffered by his public spirit, for, by 
the advice of the Physicians, he is now obliged to return to 
England for the recovering his health." 

He died at London in 1786. He married his cousin 
Elizabeth, daughter of Josiah Martin, of Long Island, New 
York. Samuel Martin, who fought a duel with John Wilkes, 
was his brother. His half-brother, Sir Henry Martin, was 
created a Baronet in 1791. 

Martin, Samuel. Of Virginia. Lost his estate under 
the Confiscation Act. The British Government, in consider- 
ing the claims of the Loyalists, fixed the value of the fee- 
simple of his landed property at £13,115, and of his life-in- 
terest therein at £ 6,500, and for the life-interest gave him a 
certificate of compensation. An attempt was made to secure 
the reversion, estimated at .£6,615, for his son, George 
Martin ; but it is believed that the Legislature of Virginia 
refused to interfere with its previous Act, by which the whole 
interest was presumed to be vested in the father. 

Martin, Thomas. Of Virginia. In 1751 he went from 
England to Virginia, to live with his uncle, Thomas Lord 
Fairfax, who, at his death, in 1782, bequeathed him a fine 
estate. At one time he held the commission of Colonel in 
the British Army. He died in Virginia in 1798. 

Martin, Samuel. A physician, of Far Rockaway, New 
York. Gave his parole of honor in 1776 that he would not 
directly or indirectly oppose the Whigs ; and gave surety in 
£500. He was a man of great wealth. He died at Rock- 
away in 1806. 

Martin, Laughlin. Of South Carolina. Was tarred 
and feathered at Charleston, and was ordered to depart to 
England. Subsequently, on expressing his contrition for his 
offences, he was allowed to remain in the city, and to pursue 
his avocation. 

Martin, William. Captain in the North Carolina High- 
landers. Went to England. Died at Edinburgh in 1791. 


Mason, James. Was charged with " treasonable practices 
against the States of America," and, July 18, 1776, was a 
prisoner in jail, at Litchfield, Connecticut. 

Mason, Samuel. Settled in New Brunswick. In 1795 
he was a member of the Loyal Artillery of St. John. He 
died in that city, 1827, aged sixty-six years. 

Mason, John. Of New York. One of the messengers 
sent by Sir Henry Clinton to the revolted Pennsylvania line 
in 1781. He was seized and executed as a spy. [For details 
of this occurrence, see James Ogden.] 

Massinbird, George. Of North Carolina. In Decem- 
ber, 1775, a Whig, who had caught him in the course of his 
official excursions, carried him before the Council, and prayed 
that condign punishment might be inflicted. But Massinbird 
played the penitent, and was released. 

Mather, Samuel. Clerk of the Customs. In 1776 he 
embarked at Boston for Halifax with the British Army ; and 
in August of that year arrived in England. A gentleman of 
this name died in Boston, 1813, aged seventy-seven. 

Mathews, Fletcher. Of New York. During the war 
he was proceeded against by the commissioners appointed to 
the charge of persons who adhered to the Crown, and was 
ordered to be sent within the British lines. But Governor 
Clinton havino; so far interfered with the decision as to detain 
him for the purpose of exchange, he was suffered to remain in 
the country without interruption. 

Mathews, George. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1832, aged eighty-four. 

Matthews, David. Of New York. In office under the 
Crown eighteen or twenty years prior to the Revolution. In 
February, 1776, he was appointed Mayor of the city ; and 
by permission of the Provincial Congress was qualified by 
Governor Tr} r on on board the ship Duchess of Gordon, at 
anchor in the harbor. In July of the same year he was in 
jail at Litchfield, Connecticut, charged with " treasonable 
practices against the States of America ; " but, at his own 
request, was removed to Hartford, where he had friends, and 


could see his wife. In 1782 he was Register of the Court of 
Admiralty. He had a house in New York, and another in 
Flatbush, and kept up an establishment at both. His estate 
was confiscated. After the war, he was President of the 
Council and Commander-in-Chief of the Island of Cape 

M audesley, John. Of Rhode Island. In a Loyalist 
pamphlet published at London, in 1874, he is styled " Honor- 
able " ; and it is said that he was a Rebel until the Royal 
Army took possession of Rhode Island, when he pretended 
loyalty ; and that, changing again at the peace, he satisfied 
the Whigs of his faithfulness to them, recovered his estate, 
and took the oath of allegiance to the new Government. 
Whatever the truth, he was one of the memorable " Fifty- 
five " Loyalists, who, in 1783, petitioned for lands in Nova 
Scotia. [See Abijah WillardJ] 

Maxwell, . Of Georgia. He fled to the British, 

and his estate was confiscated. He returned in 1783, and 
applied for the restoration of citizenship and property. His 
petition was rejected, but the Governor, in the recess of the 
Legislature, permitted him to live at his old home, a privilege 
which was soon terminated by his death. The inference from 
the account is that he was assassinated. 

Maxwell, . Of Maryland, and Major in the 

Prince of Wales Regiment. When in command of Fort 
Granby on the Congaree, he was invested by Lee. The 
Whig was told that his antagonist was not distinguished for 
valor ; that he was zealous to fill his purse rather than to 
gather military laurels, and that the fort contained the spoil 
of years. After a pompous summons, and some adroit move- 
ments on the part of Lee, the Loyalist proposed to surrender 
the post on the conditions that private property should be 
respected ; that, furnished with an escort, his force should be 
allowed to go to the British Army at Charleston as prisoners 
of war. To these terms, with some modifications, Lee con- 
sented. When the capitulation was signed, it was ascertained 
that the garrison consisted of two hundred and eighty Loy- 


alists and sixty Hessians. Lee's troops fared sumptuously on 
the good things, which, as public stores, fell to their lot. The 
fort was so strong, that, in Lee's opinion, its reduction would 
have employed the whole of Greene's force for a week ; in 
which time, Lord Rawdon's interposition to save it was pos- 
sible. It proved, indeed, that his Lordship actually crossed 
the Santee while the very valiant Maxwell was in com- 

Maxwell, John. In England in 1779, and directed to 
testify before Parliament, on the inquiry into the conduct of 
Sir William Howe and General Burgoyne while in America, 
but was not examined. 

Mayer, Doctor Cassimire. Of Pownalborough, Maine. 
At Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1779, and accused of concealing 
deserters from ships-of-war, but acquitted ; at the British post 
at the mouth of the Penobscot in 1781 ; again in Nova 
Scotia in 1789, where he had " built him a hut on the banks 
of the Sydney, and lived quite in the hermit's style." It is 
said that he was the " queerest of mortals." When he 
landed at Halifax, as above mentioned, he marched along 
in all the pride of poverty and majesty of rags and patches, 
which exhibited the various dyes of the rainbow, " while his 
broad Dutch face opened at the mouth from ear to ear." 
Over all, he wore a threadbare scarlet coat brought from 
Germany nearly thirty years before. 

McAdam, John Loudoun. The projector of the im- 
provement in the making of highways known as McAdam- 
ized roads. He was born in Scotland in 1756 ; emigrated 
to New York when a lad, and remained in that city through- 
out the Revolution. Under the protection of the British 
troops, he accumulated a considerable fortune, as agent for 
the sale of prizes. At the close of the war he returned to his 
native land, with the loss of nearly the whole of his property. 
His system of making roads is too well known to require de- 
scription. The British Government gave him <£10,000, and 
tendered the honor of knighthood, which he declined, but 
which was conferred on his son, James Nicholl McAdam. 

54 McADAM. — McCLAIN. 

He died at Moffat, county of Dumfries, in 1836, aged eighty. 
By his first wife, a lady of the name of Nicholl, he had six 
children, most of whom survived him. Anna Charlotte, his 
widow, daughter of John Peter De Lancey, and sister of 
Bishop De Lancey, of New York, died at Hoddeson, Hert- 
fordshire, England, May, 1852. 

McAdam, William. Merchant, of New York. His es- 
tate was confiscated. Like many of his associates of the 
Committee of Fifty of that city, " appointed to correspond 
with our sister Colonies," he was, I conclude, from the docu- 
ments of the day, disposed at the outset to favor the popular 

Mc Alpine, William. Printer and bookbinder, of Boston. 
An Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775 ; 
was proscribed and banished in 1778. He remained in that 
town during the siege, but embarked with the British Army, 
and went to Halifax. Subsequently, he went to Great 
Britain, and died at Glasgow in 1788. His place of busi- 
ness, while in Boston, was at one time opposite to the Old 
South Church. 

McArthur, Archibald. Of North Carolina. In arms 
against the Whigs in 1776 ; died the same year ; and the 
Provincial Congress ordered the Commissioners for Cumber- 
land County to dispose of his estate. 

McCall, George. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. He established 
himself as a merchant. There was an Addresser of Hutchin- 
son at Marblehead, 1774, of this name. 

McCarty, Roger. Of Philadelphia. In April, 1778, he 
went down the Delaware, in the schooner Fidelity, to buy 
provisions at Reedy Island. He and his companions were 
taken by a party of Whigs, carried to Wilmington, impris- 
oned, and sentenced to be tied arms and legs to the gallows, 
and then to receive, on the bare back, two hundred and fifty 
lashes each, with wired and knotted cats. This punishment 
inflicted, they were allowed to depart. 

McClain, Charles. Of Pennsylvania. Joined the Brit- 


ish in Philadelphia, and accompanied the Royal Army to 
New York. Captured in the privateer Impertinent. In 1779 
in jail, and to be tried. 

McClatchey, . I suppose of Georgia. In 1793 

he lived in Florida, and was largely concerned in the Indian 
trade, under permission of the Spanish Government to import 
goods directly from England. 

McComb, . He commanded a company in the bat- 
tle of Bennington, in 1777, and was there killed. 

McCormick, William. Of North Carolina. Went to 
England. In July, 1779, he was in London, and presented 
an Address to the king. His property was confiscated. 

McCrea, or Cra, Alexander. Of North Carolina. 
Captain in the Loyal Militia. Taken prisoner in the battle 
at Cross Creek, 1776. Confined in Halifax Jail ; sent, finally, 
to Maryland. 

McCulloh, Henry. Of North Carolina. He obtained 
a patent for 1,200,000 acres of land in that Colony for him- 
self and his associates ; and, though a man of fortune, became 
greatly embarrassed by his endeavors to induce emigration 
from Ireland for the settlement of this vast domain. He held 
the offices of Secretary of North Carolina, of Surveyor, In- 
spector and Comptroller of the Revenue, and of Commissioner 
of Crown Lands. He died in England, u at a great age," in 
1779, or the previous year. His name appears in the Confis- 
cation Act, though, as will be seen presently, his estate had 
been conveyed to his son. 

McCulloh, Henry Eustace. Of North Carolina. Son 
of Henry McCulloh. He was educated to the law in Lon- 
don. About the year 1761 he emigrated to North Carolina, 
where, at first merely the agent of his father, he became a 
member of the Council, Collector of the Customs for the port 
of Roanoke, and Representative of the Colony in England. 
At the Revolutionary era, he was the sole surviving child, 
and obtained from his father a conveyance of all the property 
in North Carolina ; and such was his tact and address, in 
adjusting his father's accounts with the Crown, that he ac- 


quired " 64,400 well selected acres, without the payment of a 
single dollar." In 1774, the Whigs dismissed him as Colo- 
nial Agent; and. in 1779 his estate was confiscated. In 
1784 he applied to the Legislature to annul the act of confis- 
cation, but without success. Distinguished Whigs advocated 
his cause with zeal, only to lessen their own influence and 
popularity. He petitioned again the next year ; but, instead 
of relief, an Act was passed for the immediate sale of the 
whole of the forfeited property. Tidings of the state of feel- 
ing reached him at London, in May, 1785, when he wrote : — 

" In case of the idea of an Act of Banishment being carried 
into execution, I beg my friends will not make an effort to 
take my name out of it, ... I should wish it in ; as things 
are, I consider myself, as it relates to North Carolina, as a 
person, naturally as well as politically, dead ; and after all, 
my heart feels an additional pang when it reflects that, to 
the rest of my most unmerited and severe usage, I am obliged 
to add the painful thought that I shall now, — probably never, 
— see persons both most near and dear to me." In 1788 he 
said, in a letter : "America may, must, and will, from day to 
day, rue her separation from England. Did North Carolina 
deserve anything at my hands, connected as I am here, I 
might do her great service." He adds : "Apply to the State 
for the debt they owe me as their Agent. For shame sake 
they will not refuse payment." 

At the date last mentioned, he was agent of the North 
Carolina Loyalists for prosecuting their claims for losses. 
He himself was a claimant ; and though he received a con- 
siderable sum, he was dissatisfied. His integrity may well be 
questioned, since, in his capacity of Councillor, he sold his 
vote, in favor of the Tuscarora grant of lands, to Williams, 
Pugh, and Jones, for one thousand acres of land. The fact 
that he was thus bribed seems to have been notorious. Mr. 
Alexander Elmsley, a gentleman who filled an official station 
of responsibility while in London, wrote to a friend in North 
Carolina thus : " Mr. McCulloh has often been talking to me 
of buying the one thousand acres of land he got for his vote 

McCULLoh. — Mcdonald. 57 

in Council from Pugh and Williams. I have never listened 
to him," &c. 

James Iredell, who, after the organization of the Federal 
Government, was a Judge of the Supreme Court, was his 
kinsman, and rendered him much valuable service, for which 
he was never requited. Indeed, the Judge, by the account of 
McRae, his biographer, was treated with marked ingratitude. 
McCulloh was " a man of more than ordinary ability and cul- 
ture," but cunning rather than wise ; of " loose morals," yet, 
possessed of " a decent regard for appearances, he veiled his 
vices from the public eye." He cruelly neglected his " ille- 
gitimate son George, who, an amiable young man, received 
an excellent education in England." Though reduced in for- 
tune, McCulloh still had an annual income of twelve hundred 
guineas, after the adjustment of his claim with the British 
Government, which, as he lived retired, was a competence. 
He died at his country seat, near London. 

McCulloh, Alexander. Of North Carolina. A mem- 
ber of the Council. He advised Governor Martin to issue a 
proclamation against the Whig Convention appointed to meet 
at Newbern, April 3d, 1775, to elect delegates to the Conti- 
nental Congress. 

McCulloh, Charles. Of Georgia. Attainted, and es- 
tate confiscated. 

McCulloh, Robert. Appointed Collector of the Cus- 
toms in 1779, when an effort was made to reestablish the 
Royal Government. A Loyalist, named Robert McCulloch, 
was an Associator at New York, in 1782, to settle at Shel- 
burne, Nova Scotia ; probably the same. 

McDonald, Alexander. Major in the regiment of North 
Carolina Highlanders. He was taken prisoner in the battle 
of Cross Creek, 1776, confined in jail, but ordered finally to 
Philadelphia. His wife was the celebrated Flora McDonald, 
who was so true, so devoted to the unfortunate Prince Charles 
Edward, the last Stuart who sought the throne of England. 
The story is familiar to all, and I will not repeat it. Suffice 
it to say that Flora and her husband emigrated to North Car- 

58 . Mcdonald. 

olina, where, when the Revolution broke out, they espoused 
the Royal cause, and the husband accepted a commission and 
took up arms against his adopted country, as did two of his 
sons. At the close of the war they, of course, left America, 
On their passage home, they encountered a French ship-of- 
war, and in the action which ensued, the intrepid Flora, true 
to her heroic character, remained upon deck, and endeavored 
by her voice and example to encourage the sailors. In the 
bustle of the fight, she was thrown down and broke her arm. 
In relating the incident afterwards, she said that she " had 
now perilled her life in behalf of both the house of Stuart and 
that of Brunswick, and got very little for her pains." She 
died in 1790, and was actually buried in a shroud made from 
the sheet in which Prince Charles had slept, and which she 
had preserved for this very purpose forty-five years, through 
her many adventures and migrations. 

Major McDonald survived his wife a few years, and died on 
the half-pay list of the British Army. His son John, a Col- 
onel in the Army, and a writer on military subjects, died at 
Exeter, England, in 1831, at the age of seventy-two. His 
only surviving daughter, and widow of Major McLeod, died 
at Steine, Isle of Skie, in 1835. The Hon. John McQueen, 
now (1859) a member of Congress from South Carolina, is 
a grand-nephew of Alexander and Flora McDonald. 

McDonald, James. Of North Carolina. Son of Alexan- 
der and Flora McDonald. In 1782 he was a lieutenant of 
infantry in the British Legion. 

McDonald, Charles. Of North Carolina. Son of Alex- 
ander and Flora McDonald. In 1782 he was a captain of 
cavalry in the British Legion. I suppose that, previously, he 
had been a captain in the Queen's Rangers, and had ex- 
changed into this corps. He went to Great Britain at the 
peace, and died there prior to 1833. As the late Lord Mc- 
Donald saw his remains lowered into the grave, he remarked, 
" There lies the most finished gentleman of my family and 

McDonald, Allan. Of North Carolina. Colonel in 

Mcdonald. 59 

the Loyal Militia. Authorized, January, 1776, by Gov- 
ernor Martin in a proclamation on board of the sloop-of-war 
Scorpion, to erect the King's standard, and enlist and array in 
arms all his Majesty's loyal subjects in the county of Cumber- 
land, and " to oppose all rebels and traitors." In April of 
the same year he was a prisoner, but admitted to parole by 
the Provincial Congress. The second in command in the 
battle of Cross Creek, 1776, he was taken prisoner and sent 
to Halifax Jail, thence transferred to prison in Philadelphia, 
but was soon released, on account of " his candor and low 
state of health," on parole, with liberty to live at Reading, 
Berks County. 

McDonald, Donald. Of North Carolina. He was 
known to be warmly attached to the Royal side, and early in 
the struggle Governor Martin authorized him to raise and 
embody all of like sympathies in the Colony. Of the troops 
thus enlisted on the side of the Crown, McDonald was to be 
placed in command as Captain-General. His success was 
very great. The Whigs, alarmed at the aspect of affairs, 
placed General Moore in the field, with all the militia of the 
popular party that could be assembled without delay. The 
opposing forces soon met. McDonald was defeated and made 
prisoner. He was at first put in Halifax Jail, but was ordered 
to Philadelphia and kept in close confinement until exchanged. 
Many other Loyalists were captured. This discomfiture was 
of much benefit to the Whigs, and for a considerable time, 
subsequently, the friends of the King in North Carolina were 
too much disheartened to attempt further offensive operations. 
The precipitation of the Loyalists was the cause of their ruin. 
In 1784 General McDonald was in London. 

McDonald, Donald. Of Johnstown, New York. In 
1781, at the head of a band of Indians and Tories, he made 
an attack upon the house of John Christian Shell, at a place 
called Shell's Bush, near Herkimer, New York. During the 
affray he attempted to force the door with a crowbar, when 
Shell, " quick as lightning," opened the door and drew him 
within his dwelling a prisoner. McDonald, to save his life, 

60 Mcdonald. 

gave up his ammunition to be fired against his own party with- 
out, Shell's being nearly exhausted. The Loyalists soon after 
attempted to carry the house by an assault, and rushing up to 
its walls, five of them thrust their muskets through its loop- 
holes ; but Shell's wife ruined every musket by bending the 
barrels with an axe. The assailants finally retired, but Shell 
and his family repaired to Fort Dayton, leaving McDonald, 
who had been wounded in the leg, alone in the house. He 
was removed the next day, and suffered amputation of the 
injured limb, but the blood could not be stanched, and he died 
a few hours after the operation. He wore a silver mounted 
tomahawk, on w T hich Shell, who took it from him, counted 
thirty scalp notches — showing the number of persons he had 
scalped — honorable trophies, indeed ! 

McDonald, . Of Try on, now Montgomery, Coun- 
ty, New York. He was a Lieutenant in the service of the 
Crown, and engaged in the border affrays with Butler and 
other New York Loyalists. During the battle of the Oriskany, 
in 1777, he fought hand to hand with a Whig officer named 
Gardenier, who, though wounded, seized a barbed spear and 
thrust it into his side. McDonald dropped dead. 

McDonald, Donald. Of New York. He served the 
Crown, under Sir John Johnson, seven years. He died at 
the Wolfe Islands, near Kingston, Upper Canada, in 1839, 
aged ninety-seven. 

McDonald, Lewis. Of Bedford, Westchester County, 
New York. He was at first at Whig, and a captain, and 
a committee-man ; but incurring the displeasure of his early 
political associates, was compelled to abandon his home. In 
1779 he was on Long Island, and was robbed by a party 
from Connecticut. 

McDonald, Angus. In 1775 he was arrested in New 
York, and sent prisoner to Connecticut ; and the 6th of July 
of that year complained, in a letter from Fairfield Jail, of 
having been placed in close confinement, and said that he 
expected " to be treated more like a gentleman than a high- 
wayman," &c. His wife arrived at his prison on that day, 

Mcdonald. — McDonnell. 61 

and while she remained he prayed for more liberty ; and he 
averred his willingness to suffer death, should he abuse such 
privileges as might be granted to him. 

McDonald, James. An officer of dragoons. After the 
Revolution he was High-Constable of St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, and died in that city in 1804. 

McDonald, Angus. Served in the Revolution. Settled 
in New Brunswick, and died in that Province, in 1842, aged 
one hundred and six years. 

McDonald, Alexander. Was an officer in a Loyalist 
corps ; went to New Brunswick in 1784, and died in that 
Colony, in 1835, aged seventy-two. 

McDonald. Eight, each with a family, went to Shel- 
burne, Nova Scotia, in 1783 : namely, John; John, of New 
York; John, of Albany; Alexander, of New Jersey; Ro- 
land and Donald, of Philadelphia ; Michael, of some other 
place in Pennsylvania ; and Soirle, of North Carolina. The 
last, who had lost £4000 by his loyalty, had seven servants. 
John, of Albany, had lost £280, and Donald, £240. 

McDonell, Allan. Of Tryon, (now Montgomery,) Coun- 
ty, New York. When, in 1776, General Schuyler was dis- 
patched to that county to reduce and secure the Loyalists, 
he and Sir John Johnson entered into a joint negotiation for 
terms, and his name appears with that of the Baronet, in the 
communications to the General. Sir John had previously 
sent him on a secret embassy to Governor Tryon ; and it is 
probable that the severe treatment which the Baronet received 
at the hands of the Whigs, was owing to the knowledge which 
reached Congress, through some of their agents, of this mis- 
sion to Tryon. He died at Three Rivers, Canada, in 1822, 
quite aged. His daughter Helen, widow of James McKenzie, 
died at the same place, in 1840, at the age of eighty. 

McDonnell, John. Of Tryon County, New York. 
Made prisoner at Johnstown ; permitted, by Washington, 
May, 1776, to go to Reading, Pennsylvania, to join fellow- 
prisoners who were there. 

McDonnell, . Ensign in the New York Volun- 

VOL. II. 6 

62 Mcdonough. — mcgilchrist. 

teers. Killed, 1777, in. the storming of Forts Montgomery 
and Clinton. 

McDonough, Thomas. Of New Hampshire. He was 
proscribed and banished, and his estate also was confiscated. 
He was Secretary of Governor Wentworth ; and left Ports- 
mouth in 1776. He was subsequently appointed British Con- 
sul for New England, and died at Boston, in 1805, aged sixty- 

McDougald, . Of North Carolina. Under Mc- 

Niel, in the attack on Hillsborough, in 1781, he succeeded 
to the command on the fall of that officer, and carried Gov- 
ernor Burke, and other prisoners, to Wilmington. - Archi- 
bald, another of this name, was an Ensign in the North 
Carolina Volunteers. 

McDowall, Alexander. A Whig officer, and Adjutant 
of Colonel Welles's regiment of the State troops of Connecti- 
cut. In 1781 he was found guilty of desertion to the Royal 
cause, and ordered to be executed. 

McEver, . Of New York. Stamp-Master of the 

Colony. His place of business was in Hanover Square ; his 
house on the site of the building No. 50 Wall Street. In 
August, 1765, he resigned. Truly enough did he utter, " If 
I attempt to receive the Stamps, my house will be pillaged." 

McEwen, James. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutch- 
inson in 1774. Among the magistrates who addressed Sir 
Charles Douglas at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, 1784, was one of 
this name. 

McFarland, William. Among those who perished in 
the wreck of the transport ship Martha, in 1783, were a 
Lieutenant McFairlane or McFarland (of De Lancey's 
Second Battalion, as the account is,) and his wife. [See James 
Henley. ~\ 

McGilchrist, William. An Episcopal clergyman, of 
Salem, Massachusetts. He commenced his labors in Salem, 
in 1747, as a missionary of the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, with a salary of <£50 ; and 
continued in that town until his death, in 1780, at the age of 


seventy-three. Before lie came to Salem, I suppose, he was 
a minister in South Carolina. Few memorials remain of him; 
but the meagre accounts that exist, give him an excellent 
character. I conclude, that, though he remained with his 
people, the troubles of the times interfered with the regular 
discharge of his duties. He suffered a considerable loss of 
property, and was exposed to many trials ; and he said that 
he " could not freely nor safely walk the streets by reason of 
party rage and malevolence, and the uncontrolled rancor of 
some men." He bequeathed the arrears of three years' 
salary due to him, and his share of a sum that had been given 
to such Episcopal missionaries as were sufferers by the Revo- 
lution, to the Society above mentioned. 

McGii.l, John. In 1782 he was an officer of infantry in 
the Queen's Rangers, and at the close of the war went to 
New Brunswick. He removed to Upper Canada, and be- 
came a person of note. He died at Toronto, in 1834, at the 
age of eighty-three. At the time of his decease, he was 
a member of the Legislative Council of the Colony. 

McGillis, Donald. He resided, at the beginning of the 
Revolution, on the Mohawk River, New York. Embracing 
the Royal side in the contest, he formed one of " a determined 
band of young men," who attacked a Whig post, and in the 
face of a superior force cut down the flag-staff, and tore in 
strips the stars and stripes attached to it. Subsequently, he 
joined a grenadier company called the Royal Yorkers, and 
performed efficient service throughout the war. He settled 
in Canada at the peace, and entering the British service 
again in 1812, was commissioned as a Captain in the Colonial 
corps, by Sir Isaac Brock. He died at River Raisin, Canada, 
in 1844, aged eighty years. 

McGillivary, Lachlan. Of Georgia. Colonel in the 
service of the Crown. Born in Georgia. His father was a 
native of Scotland ; his mother a Creek of the half-breed, 
" bewitching in looks, and graceful in form." At the age of 
ten, he was sent to school in New York. At seventeen, he 
entered a counting-room in Savannah. He disliked commer- 


cial pursuits, and, under his father's direction, returned to his 
mother's nation. He soon acquired commanding influence 
over the Creeks ; and, adhering to the Crown, exerted all his 
ability to exasperate them against the Whigs. In the Revo- 
lution, he had the rank and pay of Colonel, and wore the 
British uniform. His property was confiscated by that State, 
and he settled among the Creeks, where he became a prin- 
cipal agent of Indian Affairs, and exercised a hostile spirit 
towards Georgia. In 1789, his son Alexander, by " a prin- 
cipal woman of the Upper Creeks," who had been his deputy, 
and was then his successor, resided in the Indian country, 
and was a personage of vast influence. General Knox, Secre- 
tary of War, in a report to the President, said of him :■ " He 
had an English education ; his abilities and ambition appear to 
be great ; his resentments are probably unbounded against the 
State of Georgia, for confiscating his father's estate, and the 
estates of his other friends, refugees from Georgia, several of 
whom reside with him among the Creeks." From a State 
paper of an earlier date, I find that Alexander, in 1785, 
obtained permission to form connections with, and establish 
British commercial houses for the supply of the Indians ; and 
that he was an agent of Spain, with a salary. He is every- 
where spoken of as a man of great talents. He died at 
Pensacola, February 17, 1793. He was six feet high, and 
very erect in person and carriage. He wrote with great 
rapidity. His face was handsome, and indicated thought and 

McGillivray, William. Of Georgia. He went to Eng- 
land. He was in London in 1779. 

McGirth, Colonel Daniel. Of Georgia. Born in 
South Carolina. At first a zealous Whig, and, on account of 
his peculiar character, of essential service to the popular 
cause. Whipped by sentence of a court-martial, he de- 
nounced vengeance, and fearfully enough did he fulfil the 
threat. He harassed the inhabitants of South Carolina and 
Georgia several years, and by his incursions amassed a large 
property, which he deposited in the vicinity of St. Augustine. 


Hunted at last, as men hunt the wolf, he fled to woods and 
swamps. The peace put an end to his depredations in the 
States of the South ; but he continued them in Florida, until 
their extent and enormity compelled the authorities to raise a 
force to oppose him. He was found, made prisoner, cast into 
a dark, damp room or dungeon, and kept five years. After 
his release, ruined in health, reputation, and estate, he re- 
turned to South Carolina — to die. 

McGirth, James. Of Georgia. Captain in Brown's regi- 
ment of Florida Rangers. At first a pretended Whig, and 
for his treachery rewarded with a military commission in that 
corps. Attainted, and property confiscated. 

McGlaughlin, William. He was Quartermaster of the 
Queen's Rangers, and settled in New Brunswick, and re- 
ceived half-pay. He died in the county of York, in 1827, at 
the age of seventy-five. 

McGuire, Thomas. A member of the Council of North 
Carolina. On the 7th of April, 1775, the Whig Convention 
for electing delegates to the Continental Congress was in 
session at Newbern, when the Council advised Governor 
Martin to issue his Proclamation to dissolve the unlawful 
Assembly. There were present on this occasion, Hasell, 
Rutherford, Howard, De Rossett, McColloh, Strudwicke, 
Cornell, and McGuire, — eight members. In 1779, the 
Whig Governor Caswell offered to appoint him Attorney- 
General ; but the office was declined, and soon after McGuire 
went to England. He carried a mulatto girl, Nancy, who, 
in 1788, sickened and died, to his great affliction. He was 
a lineal descendant of the Lord McGuire of the Irish Rebel- 
lion of 1641. His wife was the daughter of Colonel Wil- 
liam Dry. 

McGullivroy, William Henry. Of South Carolina. 
After the fall of Charleston, in 1780, he held a commission 
under the Crown. He died, I suppose, before the close of 
the war. His estate was confiscated. 

McHaysey, James. In December, 1783, a warrant was 
issued on petition of the Selectmen of Stamford, ordering him 


66 McHUGH. — McK AY. 

and his family to depart that town forthwith, and never re- 

McHugh, Matthew. Of Lebanon, Pennsylvania. Ar- 
rested in 1776, and sent to jail in Lancaster. Under exam- 
ination by the Committee, he declared repeatedly that, " with 
both his hands, he is against Independence." Attainted sub- 
sequently, gave himself up and was discharged. 

McIntosh, Roderick. Of Georgia. Loyal to the Stuarts 
in Scotland, his native land, and loyal to George the Third 
in America. His character was elevated and pure, his cour- 
age romantic. He despised the " Rebels," and gave free 
utterance to his sentiments. During the Revolution, he led 
or participated in many strange adventures. His words and 
his deeds show that he was a sort of madman in many things, 
especially in politics, in war, and in love. He seems to have 
mingled with all sorts of people ; to have always spoken 
what he thought ; and to have possessed a wonderful facility 
of conforming to persons and to circumstances. Yet he could 
not bear the Whigs ; to him they were " vermin," that aimed 
to drive out the "Old Families," and to rule America with 
the "New." In impaired health; but appointed to a civil 
office, with the pay of Captain. He embarked for London, in 
1783, and died on shipboard at Gravesend. His story is 
well told in " White's Historical Collection of Georgia." At- 
tainted of treason and property confiscated. 

McKay, Hugh. Lieutenant in the Queen's Rangers. A 
native of Scotland. He served from the beginning of the 
Revolution to the peace. In 1783 he settled in New Bruns- 
wick, and lived there ever after. He was a member of the 
Assembly for more than thirty years, and for quite a period 
was Father of that body. He was the " only full Colonel " 
in the Province, and Senior Justice of the Court of Common 
Pleas for the county of Charlotte. He died at St. George, in 
1848, aged ninety-seven. " Distinguished for his urbanity 
and gentlemanly bearing." 

McKay, Angus. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1799, aged forty-four years. 


McKay, John. He entered the Royal military service, 
and was a Captain in the Queen's Rangers, under Simcoe. 
He settled in York County, New Brunswick, after the war, 
and held public stations of honor and trust. He died in that 
county in 1822. His wife was a sister of Chief Justice 
Saunders, of New Brunswick. 

McKee, Alexander. A " Loyalist of revengeful machina- 
tions." He was imprisoned by the Whigs at Pittsburg, but 
effected his escape. In 1778 he went through the Indian 
territory to Detroit, to excite the warriors to espouse the 
Royal cause. After the peace, he was Deputy Agent of 
Indian Affairs in Canada, in which capacity he found ample 
opportunity to indulge his hatred towards the country which 
he had deserted in the hour of peril ; and the Indian war of 
Washington's administration is attributed, principally, to his 
influence with the savage tribes. In 1794, during General 
Wayne's campaign, his barns, stores, and other property, 
were burned. 

McKeel, Joseph. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was a grantee of that city. His son John was 
killed in King's County, in that Province, in 1846, in an 
affray with a neighbor. 

McKenney, John and Duncan. Went to Shelburne, 
Nova Scotia, at the peace, and received grants of land. The 
first, who was of Pennsylvania, had lost £1000, and was ac- 
companied by his family of seven, and four servants. Duncaii 
was seventy-five years old, and unmarried. 

McKenzie, John. Of New York. During the war he 
commanded a vessel under the Royal flag, and was engaged 
in transporting supplies for the King's troops. He removed 
to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, at the peace, and died at Liver- 
pool, in that Province, in 1825. Five children survived him. 

McKinstry, William. Of Taunton, Massachusetts. 
Physician. Born in 1732. His constitution feeble and con- 
sumptive ; his personal and professional character highly 
respectable. His first offence to the popular party was in 
1774, when he dressed the wounds of a Captain Gilbert, who 


had been roughly treated by the Whigs ; and who, protesting 
against a " Rebel " doctor, expressed a willingness to employ 
him. The result was, offensive remark, insult, and injury, 
which McKinstry's sensitive nature could not bear ; and leav- 
ing his wife and children at Taunton, he retreated to Boston. 
Soon after, Mrs. McKinstry, (a niece of Hon. George 
Leonard, of Norton, and a cousin of Daniel Leonard, who 
became Chief Justice of Bermuda, and Loyalists noticed in 
this work,) who was " a finely educated and high-spirited 
woman, of elegant manners, was compelled, by a large collec- 
tion of females, to march round the Liberty Pole." This 
last wrong decided the fate of the family, and they fled to 
Boston, also. The Doctor established himself in Hanover 
Street, near the site of the present Shawmut House ; and 
such was his reputation as a physician, that he was ap- 
pointed by General Gage Surgeon-General of the Hospitals. 

On the 16th of June, 1775, he gave invitations for a dinner 
party on the following day. Among his guests were Major 
John Small, and several other British officers, who, stand- 
ing, and in silence, partook of a hasty meal, joined their 
corps, and crossed to Charlestown under orders to dislodge 
Prescott on Bunker's Hill. His children witnessed the can- 
nonade from the top of the house. At the evacuation of 
Boston, he embarked on board the hospital ship Dutton, but 
died March 21, 1776, in the harbor, and was buried on 
George's Island. John Adams knew him, and said he was 
" alert and cheerful, and obliging and agreeable." The 
survivors of the family went to Halifax with the fleet, (and 
one son, William, excepted,) remained there until 1778, when 
they returned to Newport ; and on the departure of the 
Royal Army from Rhode Island, they found a home in 
Haverhill, Massachusetts, where Mrs. McKinstry died, " hon- 
ored and loved," in 1786. 

He was the father of ten children, of whom eight survived 
him, namely : William, the subject of the next notice ; Pris- 
cilla, who became the wife of John Hazen, of the Province 
of New Brunswick ; Sarah, who married Major Caleb Stark, 


son of the hero of Bennington ; John, a merchant in Boston ; 
Mary, who was the wife of Benjamin Willis, well known in 
Massachusetts and Maine, subsequently, for his wealth and 
social position ; Thomas, the twin of Mary ; Elizabeth, who 
married Samuel Sparhawk, Secretary of State of New 
Hampshire ; and David, a merchant in New York. " The 
four sons died unmarried, and consequently the name in this 
branch is extinct." The Hon. William Willis, President of 
the Maine Historical Society, and distinguished as well for his 
private virtues as for his unwearied labors in his chosen de- 
partment of literature, is a grandson ; and the wife of the 
Hon. James H. Duncan, of Haverhill, late Member of Con- 
gress from Massachusetts, is a granddaughter. 

McKinstry, William. Of Massachusetts. An Episcopal 
minister. Son of Doctor William McKinstry. He entered 
the naval service of England at the beginning of the Revolu- 
tion. In an engagement with a Whig privateer, in 1776, he 
lost his right hand, and was shot overboard. This incident 
caused him to quit the Navy. He graduated at Oxford, and 
became a clergyman. After taking orders, he became Rector 
of East Grinstead and Lingfield, near London. In the 
course of his life he was tutor to the children of several 
noblemen, whom he accompanied in their travels on the Con- 
tinent. He was at Munich when Moreau arrived to take 
command of the French Army ; and, a few days after, with 
Campbell, was near the scene of Hohenlinden. A cannon- 
ball struck the earth but a little distance from the spot where 
they stood, to the discomposure of the poet, who subsequently 
commemorated the battle in immortal verse. Mr. McKinstry 
" was a good scholar and a polished gentleman." He died in 
the United States, while on a visit, in 1823. 

McKoiJN, John. In 1776 he embarked at Boston with 
the British Army, for Halifax. His family of four persons 
accompanied him. He was in Nova Scotia in 1782, " with 
two negro men and a free woman, of the same complexion." 

McKoun, John. Of Maine. Fled to New York, thence 
to Nova Scotia. At Annapolis, 1783, it was said of him, 

70 McLAWEN. — McLEOD. 

" He is a sociable, honest young gentleman, newly mar- 

McLawen, John. Of South Carolina. A lieutenant in 
the company of Captain Grant. Early in the war he accom- 
panied his regiment to New Providence, Bahamas, where he 
and his wife Mary soon died. Charles, his only child, a lad 
of seven years, was taken into the family of Captain Grant, 
and treated as one of his own children for about three years, 
when that officer embarked for England, and Charles was 
sent to New York, with the effects of his parents, under the 
care of the Captain's man and maid servants, who married, 
and bound him to a tailor named Alexander Campbell. In 
1783 he went to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, with the Loyalists, 
and was on board the second ship that arrived there. He 
died at Barrington, Nova Scotia, in 1859, aged eighty-nine. 
His wife was Jerusha Hamilton. His son, John Hamilton 
McLawen, of Eastport, Maine, married, first, Clara Cony, 
who bore him one son, John Cony ; and, second, he married 
Matilda Green Sabine, my oldest daughter, by whom he is 
the father of Roswell Sabine, Irvine Green, Willie Hamil- 
ton, Alice Maud, and Helen Scott. 

McLean, Archibald. He was a captain in the New York 
Volunteers, and was in several battles. In the severe con- 
flict at Eutaw Springs, he was distinguished for his bravery 
and good conduct. In 1783 he went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, and was a grantee of that city. During the war 
of 1812 he was again in commission, and was Staff- Adjutant. 
His place of residence was in York County, and he was a 
member of the House of Assembly, and a magistrate of that 
county for many years. He died at Nashwaak, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1830, aged seventy-six. 

McLeod, William. Of Elizabethtown, New Jersey. 
Was appointed an ensign in the Fifty-second Regiment, in 
1775. On the 6th of July, the Whig Committee of that 
town, hearing that he had gone to New York, for the pur- 
pose of embarking there for Boston, and of joining his regi- 
ment, detained his baggage, and notified their friends at New 


York. The Provincial Congress of New York was in session, 
and voted to arrest him and send him back to Elizabethtown ; 
but to treat him with all possible lenity as a gentleman and 

McM aster, James. Merchant, of Boston. Having vio- 
lated the non-importation agreement, he found popular opin- 
ion so strong against him that he removed to Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire. At that place his delinquency was soon 
known, and a public meeting was held, at which it was re- 
solved, that it was highly unreasonable to suffer persons who 
had counteracted the plans of the Whigs of the neighboring 
Colonies, to come there and sell their goods, and that those 
who encouraged, aided, or assisted such persons, should be re- 
garded as enemies to the town. McMaster, in 1775, signed 
and published a Submission, but was compelled to leave. By 
the Act of New Hampshire of 1778, he was proscribed and 
banished, and his property confiscated. In Boston, his of- 
fences seem to have been twofold ; first, the selling of tea u 
and the enrolling himself among the Addressers of Hutchin- 
son. In 1782, a Loyalist Associator at New York, to embark 
for Shelburne, Nova Scotia, the following year, with his fam- 
ily of four persons. He settled eventually at St. Patrick, 
New Brunswick, where he resumed mercantile pursuits, and 
was highly respected. One of his daughters married the late 
Hon. James Allanshaw, member of her Majesty's Legislative 
Council of New Brunswick, and another daughter is the wife 
of Rev. Samuel Thompson, Rector of the Episcopal Church, 
St. George. McMaster died in Charlotte County, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1804. 

McMaster, Patrick. Merchant, of Boston, and a part- 
ner of James. He was an Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774. 
Quitting the country with the British Army, at the evacuation 
of Boston in 1776, he became a merchant at Halifax, Nova 

McMaster, Daniel. Merchant, of Boston. Implicated, 
in some measure, in the transactions which involved James 
and Patrick, he was compelled to leave that town. He went 

72 McMATH. — McNAB. 

to Halifax in 1776. Resuming the business to which he was 
educated, at St. Andrew, New Brunswick, after the war, he 
became eminent. He married Hannah Ann, the only daugh- 
ter of the Rev. Samuel Andrews, a Loyalist clergyman. She 
died at St. Andrew, September 28, 1827, and his own death 
occurred at the same place, June 16, 1830, at the age of sev- 
enty-six years. He was a gentleman of courteous and affable 

McMath, William. He was a Whio- soldier of Colonel 
Lamb's Artillery, and in 1778 was tried for desertion to the 
Royal forces. The Court found him guilty, and sentenced 
him to be immediately executed. Washington, subsequently, 
postponed his doom, and finally pardoned him. 

McMichael, Edward. Of Pennsylvania. Lieutenant in 
the Whig Army, while stationed at Fort Schuyler, and in 
August, 1776, he deserted to the enemy. Attainted of trea- 
son, and property confiscated. 

McMillan. Alexander, and another whose Christian 
name has not been ascertained, were lieutenants in De Lan- 
cey's corps. John McMillan died in the Province of New 
Brunswick, in 1847, aged eighty-five. 

McMongle, Hugh. After settling in New Brunswick he 
was a member of the Assembly from the county of West- 
moreland. In 1803, while travelling on the ice, he broke 
through and was drowned. 

McNab, Allan. A lieutenant of cavalry in the Queen's 
Rangers, under Colonel Simcoe. During the war he received 
thirteen wounds. He accompanied his commander to Upper 
Canada, then a den-se, unpeopled wilderness, where he settled. 
He was appointed Sergeant-at-arms of the House of Assem- 
bly of that Province, and held the office many years. His 
son, the late Sir Allan McNab, was a gentleman who filled 
many important public offices in Upper Canada. In the war 
of 1812 he was a lad. But at the age of fourteen he vol- 
unteered to join a grenadier company of the Eighth British 
Regiment, in an attack in which most of the company were 
killed ; and was subsequently engaged in several other actions. 

McNAB. 73 

When elected a member of the Assembly in 1828, the for- 
tunes of the ruling party, known in Colonial politics as the 
" Family Compact," were rapidly declining ; but he warmly 
espoused their cause. In the Rebellion of 1837, he was very 
active on the side of the Government ; and for his services 
received the thanks of several Colonial Legislatures. While 
in command on the Niagara frontier, he ordered the steamer 
Caroline to be cut loose at Schlosser, on the American side, to 
be set on fire, and towed into the current of the Falls. At 
the formation of the Baldwin-Lafontaine Government, he was 
selected Speaker of the Lower House. In 1854 he became 
Premier, and during his administration the Clergy Reserves 
question was settled. He was knighted in 1848, and created 
a Baronet, on his retirement from the office of Premier, in 

Soon after, he went to England ; and the United Service 
Club in London, contrary to their standing rules, elected him 
an Honorary Member. In October, 1857, he retired from 
public life, but entered it again in 1860 ; when, Colonel Prince 
having been appointed Judge of the District of Algoma, he 
was elected for the Western Division to the Legislative 

Sir Allan died at his seat, Hamilton, Canada West, August 
1862, in his sixty-fourth year. His first wife was Elizabeth, 
daughter of Lieutenant Daniel Brooke ; his second, Mary, 
daughter of Mr. Sheriff Stuart. Sir Allan's three daughters 
married gentlemen of rank. Elizabeth was the wife of a son 
of Rear-Admiral Sir Salisbury Davenport, who, when Captain 
Humphries, and in command of the Leopard, involved his gov- 
ernment by firing into the frigate Chesapeake, and taking out 
seamen charged with desertion. Sophia married Lord Bury, 
only son of the Earl of Albemarle. And in 1861 the news- 
papers contained the following : — "The second daughter of 
Sir Allan McNab, and Dillon, son of Sir Dominick Dalv, 
were united in the bonds of holy matrimony at Hamilton, 
Canada West, a few days since. Fourteen Bishops, we are 
told, assisted to tie the magic knot. The bride wore a dress 

VOL. II. 7 


of rich white satin ; on her head a wreath of bridal flowers, 
above which was a square of real Limerick lace. Three 
bridesmaids, dressed in white, graced this brilliant com- 

McNamara, John. Of Maine. He was brought up in 
the family of the Rev. Jacob Bailey, and became a man of 
respectability. In 1777 the Whigs imprisoned and fined 
him ; but finally released him on bail. He was in Nova 
Scotia in 1782, and, three years later, he taught school at An- 
napolis. In 1787 he was in England. He died in Nova 
Scotia in 1798. 

McNeal, Archibald. Of Boston. An Addresser of 
Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage the year after ; went to 
Halifax in 1776, and was proscribed and banished in 1778. 
He returned to Boston in 1784, and was committed to jail ;' 
but finally allowed to leave the State and join his family at 
Quebec. In August of the year last mentioned, when asleep 
in the woods, while on a journey from Canada to Nova Scotia, 
he was murdered by Indians. His son Archibald died at 
Boston in 1797. 

McNeil, . Of North Carolina. Colonel in the 

Loyal Militia. In 1781, he surprised Hillsborough, with a 
force commanded by himself and David Fanning ; surrounded 
a church where a body of Continental troops were stationed ; 
and, with very little loss, took about two hundred prisoners, 
among whom were Mr. Burke, the Governor of the State, the 
members of the Council, and other persons of rank. This 
accomplished, McNeil released sixty men who were in jail on 
account of their loyalty. The Loyalists, on their way to Wil- 
mington, were attacked by a body of Whigs in ambush, and 
lost many of their number. McNeil was among the slain. 

McNiel, Charles. Residence unknown. Was Captain- 
Lieutenant of the Prince of Wales' American Volunteers. 
Archibald was a member of the Loyal Artillery in 1795, 
and died on the river St. John about the year 1808. 

McPhail, John. Of New York. At the peace, he went 
from New York to Shelbnrne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown 

Mcpherson. 75 

granted him one town and one water lot. He became a 
merchant, and was one of the few who remained at Shel- 
burne during life. A daughter is now (1861) living at 

McPherson, Charles. Of King's Bridge, New York. 
He removed to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, and 
was a grantee of that city. When the Loyalists landed there, 
May 18, 1783, the site of the city was a dense forest — a 
shelter for wild beasts — and without a single human habita- 
tion. Temporary tents and huts were the only homes of these 
unhappy victims of civil war, and into these the bear sometimes 
intruded. The " Anniversary Day " is still celebrated, much 
as we observe the Fourth of July. The Loyalists, on the day 
of the landing, dined on salmon, at the price of fifteen cents 
each, and but for the abundance of that fish, and of moose and 
game, they could not have subsisted. Before the close of the 
first year, Lot No. 405, in King Street, and next to the traitor 
Arnold's, was sold by the grantee for two gallons of rum ; in 
1837, with the building which was erected upon it in 1784, it 
sold for ten thousand dollars. 

The Prince of Wales, when at St. John, (August, I860,) 
said, in reply to the Mayor's Address : — " When my grand- 
father, the Duke of Kent, paid to this place the visit to which 
you make a gratifying reference, he found it but little more 
than a village. It is my good fortune to receive on the same 
spot a welcome from a city which affords a striking example 
of what may be effected, under the influence of free institu- 
tions, by the spirit and energy of the British race. These 
demonstrations of love and loyalty to the Queen, which at 
this moment are reflected upon me, I am deeply grateful 
for. Your commercial enterprise has made this port the em- 
porium of trade of New Brunswick ; and as the noble river 
which flows into it brings down for export the products of 
your soil, so I trust the vessels which crowd its piers will 
reward your successful industry with the wealth of other 
lands. I am not unmindful of the origin of this city ; it will 
be a subject of pride and pleasure to me to report to the 


Queen that the descendants of its founders have not departed 
from their first attachment to the Crown of England, which 
brought them to these shores." 

Mr. McPherson, about the year 1789, erected the building 
at the foot of King Street known as the " Old Coffee-House," 
which was demolished in 1853. He was its first occupant, 
but sold it finally to Cody — (" the prince of caterers, and 
the most obliging of landlords") — and removed to the house 
built by Arnold for his own residence. The Coffee-House 
was a famous place of meeting for a long time. Within it the 
Loyalists gathered year after year, to discuss their affairs, both 
public and private ; to tell of their losses, sufferings, and ex- 
pulsion from their native land ; to hold high revelry ; to read 
the news ; to transact business ; and to devise means to de- 
velop the resources of the Colony. Mr. McPherson died at 
St. John, in 1823, aged seventy. 

McTier, John. Of New York. Merchant. At the 
peace, accompanied by his family of eleven persons, and by 
five servants, he went from New York to Shelburne, Nova 
Scotia. His losses in consequence of his loyalty were esti- 
mated at .£1000. He resumed business at his new home, but 
removed finally to a Southern State. 

Mecklejohn, George. An Episcopal minister, of North 
Carolina. Though " a high Churchman in his religion, and 
a high Tory in politics," the Provincial Congress in August, 
1775, were compelled to employ him as their chaplain. The 
service was one of necessity on both sides ; and quite as un- 
willingly as he was engaged on the part of the Whigs, he per- 
formed the duty. The next year he was ordered to the 
county of Perquinans, but failed to comply ; thereupon, the 
Council of Safety resolved that he depart immediately, at his 
own expense, and that a military officer exact obedience. 
* Mee, John. Of New Jersey. Tried and hanged in the 
winter of 1777-8, for joining and inducing others to join the 
British Army. 

Meetin, Peter. A magistrate, of New York. He lived 
at or near Warrensburgh. In 1775 he declared in a company 


of men who had met to talk about the troublesome times, 
that he " had the King's Proclamation from Governor Gage, 
to offer pardon to any person who would recant from the 
Whig Association," and that he " expected soon to have the 
handling of the estates of all such as refused," &c. 

Meserve, George. Distributer of Stamps for New 
Hampshire, and Collector of the Customs at Portsmouth ; 
was proscribed by the Act of New Hampshire of 1778, and 
his estate confiscated. He was a native of Portsmouth, and 
his father, who was a ship-carpenter by trade, was Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the New Hampshire troops at the siege of Louis- 
burg in 1745, and was engaged in the expedition against that 
city in 1758. History assigns to Colonel Meserve the device 
of constructing the rude sledges on which the cannon were 
drawn over the morasses near Louisburg during the first 
siege. George, the son, while in England, received the ap- 
pointment of Stamp Distributer ; and embarking for home, 
arrived at Boston in September of 1765. Before landing, he 
was informed of the opposition to the Act, and was advised to 
resign his office, which he did. Before his resignation was 
known at Portsmouth, " the people '' placed an effigy in 
front of the jail, representing Lord Bute, Meserve, and the 
Devil. " A board was extended from the mouth of the 
Devil to Meserve's ear, on which was written : — 

" George, my son, you are rich in station, 
But I would have you serve this nation." 

After his arrival at town, and before going to his family, 
he resigned a second time, on the parade-ground. Subse- 
quently, on receiving his commission, the Sons of Liberty 
compelled him publicly to surrender that instrument, which 
they bore about the town on the point of a sword ; and re- 
quired of him on oath, before Justice Claggett, that he would 
not directly or indirectly attempt the performance of official 
duty. After the repeal of the Act, and on the arrival of 
Secretary Conway's circular in 1766, enclosing a resolution of 
Parliament to the effect that the Colonies should make re- 



compence to such persons as had suffered injury or damage 
in consequence of their assisting to execute the Act, Meserve 
applied to the Assembly of New Hampshire for compensa- 
tion, which application was referred to a committee, who 
made a report adverse to his claim, and it was dismissed. He 
afterwards went to England, and obtained the office of Comp- 
troller of the Customs at Boston ; but, by permission of the 
British Government, he exchanged places with Robert Hallo- 
well, Collector of the Customs at Portsmouth. This collec- 
torship was worth about £600 sterling per annum ; and 
Meserve held it for some years, until the beginning of the 
Revolution. He retired from New Hampshire in 1776, and 
accompanied the British Army to Halifax. One of his 
daughters was wife of James Sheafe, Senator in Congress, 
who purchased the family mansion. 

Mein, John. Printer and bookseller, of Boston. Partner 
of Fleming in the publication of the " Boston Chronicle." 
He was well educated, and possessed literary talents to a very 
respectable degree. He took a decided part in favor of the 
oppressive acts of the British Ministry; and the "Chronicle" 
became a vehicle for the most bitter attacks upon some of the 
prominent Whigs of Massachusetts. Mein, who was the 
editor, became so obnoxious, that he finally secreted himself 
until an opportunity occurred for going to England. He em- 
barked in November of 1769 ; his bookstore was then closed, 
and the " Chronicle " was discontinued soon after, in 1770. 
In London he engaged himself, under pay of the British 
Government, as a writer against the Colonies, but after the 
beginning of hostilities sought other employment. He never 
returned to the United States. 

Menzies, Thomas. Of New York. Was a Major in the 
American Legion, the corps commanded by Arnold after his 
treason. In 1783 Major Menzies settled in New Brunswick, 
and held various civil and military offices. He died near St. 
John, in 1831, at the advanced age of ninety-eight. He re- 
ceived half-pay nearly half a century. 

Menzies, Alexander. Of New York. Was Major of De 


Lancey's Third Battalion, and died at Hempstead, New 
York, in 1781. 

Mercer, Joseph. A captain in a corps of Loyalists. He 
settled in New Brunswick, and died there. Sarah, his widow, 
died in Norton, King's County, in 1837, aged ninety. 

Merritt, Thomas. Of New York. Settled in New 
Brunswick, and died at St. John, in 1821, aged ninety-five. 

Merritt, Thomas. Of New York. In 1782 he was 
cornet of cavalry in the Queen's Rangers. He settled in 
Upper Canada, and held the offices of Sheriff of the District 
of Niagara, and Surveyor of the King's Forests. He received 
half-pay as a retired military officer. He died at St. Catha- 
rine's, May, 1812, aged eighty-two. His brother Nehemiah, 
who was a gentleman of great wealth, died at St. John, New 
Brunswick, the same year, at the age of seventy-two. 

Michener, Matthew. Born at Newport, Rhode Island. 
Removed to Falmouth, (now Portland,) Maine. Went to 
Nova Scotia before the peace, and settled at Michener's Point, 
where lie died. James, his son, lived at Eastport, Maine, 
many years, and died there, in 1846, at the age of sixty ; his 
son Abel (still living, I860,) was master of a steamer on the 
river St. Croix for a considerable period. 

Middleton, Peter. Of New York. Physician. He 
was born in Scotland, and graduated at the University of 
Edinburgh. In 1752 he emigrated to New York, and soon 
became distinguished in his profession. In 1767 he was ap- 
pointed a Professor in King's (now Columbia) College. In 
1776 he was an Addresser of Lord and Sir William Howe. 
The Provincial Congress permitted him to visit Governor Try- 
on, on board the ship Duchess of Gordon, in February of the 
last mentioned year, " until the further order " of that body. 
He was the author of " several important papers on medical 
subjects." He died in the city of New York in 1781. 

Middleton, A. Of Virginia. Went to England. In 
1779 he was in London. 

Milby, William and Zadoc. Of Delaware. Went to 
Shelburne, Nova Scotia, in 1783, and received grants of 


land. The former, whose losses by his loyalty were esti- 
mated at .£3000, had a family of three, and two servants. 

Miles, Elijah. In 1782 he was a captain in De Lan- 
cey's Third Battalion. In 1783 he settled in New Bruns- 
wick. He was a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, a 
Colonel in the militia, and a member of the House of As- 
sembly. He died at Maugerville, in the county of Sunbury, 
in 1831, at the age of seventy-nine. Elizabeth, his widow, 
died at the same place, in 1848, at the age of seventy-seven. 

Miles, Samuel. He settled in New Brunswick, and in 
1805 was an Alderman of St. John. He died in 1824, aged 

Millar, Thomas. A captain of Light Dragoons in the 
British Legion. Went to England at the peace. Died at 
Leith, Scotland, in 1792. 

Miller, E. An Episcopal clergyman at Brain tree, Massa- 
chusetts. He was a missionary from the Society for Propa- 
gating the Gospel, and his name is connected with the earliest 
disputes of the Revolution. He died in 1762 or 1763, at 
which time the project of sending a Bishop to America had 
been agitated for some years ; and the minds of the people 
were well prepared for an attack upon the Episcopal Church. 
His decease was unkindly noticed in one of the newspapers, 
which created a heated controversy ; and before the excite- 
ment was allayed, the Dissenters found themselves arrayed 
on one side, and the dependents of the Crown on the other. 
The writings which his labors and decease produced are to 
be considered as a part of the Revolutionary dissensions in 
Massachusetts. For it is to be remembered, that in that 
Colony the question of Episcopacy had very great influence 
in the formation and in the action of the two political parties. 

Miller, George. An eminent merchant, of Dobbs Coun- 
ty, North Carolina. His property was confiscated in 1779. 
For awhile he seems to have acted heartily with the Whigs. 
He was a member of the Conventions in 1774 and 1775, 
which Governor Martin denounced, and which sustained the 
proceedings of the Continental Congress. Hewes and Hoop- 


er, who signed the Declaration of Independence, were his 
associates in 1774. In 1776 he fell off, declaring that he was 
by no means ripe for so strong and questionable a measure as 
that of entire separation from the mother country. His de- 
fection was much regretted, since he was a gentleman of con- 
sideration, and of noble traits of character. Yet he did much 
to oppose the sanguinary intolerance of the Loyalists of North 
Carolina, and on one occasion appeared in opposition to them 
at the head of a company of volunteer riflemen. He went to 
Scotland. In 1779 he w T as in London, a Loyalist Addresser 
of the King. In 1787, he was appointed Consul and Deputy 
Commissary for the States of North Carolina, South Carolina, 
and Georgia. It was said by a distinguished Whig, in 1790, 
that he lived in high style, and kept a chariot. He died at 
Hans Place, Knightsbridge, England, in 1798. 

Miller, Andrew. Merchant, of Halifax, North Carolina. 
The Whig Committee of Halifax County, December 21, 
1774, " Resolved, unanimously, To show our disapprobation 
of his conduct, and to encourage such merchants who have 
signed the Association, that we will not, from this day, pur- 
chase any goods, wares, or merchandises of any kind what- 
ever from said Andrew Miller, or any person acting for, or 
in partnership with him ; and that we will have no commerce 
or dealings with him, after paying our just debts, and fulfil- 
ling the contracts already entered into for commodities of this 
year's produce ; and we also recommend it to the people of 
this county in particular, and to all who wish well to their 
country, to adopt the same measure." In 1779 his property 
was confiscated. He was, probably, a person of standing. I 
find in a letter from a gentleman of North Carolina, who was 
in London in 1774, to a friend at home, the following pas- 
sage : " When I left my power of attachment with you, I 
told you that Andrew Miller and I had agreed that all 
money you or he might receive of mine should lie in his 
hands for three years, he paying me interest at the rate of 
five per cent, for two years and a half only. I had a letter 
from him lately, in which he appears perfectly to recollect 


this, but seems to have forgot that the money was to be re- 
mitted at the Virginia exchange, making an allowance of 
thirty-five per cent, to bring the product into Virginia money ; 
he charges thirty-three and one half," &c. 

Miller, Stephen. He was a magistrate of the county of 
York, New Brunswick, and died at Fredericton, in 1817, aged 

Miller, Robert. Of Virginia. Treasurer of the College 
of William and Mary, and Comptroller of the Customs at 
Williamsburg. Went to England as early as 1779 ; died 
there in 1792. 

Miller, Edward. A zealous Loyalist, who built at his 
own expense Fort Miller, on the Hudson River, of which he 
was in command. He went to England. Hannah, his wife, 
was a Winslow of the Mayflower lineage, and sister of Ed- 
ward Winslow, who is noticed in these volumes. Lucy Ann, 
his daughter, married William Woodforde, of the Ansford 
House family, Somerset, England, formerly a surgeon in the 
British Army, and a resident for some time at Fredericton, 
New Brunswick. 

Miller, Richard. Of East Hampton, New York. In 
commission under Sir William Howe. Hailed and ordered 
to stop, by the commander of a party of Whigs, he refused, 
and continued to refuse, until fired upon and mortally wound- 
ed. He was " a young gentleman of fortune and family, but 
a notorious enemy to his country." 

Miller, John. Deserted from the Whig, and joined the 
Royal Army. Under sanction of a flag of truce, he went to 
the American camp, and was detained prisoner. Washing- 
ton, in a letter to Sir William Howe, justifies the act, and 
remarks that there is nothing in a flag to alter the nature of 
things, or to consecrate infidelity and guilt. 

Miller, Alexander. Of Virginia. Published, in 1775, 
by the Committee of Augusta County, as a " a real enemy to 
the general struggle of all America," &c. A Loyalist of this 
name died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 1827, aged seven- 


Millidge, Thomas. Of New Jersey. Previous to the 
Revolution, he was Surveyor-General of that Colony. He 
entered the military service, and was Major of the First Bat- 
talion of New Jersey Volunteers raised by Skinner. At the 
close of the war he went to New Brunswick, and made a sur- 
vey of the river St. Croix, and the waters adjacent. He 
settled in Nova Scotia, and was a Colonel in the militia. He 
died at Granville, Annapolis County, in 1816, aged eighty- 
one. Mercy, his widow, survived him four years, and died 
at Annapolis at the age of eighty-one. His son Thomas was 
an eminent merchant, a magistrate, and a member of the 
House of Assembly, and resided at St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, until his decease, at the age of sixty-two. 

Millidge, Phineas. Of New Jersev. Son of Thomas 
Millidge. He was an ensign, or, by another account, chaplain, 
in his father's battalion, and retired on half-pay. He died at 
Annapolis, Nova Scotia, in 1836, aged seventy-one. 

Millidge, Stephen. In 1782, a Loyalist Associator at 
New York, to settle at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, the following 
year, with his family of two persons. Possibly, the Stephen 
who was Sheriff of Westmoreland County, New Brunswick, 
and who died there in 1803. 

Mills, Nathaniel. Printer, of Boston. Was proscribed 
and banished in 1778. He was born in Massachusetts, and 
served his apprenticeship with Fleming, already noticed. The 
friends of the Royal Government urged him and John Hicks 
to purchase of Green and Russell the " Massachusetts Gazette 
and Post-Boy," which they did in 1773. Under their man- 
agement, this paper took strong ground in opposition to the 
measures of the Whigs, and defended the Ministry and Colo- 
nial servants of the Crown with great zeal and ability. Hos- 
tilities, in 1775, put an end to its publication. Mills remained 
with the British troops while they occupied Boston, and on 
the evacuation accompanied them to Halifax, Nova Scotia. 
Thence he proceeded to Great Britain, but soon returned to 
New York, and became interested with the Robertsons in the 
" Royal American Gazette." He continued in New York 


during the remainder of the war, and at the peace went a 
second time to Halifax, and from thence to Shelburne, in the 
same colony. 

Mills, William. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. Was banished in 
1782, and his property confiscated. He may have been in- 
clined to the Whig side in 1775, since in that year the Whig 
Convention made him a member of the Committee to carry 
out the views of the Continental Congress on the subject of 
the Association. 

Mills, William Henry. Of South Carolina. Held a 
commission under the Crown, after the fall of Charleston, in 
1780. Banished, and estate confiscated. He went to Eng- 
land. The Commissioners on Loyalist Claims allowed him 
compensation for his losses. His only daughter, Anne, wife 
of William Thacker, of the parish of Penn, county of Stafford, 
England, died in 1807. 

Mills, John. Of South Carolina. Was in England, July, 

Minchull, John. Of New York. Went to Shelburne, 
Nova Scotia, where he was a merchant of extensive business, 
and where " he built the largest house in town." He died 
at London in 1822. 

Minot, Christopher. Officer of the Customs, Boston. 
Graduated at Harvard Universitv in 1725. Went to Halifax 
in 1776 ; proscribed and banished in 1778. Died unmarried 
at Halifax, in 1783, aged seventy-seven. 

Minot, Samuel. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutch- 
inson in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the same 
year. His arrest ordered by the Council of Massachusetts, 
April, 1776. 

Mitchell, William. Born in Londonderry, Ireland, in 
1689. He emigrated to America several years before the 
Revolution, and, for his loyalty, lost his property. He re- 
turned to England after the peace, and, at the recommenda- 
tion of Lord Townshend, was appointed to an office in the 
revenue service. He died at Dublin, in 1804, aged one 
hundred and fifteen years and ten months. 


Mitchell, John. Of Queen's County, New York. His 
house was broken into at night, in 1783, by six men who 
landed from a whale-boat : an affray followed ; he and his 
aged father were beaten over the head with the butt-end of 
muskets ; his wife, with an infant in her arms, was beaten also, 
until she fainted ; and his son Benjamin, a boy, was led out 
of doors, held, and shot through the body with two balls, by 
Jackson, one of the gang, who had lived in the family. Mr. 
Mitchell died in Queen's County, in 1833, aged eighty-one. 

Moffatt, Thomas. A Scotch Physician, who emigrated 
to America about the year 1746. He settled in Rhode 
Island in 1750 and was often consulted in difficult cases. In 
1765 his effigy was drawn through the streets of Newport, 
and hung on a gallows. He presented to the Assembly a 
sworn statement of his losses by mobs, but had failed of ob- 
taining indemnity in 1769. He was appointed Comptroller of 
the Customs at New London, and continued in office until 
displaced by the Whigs. He was one of the writers of the 
letters sent to Massachusetts by Franklin. He went to Eng- 
land, December, 1775, in the Tartar ship-of-war. In 1777, 
Stewart, the Collector of the Customs at New London, had 
permission to take away his effects ; but leave was revoked on 
information that Moffatt had left America in angry mood, 
and had been in arms on the side of the Crown. He was in 
London, an Addresser of the King, in 1779. 

Moffatt, James. Of Rhode Island. Was a Lieutenant 
in the Second American Regiment. At the peace, accom- 
panied by his family of five persons, and by four servants, he 
went from New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the 
Crown granted him fifty acres of land, one town and one 
water lot. His losses in consequence of his loyalty were 
estimated at £300. 

Moffatt, Joseph. Of Pennsylvania. Joined the Royal 
Army in Philadelphia, and at the evacuation accompanied it 
to New York. In 1779 he was taken at sea, and put in 

Moland, William. Of Pennsylvania. Physician. Took 

VOL. II. 8 


the oath of allegiance to the Whigs and acted in the militia. 
In 1778, while Philadelphia was in possession of the Royal 
Army, he went to that city, and immediately embarked for 
the West Indies, in the hope of finding a brother, who was 
able to afford him pecuniary aid. He seems to have failed in 
his object, for he returned in the summer of the same year. 
During his absence he was attainted of treason ; but availing 
himself of the terms of the proclamation, he surrendered for 
trial, and was admitted to bail. In 1783 the Chief Justice 
recommended the Council to pardon him. 

Molesworth, James. Executed, in 1777, as a spy. 
General Gates, who ordered a court-martial in the case, sub- 
mitted the proceeding to the Continental Congress, and that 
body approved of the sentence of death. Molesworth con- 
fessed repeatedly that Galloway, the Loyalist leader in Penn- 
sylvania, engaged him to undertake the infamous business : 
and he said, beside, that Lord Howe was present when the 
bargain was concluded. But the description given of his 
Lordship's person was not accurate, and his whole story as 
relates to both may have been false. In his examination it 
is related that " he received at New York a commission as 
Lieutenant in the Army, which he accepted.''' In his confession 
when under the gallows, which he requested to be made 
public, he stated that he was offered a Captain's commission, 
which he refused, and that he had never had any commission 
from the British Generals. 

He was executed at Philadelphia, in the presence of an 
immense crowd of spectators. He had been clerk to three or 
four mayors of that city. In 1782, the Attorney-General 
reported to the Council, he was -clearly of the opinion that 
the sentence and execution of Molesworth occasioned no for- 
feiture of estate or corruption of blood ; and that, of conse- 
quence, his legal representatives were entitled to his property, 
real, and personal. 

Moncrieffe, James. Of New York. Lieutenant-Colonel 
in the Engineers. Like several other British officers at the 
Revolutionary era, he was deemed an inhabitant of the 


country ; and as he was the uncle of Montgomery, and the 
brother-in-law of both Mr. Jay and Governor Livingston, 
the Whig leaders entertained the hope that he would espouse 
the popular side. The fact is not among my notes, but I 
have somewhere read that the command of the army for the 
invasion of Canada, subsequently led by his nephew, was 
offered to him. He adhered to the Crown. In 1776 he was 
with Lord Percy on Staten Island. In 1778 he was taken 
prisoner at Flatbush, Long Island, by a party who went from 
the Jersey shore in boats expressly to seize him and some 
other persons of note. The house was surrounded, resistance 
was vain, and he submitted. 

In the war at the South, he performed the most valuable 
services to the Royal cause in his particular department. In 
the saving of Savannah, he was indeed the efficient instru- 
ment. General Prevost, in an official dispatch, thus wrote : — 
" I would mention Captain Moncrieffe, commanding engineer ; 
but sincerely sensible that all I can express will fall greatly 
short of what that gentleman deserves, not only on this, but 
on all other occasions, I shall only, in the most earnest man- 
ner, request your Lordship taking him into your protection 
and patronage, to recommend him to his Majesty as an officer 
of long service and most singular merit ; assuring you, my 
Lord, from my own positive knowledge, that there is not one 
officer or soldier in this little army, capable of reflecting or 
judging, who will not regard, as personal to himself, any 
mark of Royal favor graciously conferred through your Lord- 
ship upon Captain Moncrieffe." This unqualified testimonial 
was not without results, since he " received a very generous 
donation from his Royal master," and on the 27th of Septem- 
ber, 1780, was commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Moncrieffe planned the works at Charleston, in the siege of 
the year just mentioned ; and was warmly commended by Sir 
Henry Clinton for his skill and general good conduct. But 
at the evacuation he seems to have been guilty of an act 
which greatly tarnished his military reputation. According 
to Ramsay, upwards of eight hundred slaves, who had been 


employed by engineer, were shipped off to the 
West Indies, as was said and believed, by his direction and 
for his personal benefit. 

Of Colonel Moncrieffe himself, I glean nothing more, 
except that he died at New York in 1791, and was buried in 
Trinity Church. Of his daughter Margaret, and of her hus- 
band, there is a sad story to relate. This daughter, at the age 
of fourteen, — " but a woman in development and appetite, 
witty, vivacious, piquant, and beautiful," — met Aaron Burr 
at the house of General Putnam, New York, while her father 
was with his regiment on Staten Island. Whether the 
foundation of her misfortunes was laid in the intimacy which 
followed, cannot now be certainly determined. That she was 
seduced by Burr, is affirmed by Davis, one of his biographers, 
and denied by Parton, his second and last. She herself says 
in her "Memoirs," written in 1793: "O, may these pages one 
day meet the eye of him [Burr] who subdued my virgin 
heart, whom the immutable, unerring laws of nature had 
pointed out for my husband, but whose sacred decree the 
barbarous customs of society fatally violated. To him I 
plighted my virgin vow, and I shall never cease to lament 
that obedience to my father left it incomplete. When I re- 
flect upon my past sufferings, now that, alas ! my present 
sorrows press heavily upon me, I cannot refrain from expati- 
ating a little on the inevitable horrors which ever attend the 
frustration of natural affections. I myself, who, unpitied by 
the world, have endured every calamity that human nature 
knows, am a melancholy example of this truth ; for if I 
know my own heart, it is far better calculated for the purer 
joys of domestic life than for the hurricane of extravagance 
and dissipation in which I have been wrecked." .... 
" With this conqueror of my soul, how happy should I now 
have been ! '* Upon the written evidence, Burr, be his re- 
putation for intrigue as it may, is to be acquitted of the ruin 
of Margaret Moncrieffe, since the only direct proof is from 
her own pen, and she, instead of accusing him as the author 
of her woes, looked back to her relations with him as to the 
happiest memories of her life. 


The last official act of the Rev. Doctor Auchmuty, as 
Rector of Trinity Church, was to marry this unfortunate 
maiden to Captain John Coghlan, of the 89th Foot, who, she 
relates, drove her into the arms of a paramour by the brutal- 
ity of his conduct. " She asserts that she had led a strictly 
virtuous life until, after having been forced into a marriage 
with a man she loathed, she was subjected to harsh and cruel 
treatment." This may be true, and it may be, probably is, 
otherwise. Whatever the fact, Mrs. Coghlan separated from 
her husband, and became the mistress of the Duke of York, 
and of several noblemen. For a period of fifteen years from 
1780, " she made no inconsiderable noise in the fashionable 
circles of Great Britain and France." Alternately, she 
revelled in wealth and suffered in squalid poverty. Deserted 
at last, she died a heart-broken woman. 

Turn we now to her husband. Captain Coghlan was the 
son of a London merchant of great wealth, and, in youth, 
his prospects were without a single cloud. He entered the 
Navy as a midshipman, and went "round the world" with 
the celebrated Cook. Disliking the sea, he turned his 
thoughts successively to the Bar and Church ; but finally 
procured a commission in the Army. He served several 
campaigns in America, and, as we have seen, married at 
New York. This connection, formed without caution, and 
against the inclinations of his bride, proved, as he averred, 
as miserable to him as to her. After the peace of 1783, he 
obtained the King's permission to serve in the Russian Army ; 
but his domestic disappointment preyed upon his mind, and 
he became dissipated. Returning to England, he entered 
" with avidity into every fashionable vice and folly of the 
day." His extravagance and relations with women gradu- 
ally involved him in ruin. Finally, broken down, utterly 
wretched, and an outcast, he became an inmate of St. Bar- 
tholomew's Hospital, where he died, in 1807, in his fifty- 
fourth year, and in the most abject and pitiable condition. 
His relatives in both England and Wales were very respect- 
able, and his body was retained in the dead-house eight 



days, in the hope that some one of them would claim it, and 
give it decent sepulture. The chanty of a stranger furnished 
a covering for his remains, and they were deposited in the 
burial-ground of the Hospital. It is said that Captain Cogh- 
lan was one of the handsomest men of his time, that he was 
social and convivial, and in his charities, when in possession 
of money, liberal to a fault. One cause of difference between 
him and his wife was probably political ; for Margaret, as is 
averred, sympathized with the Whigs. 

Montgomery, William. Was an Ensign in De Lancey's 
Third Battalion. Among those who perished in the wreck 
of the transport ship Martha, in 1783, bound to Nova Scotia, 
was an Ensign Montgomery, who, as the account is, belonged 
to De Lancey's Second Battalion. [See James Henley .] 

Moody, James. Of New Jersey. Lieutenant in the First 
Battalion New Jersey Volunteers. At the beginning of the 
war, with a wife and three children, he was settled on a large, 
fertile, and well-cultivated farm of his own, and was con- 
tented and happy. He took no part in politics, and simply 
wished to live and die a farmer and a British subject. Mo- 
lested, however, incessantly, by the Whigs, and shot at three 
several times on Sunday while quietly walking on his own 
grounds, he resolved to fly to the Royal Army ; and in April, 
1777, accompanied by seventy-three of his neighbors, he 
reached Colonel Barton's corps at Bergen. His very name 
soon became a terror. The cry that " Moody is out ! " or 
that " Moody is in the country ! " was uttered in intense fear 
in parts of New Jersey and Pennsylvania for years. His 
first service was at the head of about one hundred men, when 
he marched seventy miles to annoy his former friends. He 
was attacked, and, of his whole party, eight only escaped to 
the British lines. Of the prisoners taken by the Whigs, 
more than thirty were sentenced to death : two were exe- 
cuted ; the rest saved life by enlisting in the Continental 
Army, but, except a few who died, all who were thus spared 
deserted. He was next employed to penetrate the country, 
and obtain information relative to the strength and position 

MOODY. 91 

of a Whig corps, and was commended for his skill and per- 
severance. In June, 1779, he captured a Whig colonel, a 
lieutenant-colonel, a major, two captains, and several others of 
inferior rank, and destroyed a considerable magazine of pow- 
der and arms. On his return, with such public stores as he 
could transport, he was assailed by a force double his own, 
which, after a spirited fight of forty minutes, he dispersed at 
the point of the bayonet. The Whig loss in killed and 
wounded was quite one quarter of their number ; the leader, 
while breathing awful oaths and threats of vengeance, was 
slain by Moody himself. The Loyalists, who suffered less, 
arrived safely at camp, where Moody sold his booty for up- 
wards of £500 sterling, and distributed the money among his 
men as a reward for their good conduct. Again, in 1779, he 
was sent to lurk in the neighborhood of the troops under the 
personal command of Washington ; and, the objects of the 
Royal General accomplished, he was despatched a distance of 
eighty miles to watch the movements of General Sullivan ; 
and before the close of the year he was near Washington's 
camp a second time ; and was also a spy upon Gates, who 
was moving to the south. These are the most noticeable 
enterprises for three years ; and the details would show that 
all were attended with constant peril of life, suffering for food 
and shelter. In truth, Moody had gained the entire confi- 
dence of his superiors, and was thought by them to possess 
marked ability, both as a partisan and a spy. Meanwhile, as 
already remarked, his very name inspired awe in the families 
of unprotected Whigs. 

In May, 1780, he formed the design of seizing Governor 
Livingston, who, as the Loyalists averred, treated them with 
cruelty and oppression. The plan failed, because one of the 
men employed in it was taken prisoner, and revealed that 
" Moody was in the country, and, as he imagined, in quest 
of some person of note who lived near Morristown." But 
our partisan, determined to accomplish " something " before 
his return, attempted to blow up the magazine at Sucka- 
sunna, and prevailed on some of Burgoy tie's soldiers, who 

92 MOODY. 

were prisoners, to aid him. The alarm that " Moody was 
out ! " had, however, become too general, and the project was 
abandoned. Still bent on an exploit of some kind, he took 
six trust v followers, late at night entered a town in which 
there was a jail, about seventy miles from New York, and 
after a parley with the jailer, in which he impressed him with 
the idea that he had a strong party, and after threatening to 
pull down the jail, he was led to the cell of a prisoner under 
sentence of death, whom, with several Loyalists, he released 
and bore off. 

Next, he went " out " with a party of seven, and secured 
the persons of eighteen Whig officers of militia, and com- 
mittee-men. This feat raised a new alarm, and he was hunted 
in caves and forests day and night. He eluded his pursuers ; 
but, while retracing his steps to New York, he fell into the 
hands of General Wayne, much to the joy of his captors and 
to the Whigs of New Jersey. " Moody is in the toils at 
last ! " was the word far and near. He was sent first to a 
place called The Slote, thence to Stony Point, thence to 
West Point, thence to Esopus, and thence back to West 
Point. Arnold, who was plotting to surrender the latter 
post, treated him with absolute barbarity ; for, by his order, 
he was placed in a dungeon excavated in a rock, the bottom 
of which was ankle-deep in water, mud, and filth. In this 
dismal hole, the wretched prisoner was fettered hand and foot ; 
compelled to sleep on a door raised on four stones above the 
disgusting mixture, and proffered food at which he revolted, 
and which was brought to him in a wooden-bowl that was 
never washed, and that was encrusted with dough, dirt, and 
grease. The irons upon his wrists were ragged on the inner 
side, and caused sores which gave him great pain, while his 
legs became irritated and swollen. He implored Arnold for 
relief, declaring that he preferred death to sufferings so in- 
tense. Some days after his second petition to be treated as 
a prisoner of war, an officer came to his prison and asked, — 
" Are you Moody, w T hose name is a terror to every good 
man ? " When answered, the officer pointed to a gallows 

MOODY. 93 

near by and said, — " A swing upon that you have long mer- 
ited." Moody replied that he hoped " to live to see him and 
a thousand other villains like him hanged for being Rebels." 
The fetters were examined, but not removed. The case was 
at last reported to Washington, who ordered the irons to be 
taken off, and the serving of wholesome provisions, with leave 
to purchase milk and vegetables. Soon, too, the prisoner was 
transferred to the Chief's own camp, where the Adjutant- 
General, the noble Scammell, examined his limbs, and, 
shocked at their condition, gave instant directions for humane 
treatment. Before our partisan had fully recovered, he was 
told that he was to be tried for the murder of the Whig cap- 
tain and of another officer, who fell in the affair which I 
have mentioned ; and, also, for enlisting men, which, too, was 
a capital offence. He was informed, besides, that he " was so 
obnoxious, and was likely to be so mischievous, that the 
Whigs were determined to get rid of him at any rate," and 
that his fate was sealed. From this moment he resolved to 
escape, or perish in the effort. On a dark and rainy night, 
he accordingly contrived to break the bolt of his handcuffs 
without notice, when he sprang past the inner sentinel, 
knocked down and seized the gun of the next, avoided four 
others who were stationed at the place of his confinement, 
and obtained his liberty, — though the cry was raised by hun- 
dreds : " Moody has escaped from the Provost ! " and though 
he was pursued in every direction. 

We hear little of our partisan and spy until March, 1781, 
when Oliver De Lancey the younger, who had succeeded 
Andre as Adjutant-General, requested him to undertake to 
intercept Washington's despatches. Moody, ever ready, de- 
parted the very next night, and travelled more than twenty- 
five miles by the dawn of day ; when, as detection was sure 
to lead to a speedy death on the gallows, he and his followers 
retreated to a swamp. On the second night the guide re- 
fused to proceed ; and Moody, in his anger, cocked his gun to 
shoot him, but spared him for the sake of his family. The 
enterprise was, however, at an end, and those who were en- 

94 MOODY. 

gaged in it made the best of their way to New York. De 
Lancey was much disappointed ; and Moody, in nowise dis- 
couraged, set out again, determined upon success. He reached 
the Haverstraw mountains in darkness, and was there in- 
formed that the post had already passed. To get ahead of 
the rider was the only course ; and Moody and his little band, 
heedless of severe suffering from the inclemency of the weather, 
and from a pelting snow-storm, pushed on, and on the fifth day 
they obtained their prize, which, after hazardous and distress- 
ing night-marches, they placed in the possession of their em- 

Moody himself bore fatigue, hunger, and cold without ap- 
parent injury ; but the hardships of this adventure were fatal 
to the health of most of his party. Soon after this feat, 
Moody, who had served quite a year as a volunteer without 
pay, and nearly three years as an ensign, was promoted to a 

In a month or two De Lancey complained of the want of 
intelligence, and the new Lieutenant, with four men, accord- 
ingly left camp to seize another " Rebel mail." On the sec- 
ond night they met a party of Whigs, who enclosed them on 
three sides, and who had so well executed a plan of ambush 
as to leave no hope of escape, except by leaping from a high 
cliff of rocks. To surrender or perish were the only alter- 
natives. Moody chose the latter ; and, bidding his men to 
follow, sprang over the precipice. Strangely enough, not 
one was hurt. But he soon saw another band of Whigs 
crossing a swamp ; and, satisfied that his enemies acted upon 
information sent from the British lines, he resolved to re- 
treat. Eluding his pursuers, he reached the Hudson River, 
and thought his perils over. When within four miles of the 
city, seventy Whigs emerged from a house a hundred yards 
distant, and marched directly towards him. His guide, who 
insisted that they were Loyalists, went to meet them, and was 
greeted with a shot. The main body made for Moody, who, 
without other means to escape, scrambled up a steep hill ; but 
long before he reached the summit his foes were in full chase, 

MOODY. 95 

and when only one hundred and fifty feet off, "gave him one 
general discharge." " The bullets flew, like a storm of hail, 
all around him ; his clothes were shot through in several 
places ; one ball went through his hat, and another grazed 
his arm." He turned, without slackening his pace, aimed at 
one who pursued, and killed him on the spot. Though the 
firing was continued, he escaped unharmed, and in due time 
reported himself at head-quarters. Still bent on success, and 
giving himself no time for rest, Moody, accompanied by four 
trusty followers, left New York the very night of his arrival 
ithere ; and, as before, he moved in darkness only, until he 
was ready to pounce upon the coveted " Rebel mail." He 
incurred perils which I have not time to relate. After way- 
laying the rider five days, he bore off all the despatches that 
were sent to Whigs in the field and elsewhere, in consequence 
of the interview between Washington and Count Rochambeau, 
in Connecticut. Under Moody's direction, two other mails 
were seized, subsequently; a part of the contents of one, how- 
ever, was recovered. 

The next enterprise which deserves mention, was late in 
1781, when an attempt was made to penetrate to Philadelphia, 
and seize the most important books and papers of the Con- 
tinental Congress. The plan was well laid ; but the accom- 
plice who had been employed by the Secretary of that body 
proved faithless, and it failed. Moody, who led, reached the 
Delaware ; and while waiting the movements of his ally in 
order to take the final step, accidentally heard in the house in 
which he was concealed that " the devil was to pay in the 
city ; that there had been a plot to break into the State-House 
but that one of the party had betrayed the others ; that two 
were already taken ; and that a party of soldiers had just 
crossed the river to seize their leader, who was said to be 
thereabouts." Moody fled. The soldiers entered the house 
before he was a hundred yards distant ; and, followed by a 
party of horse, and surrounded on all sides by foes on foot, 
nearly all hope of flight was at an end. As his last resource, 
he threw himself flat on his face in a shallow ditch. In the 

96 MOODY. 

search, six of his pursuers passed within ten feet of him, and 
examined the ditch ; while others travelled the adjacent ground 
in every direction, thrusting their bayonets into stacks of corn- 
fodder, and peering into every other place of concealment. 
At night, in the belief that his enemies would not again visit 
those stacks, he got into one of them, and remained in an 
erect posture two days and two nights, without drink or food. 
On leaving this uncomfortable prison, he wandered along the 
bank of the Delaware until he found a small boat, when he 
rowed up the river to a point of comparative safety. At 
length, after many circuitous marches through pathless regions,. 
which occupied five nights, he reached the British camp. 
The two who were made prisoners as above mentioned were 
tried and executed as spies. 

Moody's career in the Revolution terminated in November, 
1781. His property had then been confiscated, and his con- 
stitution, robust as it was, had became seriously impaired. 
His physicians recommended a sea-voyage, and a respite from 
anxiety and fatigue ; and Sir Henry Clinton, to ensure the 
adoption of their advice, invited him to visit England. As 
the reader cannot but have concluded, James Moody was a re- 
markable man. The Whigs of New Jersey and Pennsylvania 
detested him ; but, whatever was said of him in his time, and 
whatever the traditions which concern him now, evidence is 
wanting to show that he violated, to a serious extent, the rules 
of civilized warfare. He served the Crown because he wished 
to live and die a British subject, and not for military rank or 
pecuniary reward. He exposed his life for a year without 
even the pay of a common soldier. For taking the first mail, 
he received one hundred guineas ; for the second, twice that 
sum ; but he shared so liberally with his associates, that one 
hundred and twenty-five guineas for these two exploits, and 
thirty more paid him by Governor Robertson, as an outfit for 
the expedition to seize Governor Livingston, make the sum 
total of his emoluments beyond others of his rank. 

He lost his entire estate, and when he left the Army he was 
liable for ^61500 sterling on account of engagements for the 

MOODY. 97 

Crown ; and yet, without money or health, and in debt, he 
was a mere lieutenant in a corps of volunteers. In a word, 
his fate was not that of the Loyalists generally, but of thou- 
sands of wasted, ruined Whigs. I have before me, indeed, a 
letter from Sir Henry Clinton, in which he says he intended 
promotion ; but that, while Commander-in-Chief, he found no 
suitable opportunity for executing his purpose. 

That Moody really performed the deeds that I have related, 
I consider certain. His own narrative — singularly candid 
as relates to the Whigs — bears the impress of truth; and is 
substantially corroborated by his superior officers, and by seve- 
ral Loyalists of the highest rank. And, more than this, I 
have in my possession copies of more than twenty letters and 
other papers, which, dated at different periods, and written by 
persons of distinguished merit, show that he was much re- 
spected by clergymen and civilians, as well as by gentlemen of 
the Army. 

This notice, already too long for my limits, must be con- 
cluded. Lieutenant Moody remained in England two or three 
years, and addressed several memorials to persons in power 
on the subject of his perils, sufferings, and poverty. As I 
find the result, in the numerous documents which I have ex- 
amined, his rewards were : the temporary allowance of X100 
per annum ; the grant of a tract of land of inconsiderable 
value in Nova Scotia ; and the half-pay of an officer of his 
rank. In 1786, after a sojourn at Halifax, he settled at Wey- 
mouth, (or Sissebou,) Nova Scotia, where he became a Col- 
onel in the militia, and where he died, in 1809, aged sixty-five. 

Moody, John. Of New Jersey. He was a brother of 
James, and a young man of fearless courage* He commanded 
the party that, under the direction of his brother, seized a 
Whig mail in Pennsylvania. He was also engaged in the 
attempt to break into the State-House and carry off the books 
and papers of the Continental Congress, and one of the two 
who were made prisoners. He was tried as a spy, and ex- 
ecuted at Philadelphia, November, 1781. The day before his 
death he wrote his brother an excellent letter, in, which he 

vol. u. 9 

98 MOODY. 

said he forgave his betrayer, and that, since his sentence, he 
had employed his time in prayer. He was but twenty-two 
years of age, and the darling son of his aged father, who, 
overwhelmed with grief at first, became, finally, hopelessly 

Moody, Bonnell. Of Sussex Countv, New Jersev. 
Leader of a band of Tory marauders. It is said that he was 
employed to obtain recruits for the Royal Army, and to act 
as a spy upon the movements of the Whigs. His place of 
retreat was among rocks which were sheltered by a thick 
growth of trees. At times he and his party slept in the 
snow, in the open air, wrapped in blankets. His depredations 
were extensive and frequent. He robbed houses of plate and 
money, and of whatever else he had need, or was disposed to 
carry off. He was untiring, bold, and sagacious. 

Two of his exploits will suffice for these pages. While the 
Whig Army was at Morristown, an officer who was drilling 
some raw recruits saw a man shabbily dressed, and mounted 
on an old, broken-down horse, pass carelessly along the lines, 
awkwardly inquisitive, and seemingly " a simple-hearted and 
rather softed-headed rustic." Suspicion was excited ; one of 
the soldiers thought he knew the face ; and a horseman was 
soon ordered to follow him and bring him back. As he came 
up, Moody shot him dead, dragged his body into the woods 
out of sight, and secreted himself in a contiguous swamp. 
On another occasion he appeared at a jail at midnight, and 
penetrating to the jailer's bedside, demanded the keys, which, 
refused at first, were finally surrendered. He unlocked the 
doors, set the prisoners free, — of whom two were condemned 
to death, — paraded his band in front of the jail, and com- 
manded three loud cheers, as he himself proclaimed a general 
jail-delivery, in the name of King George the Third. These, 
probably, were among his last feats. The account of him fur- 
ther is, that, in attempting to cross the Hudson to join the Brit- 
ish in New York, with a single companion, both were seized, 
conveyed to the Whig camp, and hung as traitors and spies. 

Moody, John. In 1776 he embarked at Boston, with the 

MOORE. 99 

British Army, for Halifax. He was accompanied by John 
Moody, Jr., and by his family of three persons. The father 
or son was Clerk of King's Chapel ; the former was at Hali- 
fax in 1779. 

Moore, Lambert. Of New York. He was a lineal de- 
scendant of Sir John Moore, who was knighted by Charles 
the First, and was educated in England. During the Revo- 
lution he was a Notary-Public, and an officer in the Super- 
intendent Department. His estate was confiscated. He re- 
moved to Norwich, Connecticut, and died there in 1784. 
His wife was Elizabeth Channing, who bore him twelve 
children. One of his sons, Richard Channing Moore, was 
Bishop of the Diocese of Virginia twenty-seven years, and 
died in 1841, aged seventy-nine. Lambert Moore's father, 
who died in 1749, was the first person buried in Trinity 
Church-yard, New York. 

Moore, Rev. Benjamin, D. D. Episcopal Bishop of 
New York. Born at Newtown, Long Island, in 1748 ; grad- 
uated at King's College ; studied theology under the Rev. 
Dr. Auchmuty, of Trinity Church. He was ordained at 
Fulham, England, in 1774, by the Bishop of London. After 
his return he was employed as Assistant Rector for several 
years. In 1784 he was appointed Professor of Logic in Col- 
umbia (formerly King's) College, and subsequently was 
President of that institution ten years. In 1800 he was 
chosen Rector of Trinity Church, and the year following was 
consecrated Bishop. He died in 1816, aged sixty-seven. 
His wife was Charity, eldest daughter of Major Clarke, of 
New York, to whom he was united, March 20, 1778 ; soon 
after which the following lines appeared in a Philadelphia 
newspaper : — 

" The good Parson deserves a good Clarke : 
Such happiness had in store : 
'T was Charity blew up the spark, 

And fix'd the bright flame in one Moore." 

Mrs. Moore died in 1838, in her ninety-second year. She 
bore him one child, Clement C, who graduated at Columbia 

100 MOORE. 

College in 1798, and who, for many years, was Professor of 
Hebrew in the Theological Seminary of the Episcopal Church, 
New York. 

Moore, William. Of New York. Physician. He was 
born on Long Island in 1754, and received the rudiments of 
a classical education under the tuition of his brother, Bishop 
Moore. He went to London in 1778, and thence to Edin- 
burgh. In 1780 he graduated as a Doctor of Medicine, and 
soon after returned to his native State. He rose to eminence 
by the force of personal and professional merit. He contrib- 
uted to the " American Medical Philosophical Register," to 
the " New York Medical Depository," and to the " New York 
Medical and Physical Journal " ; and was President of the 
Medical Society of the county of New York, and a Trustee 
of the College of Physicians and Surgeons. After upwards of 
forty years unremitting practice, he died in 1824, aged seventy. 
His cases in the department of midwifery are estimated at 
about three thousand. 

Dr. Francis, Professor of Obstetrics in the College, said 
of him, soon after his decease : " I am persuaded that I do 
not allow feelings of personal friendship to prevail over the 
decisions of the severest scrutiny, when I assert that no mem- 
ber of our profession has exhibited in his life and conduct a 
more beautiful example of the dignity and benignant lustre 
of the medical character." 

Moore, John. Of New York. Deputy Collector of the 
Customs. In 1776, an Addresser of Lord and Sir William 

Moore, John. Lieutenant-Colonel of the North Carolina 
Loyalists. He joined that corps late in 1779, and in the 
following summer returned to the neighborhood of his home, 
under orders from Lord Cornwallis to excite the loyalty of 
the people, but not to embody a force until after harvest. He 
disobeyed. After enlisting about two hundred, he attempted 
to surprise a party of Whigs, and failed. The battle of Ram- 
sour's Mills followed, in which his recruits participated, and 
suffered severely. With thirty of the survivors, he reached 

MOORE. 101 

the Royal Army at Camden, was treated with disrespect by 
the British officers, and threatened with a trial by court- 
martial, for disobedience, and the consequences of it. Lord 
Cornwallis deplored Moore's conduct years afterward. The 
Hon. William A. Graham, in his Address before the New 
York Historical Society, in 1852, gave an account of the 
" Tory rising," in 1780, far too interesting to be omitted. 
He said : — 

" Early in June, the militia of the counties of Mecklen- 
burg and Rowan, comprehending the region between the 
Yadkin and Catawba, who had so early and so constantly 
signalized their devotion to liberty, were ordered out under 
Brigadier General Rutherford, to oppose the triumphal march 
of the British General. Scarcely had they assembled at the 
place of rendezvous, about ten miles northeast of Charlotte, 
when intelligence arrived of an assemblage of a body of Loy- 
alists at Ramsour's Mills, some forty miles distant, beyond 
the Catawba, in the county of Tryon, and within view of the 
present village of Lincolnton. Unwilling to weaken the 
force he had gathered to impede the advance of the British 
Army, General Rutherford despatched orders to Colonel 
Francis Locke, of Rowan, and other faithful officers, to col- 
lect the available force of their several neighborhoods, and 
suppress the insurrection at the earliest practicable moment. 
It appeared that one John Moore, of the County of Tryon, 
(now Lincoln,) who had joined the enemy in South Carolina 
the preceding winter, had recently returned dressed in a tat- 
tered suit of British uniform with a sword, and announced 
himself a Lieutenant-Colonel in the well-known regiment of 
North Carolina Loyalists, commanded by Colonel John 
Hamilton, of Halifax. He brought detailed accounts of the 
siege and surrender of Charleston, and an authoritative mes- 
sage from Lord Cornwallis that he would march into that 
section as soon as the then ripening harvests were gathered, 
so as to afford a support for his army. Very soon thereafter, 
Major Nicholas Welsh, of the sauie vicinity, who had been 
in the British service for eighteen months, and bore a Major's 


102 MOORE. 

commission in the same regiment, also returned, with splendid 
official equipments and a purse of gold, which was ostenta- 
tiously displayed to his admiring associates, with artful 
speeches in aid of the cause he had embraced. He also gave 
the first information of Burford's defeat, and represented that 
all resistance on the part of the Whigs would now be hopeless. 
Under these leaders then was collected, in a few days, a 
force of thirteen hundred men, who were encamped in an 
advantageous position, preparatory to their being marched to 
effect a junction w T ith the British in South Carolina. 

Colonel Locke, and the other officers who had received the 
orders of General Rutherford, already referred to, proceeded 
to execute them with the utmost alacrity and promptitude. 
In less than five days they levied their several quotas, and, 
crossing the Catawba at various fords, effected a junction, 
within sixteen miles of the camp of the Royalists, on the 
19th of June, with three hundred and fifty men. At sunrise 
the next morning, with this unequal force, and without any 
chief commander or understood arrangements of battle, ex- 
cept that three companies of horse, which constituted their 
cavalry, should go in front, they assaulted the camp of the 
Tories, containing, as already mentioned, thirteen hundred 
men, and, after a well-sustained and bloody engagement of 
an hour, compelled them to retreat. The particulars of this 
action, did time permit us to recur to them, are of much 
interest. Blood relatives and familiar acquaintances fought 
in the opposing ranks, and, when the smoke of the battle oc- 
casionally cleared away, recognized each other in the conflict 
— the Tories wearing their well-known badge of a green pine 
tw r ig in front of the hat, and the Whigs a similar badge of 
white paper, which was in some instances taken as a mark by 
the enemy, and occasioned the wearers to be shot in the head. 
These were the only means of distinguishing the two parties 
in the action, in which neighbor met neighbor in deadly 
strife, with the rifles carried in hunting, and in the use of 
which weapon one hundred men on either side were as expert 
and unerring as any like number of Kentuckians in the time 

MOORE. — MOREY. 103 

of Boone. Seventy men, including five Whig and four Tory 
captains, were left dead on the field, and more than two 
hundred were wounded, the loss being shared about equally 
by the respective sides." He added that: " For daring 
courage on the part of the Whig assailants, considering that 
the enemy outnumbered them in the proportion of five to 
one, and had great advantage in position, it is surpassed by 
few events of the war ; and as a chastisement and a check 
upon the rising and excellent spirit of the Loyalists over the 
recent disasters to our arms in South Carolina, the result was 
of the same nature, and almost equal in its salutary effects, to 
the victory of Cos well and Lillington, at Moore's Creek 
Bridge, four years preceding. 

The Whigs attainted Moore of treason, and confiscated his 

Moore, John. Of Massachusetts. In 1776 he embarked 
at Boston, with the British Army, for Halifax. The death 
of a Loyalist of this name occurred on the river St. John, 
about the year 1790. He was supposed, by one who remem- 
bers him, to have been a native of New England. 

More, John. Of Tryon, (now Montgomery,) County, 
New York. He was a soldier, and served under Sir John 
Johnson, and was living in 1838, to relate his adventures and 
those of the corps to which he belonged. 

Morehouse, John. Of Connecticut. A member of the 
Reading Association. He settled in Nova Scotia, and at his 
decease was one of the oldest magistrates in the Colony. He 
died on Digby Neck, in 1839, aged seventy-eight. 

Morehouse, Daniel. Of Connecticut. A member of 
the Reading Association. He became an officer in the 
Queen's Rangers, and retired at the close of the war on half- 
pay. He went to New Brunswick, and was a magistrate, 
and a major in the militia. He died in the county of York, 
in 1835, aged seventy-seven. 

Morey, Israel. Of Orford, New Hampshire. In 1775, 
elected to the Assembly, but expelled by the Whigs as dis- 
affected ; great excitement followed. 


Morgan an, William. Of Pennsylvania. In 1778 he 
was tried on a charge of holding intercourse with the Royal 
forces, and for other offences ; and was sentenced to be kept 
at hard labor during the war, not less than thirty miles from 
the British camp, and to suffer death if caught making his 

Morgridge, John. Of South Carolina. In October, 
1776, in prison in Charleston. Went to England. In Lon- 
don, 1779. 

Morlan, Richard. Of Virginia. In 1776 he was 
summoned before the Whig Committee of Loudon County ; 
he appeared and was heard in his defence. The charge 
against him was proved, and, thereupon ordered, that he be 
published as an enemy to American rights and liberties, in the 
" Virginia Gazette." 

Morrill, . Of Long Island, New York. Among 

the Addressers of Lieutenant-Colonel Sterling of the Forty - 
second Regiment, April, 1779, were John Morrell, Richard, 
James, Jonathan, Abraham senior, and Abraham junior. 
John Morrell, a Loyalist, died at St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1817, aged sixty-nine ; probably one of the above. 

Morris, Roger. Of New York. He was born in Eng- 
land in 1727 ; entered the Army as Captain, in 1745 ; served 
under Braddock and Lord Loudoun, and was at Quebec with 
Wolfe. He was promoted to a Lieutenant-Colonel in 1760 ; 
sold his commission in 1764 ; settled in New York, and was a 
member of the Council. In 1758 he married Mary, daugh- 
ter of Frederick Phillips, who, as is said, is the original of 
" Frances," in Cooper's " Spy." At the Revolutionary era, 
part of the Phillips estate was in possession of Colonel Mor- 
ris, in right of his wife, and was confiscated ; and, that the 
whole interest should pass under the Act, Mrs. Morris was 
included in the attainder. It is believed that this lady, her 
sister Mrs. Robinson, and Mrs. Inglis, were the only females 
w r ho were attainted of treason during the struggle. But it 
appeared in due time that the Confiscation Act did not affect 
the rights of Mrs. Morris's children. The fee-simple of the 

MORRIS. 105 

estate was valued by the British Government at £ 20,000 ; 
and, by the rules of determining the worth of life-interests, 
those of Colonel Morris and his wife were fixed at £12,605, 
for which sum they received a certificate of compensation. 

In 1787 the Attorney-General of England examined the 
case, and gave the opinion that the reversion (or property of 
the children at the decease of the parents) was not included 
in their attainder, and was recoverable under the principles of 
law and of right. In the year 1809, their son, Captain Henry 
Gage Morris, of the Royal Navy, in behalf of himself and his 
two sisters, accordingly sold this reversionary interest to John 
Jacob Astor, of New T York, for the sum of £20,000 sterling. 
In 1828 Mr. Astor made a compromise with the State of 
New York, by which he received for the rights thus pur- 
chased by him (with or without associates) the large amount 
of five hundred thousand dollars. The terms of the arrange- 
ment required that, within a specified time, he should execute 
a deed of conveyance in fee-simple, with warranty against 
the claims of the Morrises, — husband and wife, — their heirs, 
and all persons claiming under them ; and that he should also 
obtain the judgment of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, affirming the validity and perfectibility of his title. 
These conditions were complied with, and the respectable 
body of farmers, who held the confiscated lands under titles 
derived from the sales of the Commissioners of Forfeitures, 
were thus quieted in their possessions. The furniture and 
plate of Colonel Morris were sold at auction, at New York, 
May, 1783. He went to England, and died there, in 1794, 
aged sixty-seven. Mary, his widow, survived until 1825, 
and to the age of ninety-six. The remains of both were de- 
posited near Saviour-gate Church, York. Their son, above 
mentioned, erected a monument to their memory. It is 
understood that the British Government made them a second 
compensation for their losses, and that the whole sum received 
was £17,000 sterling. Their children were as follows: 
Henry Gage, a Captain in the Royal Navy ; Amherst, who 
was named for his godfather, Lord Amherst, was also a Cap- 

106 MORRIS. 

tain in the Royal Navy, and who died, unmarried, in 1802 ; 
Joanna, who married Captain Thomas Cowper Hincks, of the 
British Dragoons, and who died in 1819 ; and Maria, who 
died, unmarried, in 1836. To the memory of Captain 
Amherst Morris there is a monument at Baildon, Eng- 
land. Of Captain Henry Gage Morris honorable mention 
is made in the British Naval History. Of Mrs. Morris's 
early life there is a most interesting incident. That Wash- 
ington had some desire to become her suitor, is a fact which 
rests on the highest authority. 

In Mr. Sparks's Life of the illustrious Commander-in-Chief, 
there is the following passage : " While in New York," in 
1756, Washington " was lodged and kindly entertained at the 
house of Mr. Beverley Robinson, between whom and himself 
an intimacy of friendship subsisted, which, indeed, continued 
without change till severed by their opposite fortunes, twenty 
years afterwards, in the Revolution. It happened that Miss 
Mary Phillips, a sister of Mrs. Robinson, and a young lady 
of rare accomplishments, was an inmate in the family. The 
charms of this lady made a deep impression upon the heart of 
the Virginia Colonel. He went to Boston, returned, and was 
again welcomed to the hospitality of Mr. Robinson. He 
lingered there till duty called him away ; but he was careful 
to entrust his secret to a confidential friend, whose letters kept 
him informed of every important event. In a few months 
intelligence came that a rival was in the field, and that the 
consequences could not be answered for, if he delayed to 
renew his visits to New York. Whether time, the bustle of 
the camp, or the scenes of war, had moderated his admiration, 
or whether he despaired of success, is not known. He never 
saw the lady again till she was married to that same rival, 
Captain Morris, his former associate in arms, and one of 
Braddock's aides-de-camp." In an English work, shown to me 
by Mrs. Morris's relatives in New Brunswick, it is stated that 
she refused Washington. But this is very doubtful ; and the 
passage just cited, which is founded upon Washington's 
papers, seems to utterly disprove the assertion. Imagination 

MORRIS. 107 

dwells upon the outlawry of a lady whose beauty and virtues 
won the admiration of the great Whig Chief. Humanity is 
shocked that a woman was attainted of treason, for no crime 
but that of clinffinff to the fortunes of the husband whom she 
had vowed on the altar of religion never to desert. The 
country-seat of Colonel Morris, which became the head- 
quarters of Washington, " is still standing, (1861,) about ten 
miles from the city, and is well known as the residence of 
Madame Jumel, the widow of Aaron Burr." Did the Com- 
mander-in-Chief muse upon the past, and remember his love 
for Mary Phillips ? 

There is a beautiful portrait of Mrs. Morris at Philips- 
town, in the Highlands, which represents the youthful heroine 
in all her native loveliness. It is in the possession of her 
namesake and grandniece, Mary Phillips, widow of the late 
Samuel Gouverneur, Esq. 1 

Morris, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Comp- 
troller of the Customs. On account of his impaired health, 
November, 1775, he was permitted " to pass and repass to his 
Island" during the pleasure of the Provincial Congress, on 
condition of parole to keep away from the King's ships. A 
Loyalist at St. Augustine, who was place-hunting, wrote to a 
friend in Boston, at this precise time : " There can be no 
vacancy in Carolina but from the death or removal of Mr. 
Morris, the Comptroller. He is old, and willing to retire, but 
he is also hearty ; and a resignation, your brother says, is 
not to be effected in my favor." Mr. Morris went to Eno;- 
land, and died there in 1778. 

Morris, John. Colonel in the New Jersey Volunteers. 
In 1777 he was sent by Sir William Howe to destroy the salt 
works at Tom's River Bridge ; but when informed that the 
property was private, in part, he declined to comply with his 

1 In a conversation with a grandnephew of Mrs. Morris, I remarked : 
"Her fate, how different, had she married Washington!" He replied 
instantly : " You mistake, sir : my aunt Morris had immense influence 
over everybody ; and, had she become the wife of the Leader in the Re- 
bellion which cost our family millions, lie would not have been a Traitor ; 
she would have prevented that, be assured, sir." 


Morris, Theodore. In England in 1779, and directed 
to testify before Parliament, on the inquiry into the conduct 
of Sir William Howe and General Burgoyne while in Amer- 
ica, but was not examined. 

Morris, David. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1817, aged sixty-six years. 

Morrison, John. Of New Hampshire. He was ordained 
at Peterborough in 1766. In 1772 the connection was dis- 
solved, when he visited Charleston, South Carolina. After 
his return, in 1775, he joined the Army at Cambridge, but 
went over to the Crown immediately after the battle of 
Bunker's Hill, and was appointed to a place in the Commis- 
sary Department. In September, 1775, as relates " Draper's 
Gazette," he " received a call to the elegant new church in 
Brattle Street, vacated by the flight of Doctor Cooper." His 
first sermon " was excellent, and delivered to a genteel audi- 
ence," and he designed " to show the fatal consequences of 
sowing sedition and conspiracy among parishioners, which 
this pulpit has been most wickedly practising ever since the 
corner-stone was laid." In 1778 he was proscribed and 
banished under the Act of New Hampshire. He died at 
Charleston, South Carolina, at the close of the year 1782. 
His wife was Sarah Ferguson, of Peterborough. Mrs. Morri- 
son was living in 1822. His son John died in 1794, aged 
twenty-eight, soon after his return from Jamaica. 

Morrison, Alexander. Captain in the North Carolina 
Volunteers. He was a native of Scotland, and emigrated to 
North Carolina after the suppression of the Rebellion in 
1745. After the peace of 1783 he returned to his native 
land, and died at Greenock, in 1805, in his eighty-eight year. 
He assisted McPherson in translating and editing "Ossian." 

Morrison, John. Of Virginia. Planter. Went to 
England, and died there in 1777. 

Morrow, Colonel . Of Boston. He was in 

England in 1776, and in 1783 a Loyalist Refugee ; and was 
a pensioner of the British Government. 

Morse, Rev. Ebenezer. Of Boylston, Massachusetts. 
Congregational minister. Graduated at Harvard University 


in 1737. He was compelled to leave his flock, on account of 
his political sentiments, previous to the beginning of the year 
1780. After quitting his pulpit, he supported his family for a 
time by practising medicine and fitting boys for college. The 
late Rev. Dr. Thaddeus M. Harris was one of his pupils. He 
died in 1802, aged eighty-four. 

Morton, Alexander. A grantee of St. John, New 
Brunswick, in 1783. 

Morton, Lemuel. Of Massachusetts. Settled in Nova 
Scotia, and was a magistrate, and a Major in the militia. 
He died at Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, in 1811. 

Moseley, Rev. Richard. A missionary of the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel. In 1772 he was presented 
by the Grand Jury at Litchfield, Connecticut, " for marrying 
a couple belonging to his parish after the banns were duly 
published and consent of parents obtained." The Court im- 
posed a fine of <£20 for the offence, on the ground that the 
Bishop of London had no authority to license him to officiate 
as a clergyman in Connecticut, because that was a govern- 
ment under a charter. He accordingly removed to Johns- 
town, New York, (under the patronage of Sir William John- 
son,) the same year, and remained there until 1774. From 
a letter of the Baronet to the Rev. Dr. Burton, dated October 
2, 1772, it appears that Mr. Moseley had "lately come to this 
continent in a man-of-war," and that he was " a good kind 
of man." 

Moseley, Isaac. Of Connecticut. Physician. He grad- 
uated at Yale College in 1762, and wdiile in the practice of 
his profession, represented the town of Glastenbury in the 
General Assembly. He published a medical treatise which 
was held in repute. His adherence to the side of the Crown 
was very decided. He went to England during the war, and 
died there in 1806. 

Moses, John. Of Simsbury, Connecticut. Accused of 
enmity to the Whig cause, by the Grand Jurors of that town, 
he was examined by a Court of Inquiry composed of the 
Selectmen and Committee of Inspection, July, 1776, and 

VOL. II. 10 


ordered to surrender his arms, and to recognize to appear 
before the Superior Court for trial. 

Mossman, James. Of Georgia. In the effort to reestab- 
lish the Royal Government, in 1779, he was appointed a mem- 
ber of the Council. 

Mott, Jacob S. After the war, he was King's Printer for 
New Brunswick. He established a paper called " The St. 
John Gazette and General Advertiser." He died at St. John, 
in 1814, aged forty-one. Ann, his widow, died at Brooklyn, 
New York, in 1861, aged eighty-seven. 

Mott. In 1780, Joseph and John, of Queen's County, 
New York, assisted in the capture of the Whig privateer 
Revenue. During the war, William Mott, of Great Neck, 
was robbed and much beaten ; and Adam Mott, (father of 
Samuel,) of Cow Neck, was also visited by a party of marau- 

Moultrie, John. Of South Carolina. Lieut.-Governor 
of Florida. At the solicitation of Governor Grant, he left 
his native Colony and settled in Florida ; where, by the influ- 
ence of his patron, he occupied the second place in the Gov- 
ernment. He was sufficiently loyal. Among the papers in 
the possession of Moses Kirkland, when he was captured and 
carried to Boston, was a letter from Moultrie to Grant, in 
which he said : " By our steady attachment to the mother 
country, we are become an eyesore to our sister colonies, par- 
ticularly to our foolish young sisters Georgia and Carolina ; 
they threatened, and have done everything in their power, to 
starve us." Again : " The Southern people are madder than 
the Northern, though I believe not such great rogues," &c. • 
Still again : "I hope soon to see order drawn out of confusion, 
and restored, and that good men may escape ; but that every 
rogue and vile fool, and every violent opposer, may meet with 
their full and just reward." General William Moultrie, who 
so gallantly defended Sullivan's Island, and defeated the Brit- 
ish fleet under Sir Peter Parker, was his brother. John 
Moultrie was eminent for literature and medical science ; and 
the first Carolinian who obtained a medical decree from the 
University of Edinburgh. 


Mount, John. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was a grantee of that city. He removed to 
Lancaster, in that Province, but died while at St. John, in 
1819, aged fifty-seven. 

Muir, James. Of New York. At the peace, accompa- 
nied by his family of three persons, lie went from New York 
to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted him one 
farm, one town, and one water lot. He died at Shelburne 
about the year 1805, leaving several children, some of whom 
are now (1861) living there. 

Muir, George. Of Virginia. Went to England. He 
was an Addresser of the King; in 1779. 

Muirson, George. Of New York. Estate confiscated. 
Probablv went to England. His oldest son, Dr. James De 
Lancey Muirson, died in London in 1791. 

Mullenox, Thomas. Of West Chester County, New 
York. A " Cow-boy," or one of De Lancey's corps. Tried, 
after the peace, for an offence committed while in service, and 
fined X10 and costs. He stated the facts to the British Con- 
sul, and prayed to be relieved ; since, if that judgment should 
be enforced, other suits for similar acts would follow, to his 
great injury. The papers were laid before Congress. 

Mullens, Thomas. Blacksmith, of Leominster, Massa- 
chusetts. Was proscribed and banished in 1778. A Loyal- 
ist of this name was a grantee of, and died at, St. John, New 
Brunswick, in 1799,- at the age of fifty-four ; and administra- 
tion was granted on his estate the following year. 

Mullryne, John. Of Georgia. Member of the House 
of Assembly. In the effort to reestablish the Roval Govern- 
ment, in 1779, he was appointed a Judge. 

Munday, Nathaniel. In 1782 he was an officer in the 
Queen's Rangers. He was in New Brunswick after the Rev- 
olution, and received half-pay ; but left that Colony, and, as 
is believed, went to Canada. 

Munn. Three, each with a family, went to Shelburne, 
Nova Scotia, in 1783, and received grants of land : namely, 
Benjamin, of Boston ; John, of Philadelphia ; and Alex- 

11 2 MUNRO. — MURRAY. 

ander, a merchant of "Carolina," whose losses, as a Loyal- 
ist, were £2700. 

Munro, Rev. Harry. An Episcopal minister. He gradu- 
ated at the University of St. Andrews, and studied divinity in 
Edinburgh. In 1757 he was admitted to orders in the Kirk 
of Scotland, and appointed Chaplain in the Army. He came 
to America with his regiment in 1759, and after the peace 
was at Princeton, New Jersey. He embraced Episcopacy, 
and in 1764 went to England to receive orders. The Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel gave him the appointment 
to St. John's Church, Yonkers, New York. In 1768 he took 
charge of St. Peter's, Albany; and in 1773, King's College 
conferred the degree of A. M. In 1775 he resigned his pas- 
toral care, and retired to Hebron, New York, where he owned 
land. He applied to the Whig Committee of Albany for 
leave to go to New Jersey or Pennsylvania ; but, considered 
" an enemy to the liberties of America," he was refused. 
Subsequently, however, he was allowed to remove to Canada. 
At the close of the Revolution he returned to Scotland, and 
become Rector of a church in Edinburgh. He died in 1801, 
aged seventy-one years. His grandfather was Laird of Killi- 
choan. His first wife w r as the widow of an officer of the Sev- 
enty-seventh Regiment of Foot ; his second, a Miss Stockton, 
of the distinguished family of that name in New Jersey ; and 
his third, Eve, eldest daughter of Chief Justice John Jay. 
Eve, his widow, survived until 1810. His son, Peter Jay 
Munro, was a distinguished member of the New York bar, 
and died in 1833, aged sixtj^-six. 

Murell, Joseph. Of Pennsylvania. He was tried in 
1778, on the charges of giving intelligence, and of acting as 
a guide to the enemy. He was convicted of the latter, and 
sentenced to immediate death. His execution was subse- 
quently postponed, and probably he finally escaped the pen- 

Murray, Lindley. Of New York. The celebrated 
Grammarian. He was born near Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 
in 1745, of Quaker parents. His father, from owning a flour- 

MURRAY. . 113 

mill, became one of the most respectable merchants of Amer- 
ica, and in 1753 settled at New York. Lindley desired to 
study law, but his wish was opposed, and he entered his father's 
counting-room, and commenced preparing himself for com- 
mercial life. But mercantile pursuits proved so disagreeable 
that he appealed to his father, a second time, to be allowed to 
adopt the profession of the law. The parent yielded, and he 
was placed in the office of Benjamin Kissam, where for about 
two years he was the fellow-student of the illustrious John Jay. 
After four years' study, he was called to the bar, and met with 
success ; but his practice was interrupted by a voyage to Eng- 
land on account of his father's affairs and health. In 1771 he 
returned to New York, and resumed the law. His business 
was very successful, and continued to increase, until the Rev- 
olutionary controversy reached a crisis. He was in a feeble 
state of health at the time of the suspension of proceedings in 
the Courts, and retired from the city to Long Island, where 
he made preparations, at a considerable expense, to begin the 
manufacture of salt ; but Long Island soon after fell into the 
possession of the Royal Army, and the enterprise was aban- 
doned, as salt could then be freely imported from England. 
Dissatisfied at length with his inactive life, and desirous to 
make provision for his family, he returned to the city, which 
was also occupied by the British troops, and embarked in com- 
merce. He continued in New York until about the conclu- 
sion of the war, and accumulated an ample fortune. Retiring 
from business, he purchased a country-seat at Bellevue, three 
miles from the city, where he remained until near the close of 
1784, when he embarked for England. His attachment to 
the home of his fathers, he said, " was founded on many pleas- 
ing associations. In particular, I had strong prepossessions in 
favor of a residence in England, because I was ever partial to 
its political constitution, and the mildness and wisdom of its 
general system of laws." . . . " On leaving my 

native country, there was not, therefore, any land on which I 
could cast my eyes with so much pleasure ; nor is there any 

which could have afforded me so much real satisfaction as I 


114 . MURRAY. 

have found in Great Britain. May its political fabric, which 
has stood the test of ages, and long attracted the admiration 
of the world, be supported and perpetuated by Divine Prov- 

He established his residence at Holdgate, near the city of 
York. In 1787 he published his first work, " The Power of 
Religion on the Mind," which met with favor. Having 
been often solicited to compose a Grammar of the English 
Language, he finally consented to undertake the task, and in 
1795 gave the world the fruit of his labors. A second edition 
was immediately called for, and " Murray's Grammar " soon 
became a standard work. Encouraged to continue his literary 
career, he composed his " Exercises and Key," and published 
both in 1797 ; and in the same year he made an " Abridgment 
of the Grammar." His " English Reader, the Introduction, 
and the Sequel," soon followed, as did his " Spelling Book." 
For these publications he w r as liberally paid by the booksell- 
ers of London, to whom he sold the copyrights. From 1809 
until his decease, a period of more than sixteen years, he was 
wholly confined to his house, except that during this time he 
took an occasional airing. His physical debility was very 
great, and for years his infirmities did not allow him to rise from 
his seat. His mental powers were, in a good measure, unim- 
paired to the last. He died in 1826, in the eighty-first year 
of his age. He was an excellent man. " His life and death 
were blessed, and his memory is blessed." " His literary 
works and his good deeds are a lasting memorial of him." 
His integrity and truthfulness were unimpeachable. His 
benevolence was universal. He was hospitable and generous, 
mild, affectionate, and kind. In a word, he was a true Chris- 
tian. In person he was tall and stout. His appearance was 
prepossessing, his features regular, his manners and address 
courteous. " Some have said, after their first introduction to 
him, that his aspect and demeanor, together with the purity 
and sanctity of his character, recalled to their minds the idea 
of the apostles and other holy men " of the early ages of Chris- 
tianity. Mr. Murray was a member of the Society of Quak- 
ers, or Friends ; and his remains were interred at York, in 

MURRAY. 115 

the burying-ground of that communion. His wife, with 
whom he lived upwards of fifty-eight years, survived him, 
and died at Holdgate, in 1834, aged eighty-six. 

Murray, John. Of Rutland, Massachusetts. He was a 
Colonel in the militia, for many years a member of the Gen- 
eral Court, and in 1774 was appointed a Mandamus Council- 
lor, but was not sworn into office. A party of about five 
hundred, with the Worcester Committee of Correspondence, 
repaired to Rutland, to ask Colonel Murray to resign his seat 
in the Council. On the way, they were joined by nearly one 
thousand persons from other sections. A delegation went to 
the house, and reported that he was absent. A letter was ac- 
cordingly addressed to him, to the effect that, unless his re- 
signation appeared in the Boston papers, he would be waited 
upon again. He abandoned his house on the night of the 
25th of August of that year, and fled to Boston, as I find in 
his own handwriting, in an account-book in the possession of 
a person of his lineage. 

In 1776, with his family of six persons, he accompanied the 
Royal Army to Halifax. In 1778 he was proscribed and 
banished ; and in 1779 he lost his extensive estates under 
the Conspiracy Act. After the Revolution, Colonel Murray 
became a resident of St. John, New Brunswick. He built a 
house in Prince William Street, which (1846) is still stand- 
ing. The lot attached to this dwelling is very large, and the 
market value at the present time is, perhaps, £4000. A 
part of it is (same year) owned by Chief Justice Chip- 
man, and is rented to a horticulturist, who raises flowers for 
sale. The Honorable R. L. Hazen of St. John, a member of 
the Executive Council of New Brunswick, and a grandson of 
Colonel Murray, has his portrait, by Copley. He is repre- 
sented as sitting, and in the full dress of a gentleman of the 
day ; and his person is shown to the knees. There is a hole 
in the wig ; and the tradition in the family is, that a party 
who sought the Colonel at his house after his flight, vexed 
because he had eluded them, vowed they would leave their 
mark behind them, and accordingly pierced the canvas with 
a bayonet. 

116 MURRAY. 

His second wife was Elizabeth McLlanathan, who was 
mother of Alexander, Isabel, Elizabeth, Robert, John, Dan- 
iel, Samuel, Martha, a second John, and a second Robert ; 
his third wife, Lucretia Chandler, bore one daughter, Lu- 
cretia, who died unmarried ; his fourth wife was Debo- 
rah Bronley, of Boston, who was mother of one daughter, 
Deborah. Mrs. Dolly Chandler, of Lancaster, Massachu- 
setts, has a portrait of his third wife, also by Copley, which 
represents a large part of her person, in brocade silk, full 
flowing sleeves, showing the forearm, dress very low, and cut 
square at the bust. " An exceedingly good old painting of 
a very handsome person," remarks my informant. Colonel 
Murray was allowed a pension of £200 per annum. His 
estates, valued at £23,367 17s. 9c?., were confiscated, except 
one farm for his Whig son Alexander. He died at or near 
St. John in 1794. 

The descendants of Colonel Murray, in New Brunswick, 
have also several relics of the olden time, not destitute of 
interest. Among them are articles of silver-plate of a by- 
gone fashion, books of accounts, business memoranda, muster- 
rolls, or list of officers of the regiment which he commanded, 
deeds of his estates, &c. Of the latter, there are no less than 
twenty-two of his lands in Rutland, and several of property 
in Athol. One of the deeds is stamped, but it bears date 
some years previous to the passage of the odious Stamp Act. 
The manner in which Colonel Murray kept his books and 
papers, shows that he was a careful, calculating, and exact 
man in his transactions ; method is seen in everything. 
In person, he was about six feet three inches high, and well 
proportioned. In Massachusetts he was a principal man in 
his section, and one of the country gentlemen or colonial 
noblemen, who lived upon their estates in a style which has 
passed away. The wife of the Hon. Daniel Bliss, and the 
first wife of the Hon. Joshua Upham, — Loyalists mentioned 
in these pages, — were his daughters. 

Daniel Murray, his administrator, sued Jonathan Ware in 
the Circuit Court of the United States, on a bond, and re- 

MURRAY. 117 

covered judgment. As Ware was bound to Massachusetts 
for the same debt, under the Confiscation Act, and had 
actually paid a part, he was relieved, by a resolve of the 
Legislature, in 1807. 

Murray, Daniel. Of Brookfield, Massachusetts. Son 
of Colonel John. He graduated at Harvard University in 
1771. In July, 1775, he applied to Washington for leave 
for his sister and two of his brothers to go into Boston, The 
Commander-in-Chief, unacquainted with the circumstances of 
the case, referred the subject to the Committee of Safety, and 
that body laid the application before the Provincial Congress, 
when the request was refused. Mr. Murray subsequently 
entered the military service of the Crown, and was Major of 
the King's American Dragoons. In 1778 he was proscribed 
and banished. At the peace he retired on half-pay. In 
1792 he was a member of the House of Assembly of New 
Brunswick. In 1803 he left that Colony, in embarrassed cir- 
cumstances. He died at Portland, Maine, in 1832. 

Murray, Samuel. Son of Colonel John. Graduated at 
Harvard University in 1772. He was with the British troops 
at Lexington in 1775, and was taken prisoner. In a General 
Order, dated at Cambridge, June 15, 1775, it was directed 
"That Samuel Murray be removed from jail in Worcester to 
his father's homestead in Rutland, the limits of which he is 
not to pass until further orders." In 1778 he was proscribed 
and banished. He died previous to 1785. 

Murray, Robert. Son of Colonel John. In 1782 he 
was a Lieutenant of the King's American Dragoons. He 
settled in New Brunswick, and died there, of consumption, 
in 1786. 

Murray, John. Son of Colonel John. In 1782 he was 
a Captain in the King's American Dragoons. After the 
Revolution he was an officer of the Fifty-fourth Regiment, 
British Army. 

Murray, James. Captain in the Queen's Rangers. Died 
at Norfolk, Virginia, in 1789. 

Murray, William. Of Virginia. Merchant. Went to 
Edinburgh. Died at London in 1791. 


Murray, . Of North Carolina. Captain in a 

Loyalist corps. Killed in 1780, in the battle of Ramsour's 

Murray, Alexander. An Episcopal minister. He was 
stationed, by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, at 
Reading, Pennsylvania, from 1764 to the Revolution, when 
most of the churches of his communion were closed. In 1778 
went to England. 

Mussels, William. King's pilot in New York harbor. 
Removed to Nova Scotia. Descendants are living at Gran- 
ville in that Province. 

Myer, Peter. Ensign in the New Jersey Volunteers. 
Killed in 1779, on an excursion to " steal horses and rob the 
people " of the county of Bergen, New Jersey. 

Nagle, Peter. Of the Continental Army. Sentenced 
to death, in 1777, for attempting to join the side of the 

Nairn, David. Of New York. Went to Shelburne, 
Nova Scotia. Bachelor and miser. Accumulated a large 
property, a part of which was in money, and was con- 
cealed. He died in 1824. A brother, in Scotland, was his 

Nardin, John. Of Pennsylvania. Deserted from the 
State galleys. Joined the British in Philadelphia. Captured 
at sea. In prison in 1779, and to be tried for treason. 

Nase, Henry. Of New York. He joined the Royal 
Army, at King's Bridge, in 1776, and served six years in 
the King's American Regiment. In 1783 he settled in New 
Brunswick ; was Lieutenant-Colonel in the militia, and filled 
several civil offices. He died in King's County, in that Prov- 
ince, in 1836, aged eighty-four. Before entering the service 
of the Crown, his loyalty involved him in much trouble with 
his Whig neighbors ; and he was a great sufferer by the events 
which made his country free, but himself an exile. 

Neilson, Archibald. Of North Carolina. An intimate 
and confidential friend of Governor Martin, and a gentleman 
of ability and culture. In October, 1775, he was appointed 


Naval Officer, in place of Samuel Johnston, superseded ; and 
the next month sailed for Great Britain in the ship Greorge. 
He intended to return, but was prevented by the success of 
the Whigs. In February, 1790, he was at Dundee, Scotland ; 
and wrote that he might be called " a devilish unlucky fellow ; " 
for, save friends, he made nothing while in America, had re- 
covered nothing of the Government for his losses, and was still 
unmarried. Discoursing in a graver mood, he lamented that 
a trunk, left in North Carolina, had been plundered of the 
letter of his dying father, when he himself was but four years 
old, which contained words of affection, and which, until his 
flight, had always been his companion in all his travels. He 
died at Dundee. 

Nelson, John. Of Maine. A pedler, who lived in 
Warren, and who employed two horses to carry his goods. 
The war interrupted his business, and he joined the British. 
At the peace, his townsmen gave him written leave to return, 
of which he availed himself, but finally removed to Reading, 

Nelson, Theophilus. Of New York. Proscribed for 
his loyalty ; restored to citizenship, by Act of the Legislature, 
on taking the oath of abjuration and allegiance. 

Nelson, Robert. Of North Carolina. Went to Eng- 
land ; a Loyalist Addresser of the King, at London, July, 

Nesbett, William. Of South Carolina. An Addresser 
of Sir Henry Clinton. Banished, and estate confiscated. 

Nesbett, Sir John. Estate in the possession of his heirs 
or devisees confiscated under the Act of 1782. 

Newberry, . A Tory sergeant in the British 

service. In 1778, the daughter of a Mr. Mitchell, of Cherry 
Valley, a little girl of ten or twelve years old, in the massacre 
of the family by the Indians, was left alive, though wounded 
and much mangled. Newberry, by a blow of his hatchet, 
put an end to her life. He fell into the hands of General 
James Clinton, at Canajoharie, the next year, and was exe- 


Newble, James. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1821, aged ninety-four years. 

Newcomb, Silas. Of New Jersey. He acknowledged to 
the Committee of Cumberland County that tea was used in 
his family, and declared his purpose to continue the practice ; 
whereupon the Committee, after " much time spent in vain 
to convince him of his error," published him, that all persons 
might break off dealings with him, and that he might be 
known as unfriendly to American liberty. He repented, sub- 
sequently, and signed a " recantation " ; but a " recanter " 
was still a Loyalist. 

Newton, Richard. He was a prisoner in Boston Jail, 
July, 1776, and appealed to the Council of Massachusetts for 
relief and liberty. He stated that no allowance of any kind 
had been made him ; that he had sold his watch and clothing 
to procure food ; and that, unless the Council interposed, he 
should certainly starve. Just a month after the date of his 
petition he was released. 

Nicholson, Arthur. A Cornet in the King's Amer- 
ican Dragoons, and Adjutant of the Corps. He settled 
in New Brunswick ; received half-pay ; and died in that 

Nicoll, J. Of Newport, Rhode Island. Comptroller of 
the Customs from 1767 to hostilities. His difficulties with the 
popular party were incessant. In one case he fled on board 
the Cygnet sloop-of-war, and refused to return to duty without 
promise of protection. 

Nicoll, Charles. Of New York. Arrested and sent to 
Connecticut ; released on parole. 

Nicoll, Henry. Of Brookhaven. Manager of a lottery 
for the benefit of a church in that town, in 1783, by permis- 
sion of Governor Robertson. 

Noble, Francis. Of Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Was 
proscribed and banished in 1778. He settled at St. John, New 
Brunswick, in 1788, and was a grantee of that city. Benja- 
min was a twin-brother. 

Noble, Benjamin. Of Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Was 


proscribed and banished in 1778. The time and place of his 
death unknown ; the family account, however, is, that he 
went to New York by water, and was killed there before the 
peace. His wife was Mary Bates ; his children were Han- 
nah, Betsey, and Benjamin. The latter was living at Water- 
town, Connecticut, in 1852. 

Norrice, Henry. Of Pennsylvania. Was tried in 1778, 
on a charge of supplying the Royal Army with provisions, 
and found guiltv. He was sentenced to confinement and to 
hard labor for one month ; and in addition, to the payment of 
£50 for the use of the sick of the Whig camp. 

Northrup, Benajah. Of Connecticut. Settled in New 
Brunswick in 1723, and died at Kingston, in 1838, aged eighty- 
eight, leaving fourteen children, one hundred and eighteen 
grandchildren, and one hundred and eleven great-grandchil- 

Norton, Asa. Of Reading, Connecticut. A Physician. 
Member of the Loyalist Association. 

Norton, . Of Long Island, New York. A " Cow- 
boy," named Norton, killed a fellow " Cow-boy," named Eli- 
sha Brown, in an affray, in 1783, and escaped. 

Nutman, Captain. Of Essex County, New Jersey. He 
met the British troops with shouts of joy, and was robbed by 
them of almost everything he possessed. 

Nutting, Joseph. Was Collector of Taxes of the city 
of St. John, New Brunswick, and died there in 1826, aged 

Nutting, John. Of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Was 
proscribed and banished in 1778. Administration on estate 
of a person of this name at Newport, Nova Scotia, in the 
year 1800. 

Oats, Edward. Of South Carolina. Died previous to 
1785. Estate confiscated ; but the General Assembly gave 
a part to Elizabeth, his widow. 

Ochterlony, Sir David, Baronet. Major-General in 
the Army of the East India Company, and Knight of Grand 
Cross of the Bath. He was the eldest son of David Ochter- 

VOL. II. 11 

122 ODELL. 

lony, of Boston, and was at the Latin School of that town in 
1766. At the age of eighteen he went to India as a Cadet, 
and in 1778 was appointed an Ensign. In 1781 he was 
Quartermaster to the 71st Regiment of Foot. During the 
twenty years that succeeded, he was exposed to all the dan- 
ger and fatigue of incessant service in the East. He attained 
the rank of Major in 1800, and of Lieutenant-Colonel in 
1808. His commission of Major-General bears date June 1, 
1814. In 1817 he received the thanks of both Houses of 
Parliament. His health, after nearly fifty years of uninter- 
rupted military duty, became impaired, and he resigned a 
political office in India, with the intention of proceeding to 
Calcutta, and thence to England. This plan he did not live 
to execute. He died at Meerut, in 1825, while there for a 
change of air. Sir David was never married. His title de- 
scended to Charles Metcalfe Ochterlony, to whom it was 

Odell, Rev. Jonathan. Of New Jersey. Episcopal 
minister. In " Craft's Journal," under date of 1771, it is said, 
" Episcopal Parson Odell commenced Doctor of Physic." 

In 1775 he was charged with writing letters to England, 
and was examined by the Provincial Congress of New Jersey, 
and by the Committee of Safety of Pennsylvania ; and a 
year later he was ordered to confine himself on parole, on 
the east side of the Delaware, within a circle of eight miles 
from the Court-House in Burlington. At a later period he 
was Chaplain to a Loyalist corps. Arnold wrote a letter to 
Andre, August 30, 1780, " To be left at the Reverend Mr. 
Odell's, New York " ; a copy of which may be found in 
Sparks's " Washington." In 1782 standards were presented 
to the King's American Dragoons, with imposing ceremonies, 
and Mr. Odell delivered an address in the presence of Prince 
William Henry (William the Fourth, subsequently,) and 
many distinguished officers of the British Army and Navy. 

At the close of the war, the subject of this notice retired 
to Nova Scotia ; and when that Province was divided he was 
appointed Provincial Secretary, Register, and Clerk of the 
Council of New Brunswick. In the annals of the last men- 

OGDEN. 123 

tioned Province, he is called the " Honorable and Reverend 
Jonathan Odell." 

He died in 1818. His daughter, Lucv Ann, wife of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Rudyerd, of the Royal Engineers, died at 
Halifax in 1829. His widow, Anne, died at Fredericton, in 
1825, aged eighty-five. His son, Franklin William Odell, 
who was his successor as Secretary, and held the office for 
thirty-two years, died at Fredericton, in 1844, at the age of 
seventy. Mary, his oldest daughter, died at Maugerville, in 
1848, in her seventy-sixth year. The political poetry of Mr. 
Odell, published principally in "Rivington's Gazette," during 
the Revolution, attracted notice at the time ; and now (1860) 
we have the " Loyal Verses of Stansbury and Odell," edited 
by Winthrop Sargent. 

Ogden, Robert. Of New Jersey. Speaker of the House 
of Assembly. He was a member of the Stamp Act Con- 
gress, so called, and refused to sanction the proceedings of 
the majority. An attempt was made, at his instance, to con- 
ceal his defection, but without success. He was accordingly 
burned in effigy in several places in New Jersey, and was 
removed from the Speaker's chair at the next meeting of the 


Ogden, David. A member of his Majesty's Council and 
a Judge of the Supreme Court of New Jersey. His ances- 
tors settled in New England at an early period, and thence 
removed to Long Island and New Jersey. His father, Jo- 
siah Ogden, was a member of the House of Assembly of 
New Jersey many years. He was born at Newark, in 1707, 
and graduated at Yale College in 1728. He studied law, 
" rose rapidly in his profession," and became " one of its 
brightest ornaments." At one time, indeed, he stood con- 
fessedly at the head of the bar of his native Colony ; and if, 
in the city of New York, " he had an equal, he certainly had 
no superior." In 1772 he was appointed a Judge of the 
Supreme Court, " and probably no man ever brought to that 
station qualifications of a higher order." Driven from the 
Bench by the force of events, he fled to the British Army in 

124 OGDEN. 

New York, and remained there during the war. After Gal- 
loway, the celebrated Loyalist of Pennsylvania, retired to 
England, he was a correspondent, and his letters betray much 
bitterness of feeling. 

In 1778 he addressed a memorial to the Lords of the Treas- 
ury, in which he spoke of his services in the Council and 
on the Bench, and of his having been plundered by the 
" Rebels ; " and in which he prayed for the grant of a salary, 
or such other relief as their Lordships should see fit to afford, 
in order that he might support the dignity of his station. 
This paper was transmitted by Governor Franklin, with an 
assurance that Mr. Ogden was a proper object for the Royal 
bounty. A year later, the Board of Refugees, composed of 
delegates from the several Colonies, was established, and he 
became an efficient member. He devised the outlines of a 
plan for the government of America after her submission to 
Great Britain, an event w T hich he deemed " certain and soon 
to happen, if proper measures were not neglected." That 
plan is curious in many respects, and is here inserted. It 
proposed : " That the right of taxation of America by the 
British Parliament be given up. That the several Colonies 
be restored to their former constitutions and forms of govern- 
ment, except in the instances after mentioned. That each 
Colony have a Governor and Council appointed by the Crown, 
and a House of Representatives to be elected by the free- 
holders, inhabitants of the several counties, not more than 
forty, nor less than thirty for a Colony, who shall have power 
to make all necessary laws for the internal government and 
benefit of each respective Colony, that are not repugnant or 
contradictory to the laws of Great Britain, or the laws of the 
American Parliament, made and enacted to be in force in the 
Colonies for the government, utility, and safety of the whole. 
That an American Parliament be established for all the Eng- 
lish Colonies on the continent, to consist of a Lord Lieutenant, 
Barons (to be created for the purpose) not to exceed, at pres- 
ent, more than twelve, nor less than eight from each Colony, 
to be appointed by his Majesty out of the freeholders and 

OGDEN. 125 

inhabitants of each Colony ; a House of Commons, not to 
exceed twelve, nor less than eight from each Colony, to be 
elected by the respective Houses of Representatives for each 
Colony ; which Parliament, so constituted, to be three branches 
of legislature of the Northern Colonies, and to be styled and 
called the Lord Lieutenant, the Lords, and Commons of the 
British Colonies in North America. That they have the 
power of enacting laws in all cases whatsoever, for the gen- 
eral good, benefit, and security of the Colonies, and for their 
mutual safety, both defensive and offensive, against the King's 
enemies, rebels, &c. ; proportioning the taxes to be raised in 
such cases by each Colony. The mode for raising the same 
to be enacted by the General Assembly of each Colony, 
which, if refused or neglected, be directed and prescribed by 
the North American Parliament, with power to levy the same. 
That the laws of the American Parliament shall be in force 
till repealed by his Majesty in Council ; and the laws of the 
several Legislatures of the respective Colonies to be in force 
till the same be repealed by his Majesty, or made void by an 
act and law of the American Parliament. That the Amer- 
ican Parliament have the superintendence and government of 
the several colleges in North America, most of which have 
been the grand nurseries of the late rebellion, instilling into 
the tender minds of youth principles favorable to republican, 
and against a monarchical government, and other doctrines 
incompatible to the British Constitution." 

Mr. Ogden went to England, and was agent of the New 
Jersey Loyalists for prosecuting their claims to compensation 
for losses. His own estate, which was large and valuable, was 
confiscated, but a liberal allowance was made him by the 
British Government. In 1790 he returned to the United 
States and settled on Long Island, where he died in the year 
1800, aged ninety-three. He left several sons, two of whom 
were of his own profession. Of Isaac, presently. Abraham 
lived at Newark, and was distinguished ; he was United 
States District Attorney under the administration of Washing- 
ton. " As a jury lawyer he is said to have been unrivalled." 

11 * 

126 OGDEN. 

He died suddenly in 1798. Samuel, another son, who mar- 
ried a sister of Gouverneur and Lewis Morris, and who was 
father of David B. Ogden, an eminent advocate, " was a 
man of considerable distinction." 

Ogden, Isaac. Of New York. Son of David Ogden. 
Barrister-at-law. Hamilton said of him, in 1777, that he 
was " one of the most barefaced, impudent fellows that ever 
came under his observation." After Galloway went to Eng- 
land, Ogden was one of his correspondents. In a letter 
dated at New York, November, 1778, he said : " The 
rebellion hangs by a slender thread. The majority of the 
inhabitants dissatisfied with their tyrannical government. 
Their money depreciating ; the French Alliance in general 
detested ; provisions scarce, and that scarcity increasing. 
(Butler has not contributed a little to it. He has lately 
offered to join General Clinton . . . and will keep hover- 
ing about our frontiers till he gets an answer. A few 
Butlers would do the business.) In this situation what is 
necessary to crush the rebellion ? It is easily answered. 
Only one vigorous campaign, properly conducted." He re- 
moved to Canada, where for many years he was a Judge 
of the Court of King's Bench. He died at Montreal. 
Three of his sons are (1854) living : namely, Peter Skene, 
a chief factor in the Hudson's Bay Company ; Isaac Gouver- 
neur, Sheriff of the District of Three Rivers ; and Charles 
Richard, formerly Attorney-General of Lower Canada, and 
now holding a high legal office in the Isle of Man. 

Ogden, Jonathan. Settled in New Brunswick in 1783, 
and died at Greenwich, King's County, November, 1845, 
aged ninety-seven. Mary, his widow, died at the same place, 
August, 1846, aged eighty-one. "They were both among 
the faithful and intrepid band of Loyalists, who, for their un- 
shaken attachment to the Throne and Constitution of Great 
Britain, suffered much in their early days." 

Ogden, David. He was principal clerk of the Post-office 
Department of the Colonies, and was considered to be in 
office in 1782, certainly, and probably till the peace. 


Ogden, James. Of South River, New Jersey. When, in 
1781, a considerable part of the Pennsylvania Line became 
discontented, he acted as the guide of the emissary, John 
Morris, who was sent by Sir Henry Clinton to seduce them. 
Instead of meeting the overture, they surrendered Ogden and 
his associate to General Wayne ; and, January 10th, both 
were tried as spies, convicted, and hung the next day, " at 
the Cross Roads, from the upper ferry from Trenton to Phil- 
adelphia, at the four lane ends." The Court of Inquiry was 
ordered by Lord Stirling, and consisted of Generals Wayne 
and Irvine, Colonels Butler and Stewart, and Major Fish- 

Ogden, Peter. Of New York. Was Secretary of the 
Police Department of the city in 1782. 

Ogden, Benjamin. Of Westchester County, New York. 
A Protester at White Plains. Benjamin Ogden, Justice of 
the Court of Common Pleas, died at Antigonish, Nova Scotia, 
in 1835. 

Ogilvie, Rev. John, D. D. Of New York. Episcopal 
minister. He was born in the city of New York in 1722, 
and graduated at Yale College in 1748. He was employed 
by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts, as a missionary to the Mohawk Indians, as early as 
1753, at a salary of <£50. In the year mentioned, he wrote 
that his " labors at Albany are not unsuccessful ; " that he 
had " prevailed upon the young people to attend catechizings 
on Sunday evenings, to the number of forty ; " but that 
" the troublesome situation of affairs had prevented any im- 
mediate public resolutions in relation to the education of the 
Indian children." He said, further, that on his " first coming 
among them, he had selected one of their boys of the most 
promising capacity, clothed and maintained him, taught him 
to speak English tolerably well, and to read in the Psalter, 
when his parents took him away, lest, as they declared, he 
might learn to despise his nation." In 1765 he succeeded the 
Rev. Doctor Barclay as Rector of Trinity Church, New 
York. In 1771, with others, he advocated the appointment 


of Bishops for the Colonies, in an Address to the Episco- 
palians of Virginia. He died at New York, in 1774. One 
who knew him while he was stationed among the Mohawks 
thus speaks : " His appearance was singularly prepossessing ; 
his address and manners entirely those of a gentleman. His 
abilities were respectable, his doctrine was pure and scrip- 
tural, and his life exemplary, both as a clergyman and in his 
domestic circle, where he was peculiarly amiable ; add to all 
this a talent for conversation, extensive reading, and a thor- 
ough knowledge of life." A portrait of him, by Copley, is 
still preserved in the vestry office of Trinity Church. 

Ogilvie, George. Of New York. Son of the Rev. 
Dr. John. He graduated at King's (Columbia) College in 
1774, and was an officer in a Loyalist corps. After the war 
he took orders, and was Rector of several Episcopal 
churches. He died at Rye, New York, in 1797. 

Oldham, Thomas. Of Chowan, North Carolina. His 
property was confiscated in 1779. He was a member of the 
House of Assembly ; and seems at first to have been with 
the Whigs, since he had a seat in the Convention which 
approved of the proceedings of the Continental Congress, 
and which Governor Martin denounced by proclamation. 

Olive, William. A member of the Loyal Artillery, St. 
John, New Brunswick, in 1795. He died at Carleton, in 
that Province, in 1822. 

Oliver, Peter. He was born in 1718, and graduated 

at Harvard University in 1730. Though not educated a 

lawyer, he was appointed Chief Justice of Massachusetts in 

1756 ; and in McFingal it is asked, — 

" Did Heaven appoint our chief judge Oliver, 
Fill that high bench with ignoramus, 
Or has it councils by mandamus ? " 

Judge Oliver was proscribed and banished, and his estate 
was confiscated. In addition to his judicial station he was a 
Mandamus Councillor. He went to Halifax at the evacua- 
tion of Boston in 1776. Subsequently he embarked for Eng- 
land. Of the five Judges of the Superior Court of Massa- 

OLIVER. 129 

chusetts at the Revolutionary era, four, to wit, the subject of 
this notice, Edmund Trowbridge, Foster Hutchinson, and 
William Browne, were Loyalists. The Whig member of the 
Court was William Cushing. In 1774 Oliver was im- 
peached by the Legislature for refusing to receive, as usual, a 
grant for his services from the Colonial Treasury, and because 
he would not engage to accept of any emolument from the 
Crown. Judges at this time wore swords, robes, &c, while 
on the Bench. He died in England in 1791. 

Oliver, Peter, Jr. Son of Chief Justice Peter Oliver, 
of Massachusetts. Graduated at Harvard University in 

1761. One of the eighteen country gentlemen who were 
driven into Boston, and who were Addressers of Gage in 
1775. He was proscribed and banished in 1778, and is 
styled in the Act of Middleborough, physician. His father 
died possessed of the only perfect MS. of " Hubbard's History 
of New England," and when, in 1814, the Massachusetts 
Historical Society determined, with the patronage of the 
Legislature, to publish that work, application was made to 
Doctor Oliver to give or lend his copy, or at least to permit 
a transcript of such parts of it as were missing in the Ameri- 
can MS., but he returned a surly answer, refusing to comply 
with either request, and, of consequence, we have " Hub- 
bard " mutilated at the beginning and at the end. The cor- 
respondence on the subject is very properly preserved in the 
Society's Collections. He died at Shrewsbury, England, in 
1822, aged eighty-one. 

Oliver, Daniel. Of Massachusetts. Son of Chief Jus- 
tice Peter Oliver. Graduated at Harvard University in 

1762. Studied law, and settled in Worcester County. Went 
to England, and died there in 1826, aged eighty-two. 

Oliver, Thomas. Of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Was 
born in Dorchester, and graduated at Harvard University in 
1753. He lived in great retirement, and mingled but little 
in public affairs. But after the decease of Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor Andrew Oliver, of a different family, in 1774, he was 
appointed his successor, and was the last Royal Lieutenant- 

130 OLIVER. 

Governor, and President of the Council of Massachusetts. 
As his appointment as Councillor was by the King's writ of 
mandamus, and contrary to the charter, which provided for 
the election of members of the Council, he became an object 
of popular resentment. He detailed the course pursued 
against him, in consequence of being sworn into office, in the 
following narrative, dated September 7, 1774, which, as 
giving his version, and as throwing light on the transactions 
of the times, is inserted entire. It is an answer to the Whig 
account of the occurrences at Cambridge on the 2d of Sep- 
tember, and, as will be seen, is very full and explicit : — 

" Early in the morning" (of September 2d), said he, " a 
number of the inhabitants of Charlestown called at my house 
to acquaint me that a large body of people from several towns 
in the county were on their way coming down to Cambridge ; 
that they were afraid some bad consequences might ensue, 
and begged I would go out to meet them, and endeavor to 
prevail on them to return. In a very short time, before I 
could prepare myself to go, they appeared in sight. I went 
out to them, and asked the reasons of their appearance in that 
manner ; they respectfully answered, they ' came peaceably 
to inquire into their grievances, not with design to hurt any 
man.' I perceived they were landholders of the neighboring 
towns, and was thoroughly persuaded they would do no harm. 
I was desired to speak to them ; I accordingly did, in such a 
manner as I thought best calculated to quiet their minds. 
They thanked me for my advice, said they were no mob, but 
sober, orderly people, who would commit no disorders ; and 
then proceeded on their way. I returned to my house. Soon 
after they had arrived on the Common at Cambridge, a re- 
port arose that the troops were on their march from Boston ; 
I was desired to go and intercede with his Excellenc} r to pre- 
vent their coming. From principles of humanity to the 
country, from a general love of mankind, and from persua- 
sions that they were orderly people, I readily undertook it ; 
and is there a man on earth, who, placed in my circumstances, 
could have refused it? I am informed I am censured for 

OLIVER. 131 

having advised the General to a measure which may reflect 
on the troops, as being too inactive upon such a general dis- 
turbance ; but surely such a reflection on a military man can 
never arise but in the minds of such as are entirely ignorant 
of these circumstances. Wherever this affair is known, it 
must also be known it was my request the troops should not 
be sent, but to return ; as I passed the people I told them, of 
my own accord, I would return and let them know the event 
of my application (not, as was related in the papers, to confer 
with them on my own circumstances as President of the 
Council). On my return I went to the Committee, I told 
them no troops had been ordered, and from the account I had 
given his Excellency, none would be ordered. I was then 
thanked for the trouble I had taken in the affair, and was 
just about to leave them to their own business, when one of 
the Committee observed, that as I was present it might be 
proper to mention a matter they had to propose to me. It 
was, that although they had a respect for me as Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Province, they could wish I would resign 
my seat. I told them I took it very unkind that they should 
mention anything on that subject ; and among other reasons 
I urged, that, as Lieutenant-Governor, I stood in a particular 
relation to the Province in general, and therefore could not 
hear anything upon that matter from a particular county. I 
was then pushed to know if I would resign when it appeared 
to be the sense of the Province in general ; I answered, that 
when all the other Councillors had resigned, if it appeared to 
be the sense of the Province I should resign, I would submit. 
They then called for a vote upon the subject, and, by a very 
great majority, voted my reasons satisfactory. I inquired 
whether they had full power to act for the people, and being 
answered in the affirmative, I desired they would take care to 
acquaint them of their votes, that I should have no further 
application made to me on that head. I was promised by 
the Chairman, and a general assent, it should be so. This 
left me entirely clear and free from any apprehensions of a 
farther application upon this matter, and perhaps will account 

132 OLIVER. 

for that confidence which I had in the people, and for which 
I may he censured. Indeed, it is true, the event proves I 
had too much ; but reasoning from events yet to come, is a 
kind of reasoning I have not been used to. In the afternoon 
I observed large companies pouring in from different parts ; 
I then began to apprehend they would become unmanageable, 
and that it was expedient to go out of their way. I was just 
going into my carriage when a great crowd advanced, and in 
a short time my house was surrounded by three or four thou- 
sand people, and one quarter part in arms. I went to the 
front door, where I was met by five persons, who acquainted 
me they were a Committee from the people to demand a re- 
signation of my seat at the Board. I was shocked at their 
ingratitude and false dealings, and reproached them with it. 
They excused themselves by saying the people were dissatis- 
fied with the vote of the Committee, and insisted on my 
signing a paper they had prepared for that purpose. I found 
I had been ensnared, and endeavored to reason them out of 
such ungrateful behavior. They gave such answers, that I 
found it was in vain to reason longer with them ; I told them 
my first considerations were for my honor, the next for my 
life ; that they might put me to death or destroy my property, 
but I would not submit. They began then to reason in their 
turn, urging the power of the people, and the danger of op- 
posing them. All this occasioned a delay, which enraged 
part of the multitude, who, pressing into my back yard, de- 
nounced vengeance to the foes of their liberties. The Com- 
mittee endeavored to moderate them, and desired them to 
keep back, for they pressed up to my windows, which then 
were opened ; I could from thence hear them at a distance 
calling out for a determination, and, with their arms in their 
hands, swearing they would -have my blood if I refused. The 
Committee appeared to be anxious for me, still I refused to 
sign ; part of the populace growing furious, and the distress 
of my family who heard their threats, and supposed them just 
about to be executed, called up feelings which I could not 
suppress ; and nature, ready to find new excuses, suggested a 

OLIVER. 133 

thought of the calamities I should occasion if I did not com- 
ply ; 1 found myself giving way, and began to cast about to 
contrive means to come off with honor. I proposed they 
should call in the people to take me out by force, but they 
said the people were enraged, and they would not answer 
for the consequences. I told them I w r ould take the risk, but 
they refused to do it. Reduced to this extremity, I cast my 
eyes over the paper, with a hurry of mind and conflict of 
passion which rendered me unable to remark the contents, 
and wrote underneath the following words : ' My house at 
Cambridge being surrounded by four thousand people, in 
compliance with their commands, I sign my name, Thomas 
Oliver.' The five persons took it, carried it to the people, 
and, I believe, used their endeavors to get it accepted. I had 
several messages that the people would not accept it with 
those additions, upon which I walked into the court-yard, and 
declared I would do no more, though they should put me to 
death. I perceived that those persons who formed the first 
body which came down in the morning, consisting of the 
landholders of the neighboring towns, used their utmost 
endeavors to get the paper received with my additions ; and 
I must, in justice to them, observe, that, during the whole 
transaction, they had never invaded my enclosures, but still 
w T ere not able to protect me from other insults which I re- 
ceived from those who were in arms. From this considera- 
tion I am induced to quit the country, and seek protection in 
the town." 

The document presented to Mr. Oliver on the 2d of Sep- 
tember, and which he signed, was as follows : " I, Thomas 
Oliver, being appointed by his Majesty to a seat at the 
Council Board, upon, and in conformity to the late Act of 
Parliament, entitled an ' Act for the better regulation of the 
Province of Massachusetts Bay,' which being a manifest in- 
fringement of the Charter rights and privileges of this peo- 
ple, I do hereby, in conformity to the commands of the body 
of this county now convened, most solemnly renounce and 
resign my seat at said unconstitutional Board, and hereby 

VOL. II. 12 

134 OLIVER. 

firmly promise and engage, as a man of honor and a Chris- 
tian, that I never will hereafter, npon any terms whatsoever, 
accept a seat at said Board on the present novel and oppres- 
sive plan of Government." To this, the original form, he 
added the words above recited. Judge Danforth and Judge 
Lee, who were also Mandamus Councillors, and Mr. Phipps, 
the sheriff, and Mr. Mason, clerk of the county, were com- 
pelled to submit to the same body, and make written resigna- 

Governor Oliver, as stated by himself, went into Boston, 
and made assurances both to General Gage and to the Ad- 
miral on the station, which prevented a body of troops from 
being sent to disperse the large body of people who assembled 
at Cambridge on this occasion ; and to these assurances it 
was owing, undoubtedly, that the day passed without blood- 
shed. But for the peaceable demeanor of those whom he 
met in the morning, — the landholders of the neighboring 
towns, — the first collision between the King's troops and 
the inhabitants of Massachusetts, would have occurred, very 
likely, at Cambridge, and not at Lexington. A detachment 
was sent to the former town the day before, to bring off some 
pieces of cannon, and from this circumstance arose, princi- 
pally, the proceedings related by Governor Oliver. Indig- 
nant because the " redcoats " had been sent upon such an 
errand, thousands from the surrounding country assembled in 
the course of the day, (September 2d,) armed with guns, 
sticks, and other weapons ; and when the Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor's promise on his return from Boston, rendered it certain 
that they would not be opposed by the troops, they exacted 
from every official who lived at Cambridge full compliance 
with their demands, as has been stated. 

From this period Governor Oliver lived in Boston, until 
March, 1776, when at the evacuation he accompanied the 
Royal Army to Halifax, and took passage thence to England. 
In a letter to David Phips, dated London, July, 1776, he 
said, " I found Mrs. Oliver well, and settled in a little snug 
house at Brompton But I shall continue here 

OLIVER. 135 

no longer than I am able to find an economical retreat. I 
have not had time to look about me yet ; some cheaper part of 
England must be the object of my inquiry." Later the same 
year, he had lodgings in Jermyn Street. In 1778 he was pro- 
scribed and banished ; and the year following was included in 
the Conspiracy Act. His estate was confiscated. He visited 
the Courts often, and as he saw Lord Mansfield's train borne 
by a gentleman, he could but have thought of his own fallen 
condition. He had letters from Doctor Elliott, " conceived 
in the Whig strain," which were seen by fellow-Loyalists. In 
February, 1782, he was at Birmingham, and, writing for some 
snuff, he said : "I am much obliged to you for your care and 
trouble for an irritating powder for an American Refugee, and 
doubt not that it be of a more agreeable nature than the so 
many irritables we have all turned up our noses at for five or 
six years past." He died at Bristol, England, November 29, 
1815, aged eighty-two. Elizabeth, his wife, a daughter of 
Colonel John Vassall, of Cambridge, died at the same place 
in 1808. His elegant mansion at Cambridge was occupied 
by Governor Gerry for many years. It is said that he was 
a gentleman of great mildness of temper and politeness of 

Oliver, Andrew. Of Massachusetts. His father was 
Daniel Oliver, a member of the Council. He graduated at 
Harvard University in 1724. He entered public life, and was 
Secretary, Stamp-Distributor, and Lieut.-Governor of Massa- 
chusetts. In 1765, soon after receiving the appointment of 
Stamp-officer, the building which he had fitted for the trans- 
action of business was demolished by a mob, and he was com- 
pelled to resign. He was then allowed to enjoy his post of 
Secretary without molestation for several months. But be- 
fore the close of the year, a report that he was seeking to 
be restored to his place of Stamp-officer, obtained circulation, 
and he was required to make a public statement upon the 
subject. He complied with the demand, and published a 
declaration, that he would not act under his commission ; but 
this was deemed unsatisfactory, and he was desired to appear 

136 OLIVER. 

under the Liberty Tree, and there resign the office in form, 
and in the presence of the people. With this demand he also 
complied, and at the proper time, and while two thousand 
persons surrounded him, he made oath to the following decla- 
ration : " That he had never taken any measures, in conse- 
quence of his deputation, to act in his office as distributor of 
stamps, and that he never would, directly or indirectly, by 
himself, or any under him, make use of his deputation, or take 
any measures for enforcing the Stamp Act in America." The 
multitude gave three cheers, and allowed him to depart. But 
so determined a course on the part of the Whigs gave him 
great pain, and caused intense suffering both to himself and 
his family. 

In 1770, Mr. Oliver was appointed Lieutenant-Governor. 
In 1773, several letters which he had written to persons in 
England were obtained by Franklin, and sent to Massachusetts. 
These letters caused much excitement, and became the sub- 
ject of discussion throughout the Colony. The Whigs of the 
House of Representatives agreed upon a report, that the man- 
ifest tendency and design of these and other similar commu- 
nications of Hutchinson, Paxton, Moffat, Auchmuty, Rogers, 
and Rome, was to overthrow the Constitution, and introduce 
arbitrary power. In addition to the assaults at home, Junius 
Americanus, a writer in the public papers in England, charged 
him with the grave crime of perjury. Mr. Oliver was now 
advanced in life. He had always been subject to disorders of 
a bilious nature ; and unable to endure the disquiet and mis- 
ery caused by his position in affairs at so troubled a period, 
soon sunk under the burden. After a short illness he died 
at Boston, in March, 1774, aged sixty-seven. In private life 
he was a most estimable man ; but his public career, though 
earnestly defended by his brother-in-law, Governor Hutchin- 
son, is open to censure. No man in Massachusetts was more 
unpopular ; and Hutchinson remarks, that the violence of par- 
ty spirit was evinced even at his funeral ; that some members 
of the House of Representatives were offended because the 
officers of the army and navy had precedence in the proces- 

OLIVER. 137 

sion, and retired in a body ; and that " marks of disrespect 
were also shown by the populace to the remains of a man, 
whose memory, if he had died before this violent spirit was 
raised, would have been revered by all orders and degrees of 
men in the Province." 

Oliver, Peter. Of Salem. Son of Lieut.-Governor 
Andrew Oliver, who died at Boston, March, 1774. An Ad- 
dresser of Gage in 1775 ; proscribed and banished in 1778. 
He became a surgeon in the British Army. He died at 
London, April, 1795. His widow married Admiral Sir John 
Knight, and died at her seat, near London, in 1839. 

Oliver, Brinley Sylvester. A son of Lieut.-Governor 
Andrew Oliver. He graduated at Harvard University in 
1774, and became a surgeon in the British service. He died 
in 1828. 

Oliver, William Sandford. Of Boston. Son of Lieut.- 
Governor Andrew Oliver. In 1776 he accompanied the 
Royal Army to Halifax. He settled at St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, at the peace, and was the first Sheriff of the county. 
His official papers, in 1784, are dated at Parr, and Parr-town, 
by which names St. John was then known. In 1792 he held 
the office of Marshal of the Court of Vice- Admiralty of New 
Brunswick. At the time of his decease he was Sheriff of the 
county of St. John, and Treasurer of the Colony. He died 
at St. John, in 1813, aged sixty-two. Catharine, his wife, 
died in that city in 1803, at the age of forty-one. Elizabeth 
Letitia, his youngest daughter, died at Fort Erie, Upper Can- 
ada, in 1836. His son, William Sandford, was a grantee of 
St. John in 1783, but left New Brunswick about 1806 ; pos- 
sibly, Commander William Sandford Oliver, of the Royal 
Navy, who, in 1811, married Mary Oliver, the only daughter 
of Thomas Hutchinson, who was put on the retired list in 
1844, and who died in England the next year, aged seventy- 
one, was the same. 

Oliver, Andrew. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas. Graduated at Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1749. Of the loyal members of his family, he 


alone remained in the country. He died in 1799, at the age 
of sixtv-eight. 

Olmstead, Nathan. Of Ridgefield, Connecticut. In 
January, 1775, he was chairman of a meeting called at Ridge- 
field, to consider whether that town would " adopt and con- 
form to the Resolves contained in the Association of the Con- 
tinental Congress." About two hundred voters were present, 
and it was determined, with almost entire unanimity, " That 
it would be dangerous and hurtful to adopt said Congress' 
measures ; and we hereby publicly disapprove of and protest 
against said Congress, and the measures by them directed, as 
unconstitutional, as subversive of our real liberties, and as 
countenancing licentiousness." 

Ormond, George. Adjutant of the Queen's Rangers. 
At the peace he settled in New Brunswick, but removed from 
the Colony, and probably to Canada. A son is (1847) Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel in the British Army. 

Orne, Timothy. Of Salem, Massachusetts. He grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1768 ; was an Addresser of 
Gage in 1774. A mob seized him in 1775, but were per- 
suaded to relinquish their design of tarring and feathering 
him. He died at Danvers, in 1789, aged thirty-nine. 

Osborn, Nathan. Of Salem, New York. In 1776 he 
abandoned a valuable farm, a considerable quantity of pro- 
duce, and some stock, and joined the Royal Army. 

Oxnard, Edward. Of Falmouth, Maine. Brother of 
Thomas Oxnard. He was born in 1746, and graduated at 
Harvard University in 1767. As the Revolutionary contro- 
versy approached to a crisis, he was a merchant ; and between 
May and October, 1775, officiated as reader of the Episcopal 
society. After the burning of Falmouth by Mowatt, he re- 
treated from Maine, and went to England. In 1776 he was 
in London, and a member of the New England Club, formed 
there early in that year, by several Loyalists of Massachusetts, 
w T ho agreed to meet and have a dinner weekly at the Adelphi, 
Strand. This Club, February 1st, was composed of the fol- 
lowing members : — Governor Hutchinson, Richard Clark, 

OXNARD. 139 

Joseph Green, Jonathan Bliss, Jonathan Sewall, Joseph Wal- 
do, S. S. Blowers, Elisha Hutchinson, William Hutchinson, 
Samuel Sewall, Samuel Quincy, Isaac Smith, Harrison Gray, 
David Greene, Jonathan Clark, Thomas Flucker, Joseph 
Taylor, Daniel Silsbee, Thomas Brinley, William Cabot, 
John S. Copley, Nathaniel Coffin, Samuel Porter, Benjamin 
Pickman, John Amory, Robert Auchmuty, Major Urquhart, 
Samuel Curwen, and the subject of this notice ; all of whom, 
Urquhart excepted, are mentioned in these volumes. In 
1778, Mr. Oxnard was proscribed and banished. He returned 
to Portland soon after the conclusion of hostilities, and was an 
auctioneer and commission merchant. He died July 2d, 1803. 
His wife, who was Mary, a daughter of Jabez Fox, and a 
descendant of John Fox, author of the " Book of Martyrs" ; 
and his sons William, Edward, and John, and one daughter, 
survived him. 

Oxnard, Thomas. Of Falmouth, Maine. Brother of 
Edward. He was born in 1740, and removed to Falmouth 
(now Portland) some years previous to the Revolution, and 
established himself as a merchant. In 1764 he was among 
those who seceded from the old parish, and formed a society 
of Episcopalians. In 1770, after Mr. Lyde was commis- 
sioned Collector of the Customs, he was appointed deputy, 
continued in office until the royal authority came to an end, 
when he left the country. In 1778 he was proscribed and 
banished. During some part of the war he was at the royal 
post established at Castine, and in 1782 his wife was permit- 
ted, by a resolve of the General Court, to join him, " with her 
two servant maids, and such part of her household goods as 
the selectmen of Falmouth should admit." At a period sub- 
sequent to the war, he was at the island of Grand Menan, 
Bay of Fundy ; but returned to Portland not long after the 
peace, and between the years 1787 and 1792, officiated as 
reader to the Episcopal society. He " designed to go to Eng- 
land to take orders, but having a correspondence with Mr. 
Belsham, of London, Doctor Freeman, of Boston, and others, 
he imbibed Unitarian views of religion, and not being able to 


satisfy his society of their truth, he was dismissed, and gave 
up his intention of preaching." He died at Portland, May 
20, 1799, aged fifty-nine. His wife was Martha, a daughter 
of General Jedediah Preble, a distinguished Whig, and a sister 
of the celebrated Commodore Edward Preble, of the United 
States Navy. His children were Thomas, Henry, Stephen 
D., and Martha. Thomas commanded the American priva- 
teer True Blooded Yankee, in the war of 1812, and was famous 
for his success and the boldness of his enterprises : at his 
death, he requested that the flag of his country should be his 
shroud. Henry, the second son, who was a merchant and a 
ship-owner, and a gentleman highly beloved for his many vir- 
tues, died at Boston, December 15, 1843. 

Packard, Benjamin. The last survivor of that famous 
corps, " Butler's Rangers." Removed to Canada at the 
peace, and died there in 1857, aged 101 years. He was a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church for sixty years. 

Paddock, Adino. Of Boston. A lineal descendant of 
Zachariah Paddock, branches of whose family, at the Revo- 
lutionary era, were to be found in various parts of New 
England, in New Jersey, and even in South Carolina. In 
1749, Adino, the subject of this notice, married Lydia 
Snelling, by whom he had thirteen children. He settled in 
Boston, where he manufactured chairs, and transacted his 
business near the head of Bumstead Place. The elm-trees in 
Tremont Street were planted by him, and were for years the 
objects of his care. It is related that, on one occasion, he 
offered the reward of a guinea for the detection of the person 
who hacked one or more of them. Nine of Colonel Pad- 
dock's children died in infancy ; and John, a student at Har- 
vard College, was drowned in Charles River, while bathing, 
in 1773. He commanded the companies of artillery in Bos- 
ton, with the rank of Major; and two of the four brass can- 
non, purchased by order of the Legislature, were kept in a 
gun-house near his own dwelling. As he w r as heard to say 
that he designed to surrender these two pieces to General 
Gage, a party who desired a far different use to be made of 


them, dismantled them ; and, leaving the carriages, carried 
them away. Both did good service to the Whigs in the 
Revolution ; and, yet preserved, bear the name, one, of 
" Hancock," and the other, of "Adams." The Committee 
of Safety, February 23, 1775, after he was displaced, voted 
that Doctor Joseph Warren ascertain how many of the men 
who had been under his command, could " be depended on 
.... to form an artillery company, when the Constitutional 
Army of the Province should take the field ; and that report 
be made without loss of time." In March, 1776, Major 
Paddock embarked for Halifax with the Royal Army, accom- 
panied by his wife, and by Adino, Elizabeth, and Rebecca, 
his surviving children ; and in June of that year, the whole 
family, his son Adino excepted, sailed for England. In 1778 
he was proscribed and banished. From 1781 until his de- 
cease he resided on the Isle of Jersey, and for several 
years held the office of Inspector of Artillery Stores, with 
the rank of Captain. He died March 25, 1804, aged seventy- 
six years. Lydia, his wife, died at the Isle of Jersey, in 
1781, aged fifty-one. He received a partial compensation for 
his losses as a Loyalist. 

Paddock, Adino, Jr. Of Boston. Son of Major Adino. 
He accompanied his father to Halifax in 1776, as related 
above, and in 1779 followed him to England, where he en- 
tered upon the study of medicine and surgery. Having at- 
tended the different hospitals of London, and fitted himself 
for practice, lie returned to America before the close of the 
Revolution, and was surgeon of the King's American Dra- 
goons. In 1784 he married Margaret Ross, of Casco Bay, 
Maine, and settling at St. John, New Brunswick, confined his 
attention to professional pursuits. In addition to extensive 
and successful private practice, he enjoyed from Government 
the post of surgeon to the ordnance of New Brunswick. He 
died at St. Mary's, York County, in 1817, aged fifty-eight. 
Margaret, his wife, died at St. John, in 1815, at the age of 
fifty. The fruit of their union was ten children ; of whom 
three sons, namely, Adino, Thomas, and John, were educated 

142 PAGAN. 

physicians. Adino commenced practice in 1808, and is still 
(1846) living at Kingston, New Brunswick. Thomas mar- 
ried Mary, daughter of Arthur McLellan, Esq., of Port- 
land, Maine, and died at St. John, deeply lamented, in 1838, 
aged forty-seven. 

Pagan, Robert. A native of Glasgow, Scotland. Was 
born in 1750. He emigrated to America early in life, and 
established himself as a merchant at Falmouth, Maine (now 
Portland). Though a young man, " he pursued on a large 
scale the lumber business and ship-building. The ships which 
were built were not generally employed in our trade, but with 
their cargoes sent to Europe and sold. Mr. Pagan kept on 
the corner of King and Fore Streets the largest stock of 
goods which was employed here before the war ; he was a 
man of popular manners and much beloved by the people." 
In 1774 he was member of a Committee to ascertain the 
names of the holders of tea in town, and the quantity and the 
quality of that obnoxious article. A year later he became in- 
volved in the controversies of the time, and abandoned his 
business and the country, soon after the burning of Falmouth 
by Mowatt. While the British Army occupied Philadelphia, 
a person of this singular name was a merchant there. In 
1778 Mr. Pagan was proscribed and banished. He settled at 
St. Andrew, New Brunswick, in 1784, and became one of 
the principal men in the county of Charlotte. After serving 
the Crown as agent for lands in New Brunswick, and in 
superintending affairs connected with grants to Loyalists, he 
was in commission as a magistrate, as Judge of a Court, and 
as Colonel in the militia; and, being a favorite among the free- 
holders of the county, was elected to the House of Assembly, 
and for several years was a leading member of that body. 
Judge Pagan died at St. Andrew, November 23, 1821; and 
Miriam, his widow, (a daughter of Jeremiah Pote,) deceased 
at the same place, January, 1828, aged eighty-one. They 
were childless. 

Pagan, Thomas. Brother of Robert Pagan. He went 
to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, was one of the 

PAGAN. — PAINE. 143 

grantees of that city, and established himself as a merchant. 
He removed to Halifax, and, while absent in Scotland for the 
benefit of his health, died in 1804. 

Pagan, William. Of Maine. Brother of Robert and 
Thomas. He settled in New Brunswick, and was a member 
of the House of Assembly, and of the Council. His death 
occurred at Fredericton, March 12, 1819. 

Paixe, Timothy. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. He 
graduated at Harvard University in 1748. He was a mem- 
ber of the General Court for some years, and a stout " gov- 
ernment-man " in the controversies in that body which pre- 
ceded the Revolution. In 1774 he was appointed a Mandamus 
Councillor, and in August of that year, about fifteen hundred 
people assembled on the Common in Worcester, and elected 
Joseph Gilbert, John Goulding, Edward Rawson, Thomas 
Dennie, and Joshua Bigelow, a committee to wait upon him, 
and to demand of him satisfaction for having accepted the 
appointment. After some delay he wrote and signed his 
resignation. The committee insisted further that he should 
personally appear before the people ; this he did. It was 
then insisted that he should read the paper himself, and with 
his hat off. He hesitated, and demanded the protection of 
the committee, but finally complied, and was allowed to 
retire to his dwelling unharmed. The object of the multi- 
tude having been accomplished, they withdrew in companies, 
those of each town marching off in a separate body. " Solid 
talents, practical sense, candor, sincerity, affability, and mild- 
ness, were the characteristics of his life." He died July 17, 
1793, at the age of sixty-three. His widow died at Worces- 
ter, in 1811. 

Paine, Samuel. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. Son of 
Timothy. Graduated at Harvard University in 1771. The 
Worcester County Convention, September 7, 1774, " Voted, 
To take notice of Mr. Samuel Paine, assistant clerk, for send- 
ing out venires. Voted, That Mr. Samuel Dennison go to 
Mr. Samuel Paine forthwith, and desire his immediate attend- 
ance before this body, to answer for sending venires to the 

144 PAINE. 

constables, commanding their compliance with the late Act of 

Mr. Paine appeared and stated that he felt bound by the 
duty of Ills office to comply with the Act. " Voted, That 
Mr. Paine has not given satisfaction, and that he be allowed 
to consider till the adjournment of this meeting." 

On the 21st of September, he transmitted a paper to 
the Convention, explanatory of his course, but that body 
" Voted, That it ' was not satisfactory, and that it be com- 
mitted to Messrs. Joseph Henshaw, Mr. Bigelow, and Mr. 
Doolittle," who reported, that, as the writer was " a young 
man," &c, &c, his " letter be dismissed," and Mr. Paine 
himself " be treated with all neglect." 

In 1775 our Loyalist was sent by the Committee of 
Worcester, under guard, " to Watertown or Cambridge, to be 
dealt with as the honorable Congress or Commander-in-Chief 
shall, upon examination, think proper." His direct offences 
consisted, apparently, in saying that the Hampshire troops 
had robbed the house of Mr. Bradish ; that he had heard the 
Whig soldiers were deserting in great numbers ; and that he 
was told " the men were so close stowed in the Colleges that 
they were lousy." This is the substance of the testimony of 
a neighbor, the only witness who appeared against him, and 
who had a conversation with him (in the garden of the wit- 
ness) immediately after he had been on a visit to Cambridge, 
where the Whig Army was then encamped. In 1776 Mr. 
Paine accompanied the British Army from Boston to Hali- 
fax. During the war, he wandered from place to place, and 
apparently without regular employment. He returned to 
Massachusetts. The British Government allowed him an 
annual pension of £84. He died at Worcester in 1807. 

Paine, William. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. Son of 
Timothy. Graduated at Harvard University in 1768. He 
was educated to the medical profession, and having been pro- 
scribed under the Act of 1778, became apothecary to the Brit- 
ish forces in Rhode Island and New York. In 1784 he took 
possession of the Island of Le Tete, Passamaquoddy Bay, 

PALMER. 145 

which had been granted him for services, and built a house, 
intending to live there. The place, well known to me, was too 
lone and desolate ; and he removed to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, where he practised his profession. He was elected to the 
House of Assembly, was the Clerk of that body, and Deputy- 
Surveyor of the King's Forests. In 1787 he obtained permis- 
sion to return to Salem. In 1793 he fixed his residence in 
Worcester, where he died, April 19, 1833, aged eighty-three. 

Palmer, Nathan. A lieutenant of Tory levies. He was 
detected in the camp of General Putnam. Governor Tryon 
claimed his surrender, when Putnam replied : " Sir ; Nathan 
Palmer, a lieutenant in your King's service, was taken in my 
camp as a spy, he was tried as a spy, he was condemned as a 
spy, and you may rest assured, sir, that he shall be hanged as 
a spy. 

" P. S. Afternoon — he is hanged." 

In some accounts this man is called Edmund Palmer. 

He " was a young man of athletic form, and possessed ele- 
gant attainments ; had a wife and children then residing in 
Yorktown, the place of his nativity ; and was connected with 
some of the most respectable families of West Chester County. 
The morning previous to his execution, his wife, with a child 
in her arms, appealed to Putnam to spare him. ... u In the 
artless and winning eloquence of a bursting heart, she repre- 
sented the awful situation in which she would be placed should 
the fearful sentence that had been passed upon her husband 
be carried into effect. She implored, by every tie of affection 
that bound two young hearts together, — for the sake of the 
infant she pressed to her bosom," — ... by Putnam's "own 
feelings as a husband and a father, to have mercy on him who 
was all to her this world could bestow." . . . " With a dig- 
nity of purpose, and a countenance that told how intense were 
his feelings," the General replied that the object of her love 
"must die." She became insensible, was borne from the tent, 
and conveyed to her friends. 

At the execution, " the trees and fences were filled with 
men, women, and children, who had come far and near to 

VOL. II. 13 


witness the awful scene." Palmer " met his fate with the forti- 
tude of a man." The gallows on which he was hung remained 
standing for several years. 

Palmer, Thomas. Of Massachusetts. He graduated at 
Harvard University in 1761. In 1774 he was appointed a 
Mandamus Councillor, but was not sworn into office. He 
died in 1820. He gave his library to the University, " and a 
good one it was." 

Palmer, Robert. Of Beaufort, North Carolina. His prop- 
erty was confiscated in 1779. He went to England. The 
British Government gave him a pension of £300, for life. 

Palmer, Gideon. A coroner of Westmoreland County, 
New Brunswick. Died at St. John, in 1824, aged seventy- 

Panton, William. Of Georgia. Attainted and estate 
confiscated. He removed early in the struggle, and settled 
in Florida. In 1794 he lived at Pensacola. During the 
Revolution he was the particular friend and agent of Colonel 
Browne, who succeeded Colonel Stuart in the British super- 
intendency of the four southern nations of Indians ; and a 
large proportion of the presents of the British Government to 
these nations passed through his hands, and the hands of his 
connections in different parts of Florida ; and from the Span- 
ish Government he had authority to import goods directly 
from England, to conduct an extensive Indian trade. His 
importations are estimated in our State-papers at £40,000 
annually. From these papers it appears, also, that he was 
particularly hostile to the United States, and frequently told 
the Creeks, when he delivered them arms, that " these guns 
were to kill the Americans, and that he had rather have them 
applied to that use than to the shooting of deer." That the 
feelings attributed to Mr. Panton were very common among 
the Loyalists, who established their residence with, or in the 
vicinity of the savage tribes, there is ample evidence. To the 
agency of such persons, indeed, the desolating Avars which oc- 
curred on our frontiers a few years after the peace of 1783, 
and especially in Washington's administration, are supposed 


to be justly chargeable. In the course of the transactions of 
the firm of Pan ton, Leslie & Co., of which Mr. Pan ton was 
a member, a large debt became due from the Indians, which, 
by consent of Spain, was finally extinguished by the convey- 
ance of a tract of land in Florida forty miles square : this do- 
main, I am led to conclude, was in the hands of John Forbes 
& Co. in 1821, as the successors of the first mentioned firm. 

P anton, George. A clergyman of New Jersey. In July, 
1783, he was at New York, and one of the fifty-five Loyal- 
ists who petitioned for lands in Nova Scotia. [See Abijali 

Papley, John. Of Pennsylvania. Left Philadelphia in 
December, 1778, and was captured in command of the armed 
schooner PaUey, bound from St. Kitts to New York. His 
commission as Captain to act against the Whigs was found, 
and produced at his trial for treason. In 1779 he was in 
prison in Philadelphia, where his wife and family then lived. 

Parker, Rev. Samuel, D. D. Of Boston. Second Epis- 
copal Bishop of the Eastern Diocese. 

He was the son of William Parker, a Judge of the Superior 
Court of New Hampshire, was born at Portsmouth in 1744, 
and graduated at Harvard University in 1764. He taught 
school at Roxbury, immediately after leaving the University, 
and at Newburyport and Portsmouth, while fitting himself 
for the ministry. In 1773 he was elected Assistant Rector 
of Trinity Church, Boston, and repaired to England for ordi- 
nation. In the early part of the Revolution "he was sub- 
jected to many severe trials." The clergymen who officiated 
at King's Chapel and at Christ Church, fled ; but Mr. Parker 
remained, and, in the progress of events, " found himself in 
circumstances of imminent peril." Soon after the Declaration 
of Independence, u he called a meeting of his Vestry and 
Wardens, and informed them that he could not with safety 
continue to perform the Church Service, particularly that part 
of it in which prayers were offered for the King ; that he had 
been publicly interrupted in reading it on the preceding Lord's 
Day ; and was apprehensive of serious consequences, if lie 

148 PARKER. 

should attempt it again." The result was a vote, requesting 
him to continue to officiate, and to omit the part of the Lit- 
urgy which had caused offence. In 1779 he was elected 
Rector; and, at the decease of Bishop Bass, in 1803, Bishop. 
He died in 1804, less than three months after his consecration, 
aged fifty-nine. His wife was Anne, daughter of John Cut- 
ler, of Boston, who bore him six sons and six daughters. 

Parker, William. Of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 
Judge of the Superior Court. The tradition is that his moth- 
er was a daughter of the Earl of Derby ; that, falling in love 
with William Parker, she became his wife, and, abandoning 
fortune and family honors, followed him to America to live 
almost unknown, and to endure privation and mental distress 
on account of her marriage. 

Be the story as it may, the subject of this notice was born 
in Portsmouth in 1703, and having been educated at a public 
school there, worked awhile with his father in a tannery. A 
teacher for some time, he studied law in his leisure hours, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1732. His first office was that of 
Clerk to the Commissioners to determine the boundary be- 
tween Massachusetts and Maine. Subsequently he was ap- 
pointed Register of Probate, Judge of Admiralty, and Notary- 
Public. In 1771 he was elevated to the Bench of the Supe- 
rior Court. Removed with the other Judges who held office 
under the Crown, he took no further part in public affairs. 
He died in 1781, at the age of seventy-seven. Harvard Uni- 
versity conferred the honorary degree of A. M. His reputa- 
tion was that of a " well-read and accurate lawyer," and of a 
proficient in classical literature. " He was emphatically a self- 
made man." 

Parker, James. Of Norfolk, Virginia. Merchant. He 
joined Lord Dunmore in 1776, and was a Captain. On board 
of one of his Lordship's tenders which was driven on shore, 
he was made prisoner by a party of Whigs. Captured a 
second time by the French squadron, he was sent to France. 
The ship in which he first embarked foundered at sea ; but 
all on board were saved. 


Parker, Robert. Of Massachusetts. He settled in New 
Brunswick in 1783, and was directly appointed Store-keeper 
of Ordnance, and Comptroller of the Customs for the port of 
St. John, and filled these offices many years, until his decease. 
He died in that city, in 1823, aged seventy-three. His only 
daughter, Eliza Jane, married Frederick Du Vernet, of the 
Royal Staff Corps, in 1816. His son, Robert Parker, (1846,) 
is a Judge of the Supreme Court ; and his son, Neville Parker, 
Esq., is Master of the Rolls of New Brunswick. Jane, his 
widow, died at St. John, in 1852, aged eighty-eight. 

Parker, John. Of New York. In the autumn of 1780 
a young Whig, of the name of Shew, was captured in the 
woods near Ballston, by a party of Indians and Tories, and 
at the instigation of Parker, instantly murdered. Parker 
himself, not long after, fell into the hands of his foes, and was 
tried, convicted, and executed at Albany, as a spy. 

Parker, James. Of North Carolina. The Provincial 
Congress, April, 1776, ordered Commissioners to take posses- 
sion of all his negroes and to lease his plantation. In 1778 
banished, and estate confiscated. In 1794 he resided in Eng- 
land, and in that year applied to the British Government to 
interpose for the recovery of some large debts due to him in 
America at the time of his banishment. 

Parlee, Peter. Died at Sussex Vale, New Brunswick, 

Parr, John. Of Morris County, New Jersey. A Tory 
robber. In 1782 he was overtaken in a swamp — one of his 
hiding-places — wounded, seized, and put in jail. 

Parry, Edward. ' Merchant. Of Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire. In September, 1774, he stated his wrongs at 
the hands of the Whigs, in a memorial addressed to Governor 
Wentworth. He was the Portsmouth consignee of the Tea. 
Two parcels were sent to him. The first was landed and 
stored in the Custom-house, without the knowledge of the 
people. This, upon requisition, he reshipped to Halifax with- 
out disturbance, after paying the duty, in order to obtain a 

clearance from the Collector of the Customs. The second lot 



was likewise reshipped ; but not until Mr. Parry had been in 
the hands of a mob, who demolished his windows, and caused 
him to claim the protection of the Governor. He was in 
prison and in irons, May 6, 1775 ; in August of the same 
year, the General Court of Massachusetts ordered him to be 
sent to Sturbridge, there to be detained and provided for by 
the Selectmen. A prisoner, June, 1776, he prayed for re- 
lease, and was allowed, by resolve, to return to Portsmouth, 
on parole, to settle his private affairs. 

Parsons, Rev. David. Of Amherst, Massachusetts. 
Congregational Minister. Graduated at Harvard University 
in 1729. He commenced preaching at Amherst late in 1735, 
and in April, 1737, was invited to settle there, but declined. 
The invitation was renewed in 1739, and accepted. In 1777 
the warrant for a town-meeting contained two articles, which, 
as well as the vote therein, show that he had given offence to 
the Whigs, by his course in politics. His relations with his 
people continued, however, until his decease, in 1781, in the 
sixty-eighth year of his age. His son, Rev. David Parsons, 
D. D., was his successor. 

Partelow, Jehiel. Of Connecticut. Went to St. John, 
New Brunswick, at the peace, and was one of the gran- 
tees of that city. He died in St. John, in 1831, aged eighty- 
seven. His son Jehiel died at the same place in 1837, at the 
age of sixty-six. John R. Partelow, son of the second Jehiel, 
was many years Chamberlain of St. John, a member of the 
House of Assembly, and a leading politician of New Bruns- 

Partelow, Matthew. Of Connecticut. Brother of 
Jehiel Partelow. Was one of the grantees of St. John, New 
Brunswick, 1783, and died there in 1834, aged eighty-seven. 
Mrs. Hannah Wilbur, his daughter, died at the same place in 
1846, at the age of seventy-three. 

Partelow, Richard. Of Connecticut. Died at St. 
John, New Brunswick, in the year 1800, aged ninety-eight. 

Paterson, John. Of New York. Was an Addresser of 
the King at London, 1779 ; and the same year he was directed 


to testify before Parliament, on the inquiry into the conduct 
of Sir William Howe and General Burgoyne, while in Amer- 
ica, but was not examined. 

Patterson, William. Sheriff of Cumberland County, 
New Hampshire Grants, now Vermont. In the difficulties 
which occurred between the Whigs and Loyalists of that 
county, early in 1775, he seems to have borne a prominent, 
and a most unfortunate part. According to a report drawn 
up by the Whig Committee, the disputes then common in 
all parts of the country were aggravated and increased by an 
attempt of some persons in authority, in the Royal interest, to 
suppress circular letters from the Committee of Correspond- 
ence of the city of New York, in 1774. In the course of 
the dissensions which followed a knowledge of this circum- 
stance by the Whigs, an attempt was made by them to pre- 
vent the usual session of the County Court ; when Mr. Pat- 
terson appeared at the Court-House, at the head of a party 
of armed adherents of the Crown, directed the King's Proc- 
lamation to be read, and ordered the Whigs " to disperse in 
fifteen minutes, or by God he would blow a lane through 
them." Colonel Chandler, one of the Judges, had been con- 
sulted on a previous day, as to the expediency of the Court's 
sitting in the existing state of public feeling, and had pro- 
mised that no force should be used against the Whigs who 
might assemble at the Court-House, to carry out their inten- 
tions of stopping legal proceedings ; and the presence of Pat- 
terson, thus attended, was of course wholly unexpected. 
The Whigs were unarmed. Colonel Chandler was appealed 
to, acknowledged what he had said, and averred that arms 
had been brought to the ground without his consent or knowl- 
edge ; and still continuing his pacific disposition, endeavored 
to disarm Patterson's party, and prevent extremities. But his 
exertions and moderate counsels were without avail. Angry 
words, oaths, imprecations, and threats, ensued ; and, finally, 
bloodshed. Several of the Whigs were maimed and wounded, 
and one, of the name of William French, received four bullets, 
one of which went through his brain and killed him. Violent 


commotions rapidly followed these proceedings. A consider- 
able body of men equipped for war, from New Hampshire and 
Massachusetts, soon arrived ; and the Government of New 
York interposed. That Mr. Patterson was very much in 
fault, in the transactions which connect his name with the sad 
deeds here briefly considered, hardly admits of a doubt ; and 
appears as well from the statements of the Loyalists, as from 
the report of the Whig Committee. And besides, the course 
of events in the House of Assembly shows a state of feeling 
quite unfavorable to his exculpation. By referring to the 
doings of that body, in the session commenced in January, 
1775, it will be found that Mr. Brush, a member of the 
Ministerial party, moved for a grant of <£1000, for the pur- 
pose of "reinstating and maintaining the due administration of 
justice in said county [of Cumberland], and for the suppress- 
ion of riots therein ; " which sum, after debate, was voted. 
But every Whig member present, and several of Mr. Brush's 
party, voted against the measure ; and it was carried by a 
majority of only two, including the Speaker. It is to be re- 
marked, that, while the Whigs at the Court-House deny that 
they were armed, Patterson's friends assert the contrary ; 
though both agree in the important circumstance, that the 
Loyalists were the first to use weapons, — the first to fire. 

He was imprisoned at Northampton, Massachusetts, but 
released in November, 1775. Of his life subsequently I have 
no certain information. A Loyalist of this name, however, 
embarked at Boston with the British Army for Halifax, in 
1776 ; and I find the death of William Patterson (who had 
been Governor of the Island of St. John, Gulf of St Law- 
rence) at London, in 1798. 

Patterson, John. Of Maryland. A clergyman in the 
county of Kent. In December, 1775, he was sent under a 
guard of four militia men to the Maryland Convention, ac- 
cused of disrespect to the Whig authorities, and of saying that 
" there was more liberty in Turkey than in this Province." 
He was censured by the President " for the indecency and 
intemperance of his expressions," and discharged on acknowl- 


edgment of his offence, on promise of neutrality, and on pay- 
ment of the expenses of the proceedings against him. In 
1782 he was Chaplain of the Maryland Loyalists. 

Pattinson, Thomas. Lieutenant-Colonel of the Prince 
of Wales' American Volunteers. He died at Charleston, 
South Carolina, before December, 1782. 

Paul, . Of Bucks County, Pennsylvania. In 

1782 he was sentenced to die as a spy, and was confined in 
the camp of Lafayette. The evening before the day appointed 
for his execution he escaped. In 1783, Jonathan Paul, a 
Loyalist of Pennsylvania, settled at Pennfield, New Bruns- 

Paxton, Charles. He was one of the Commissioners of 
the Customs at Boston ; was proscribed and banished, and his 
estate was confiscated. In 1769 he and his associates were 
posted in the " Boston Gazette " by James Otis. It was this 
card of Otis's which brought on the altercation with Robinson, 
another commissioner, in the coffee-house in State Street, that 
stood on the site of the present Massachusetts Bank ; and which 
resulted in injuries to the head of the first champion of the 
Revolution, from which he never recovered. Paxton was 
remarkable for finished politeness and courtesy of manners. 
His office was unpopular and even odious ; and the wags of 
the day made merry with qualities, which, at any other time, 
would have commanded respect. "On Pope-day, as the Gun- 
powder Plot anniversary, or 5th of November, was called, 
there was usually a grand pageant of various figures on a 
stage mounted on wheels and drawn through the streets with 
horses. Lanterns, transparencies of oiled paper having in- 
scriptions ; figures of the Pretender suspended to a gibbet of 
the Devil, and the Pope with appropriate implements and dress, 
were among the objects devised to draw attention and make 
up the show. Sometimes political characters, who in popular 
estimation should keep company with the personages repre- 
sented, were added ; and of these, Commissioner Paxton was 
one. On one occasion he was exhibited between the figures 
of the Devil and the Pope, in proper figure, with this label : 

154 PAXTON. 

" Every man's humble servant, but no man's friend." Pope- 
day was never celebrated after the shedding of blood at Lex- 
ington. As head of the Board of Commissioners, Mr Paxton 
directed his deputy at Salem, Mr. Cockle, in 1760, to apply 
to the Court for the Writs of Assistance, under which the 
officers of the revenue were to have authority to enter and 


search all places which they should suspect to contain smug- 
gled goods. In the discussions consequent upon this applica- 
tion, James Otis distinguished himself, and during his great 
speech on the question, " Independence," said John Adams, 
" was born." 

As far as individual men are concerned, I have come to be- 
lieve that Charles Townshend, in England, and Charles Pax- 
ton, in America, were among the most efficient in producing 
the Revolution. The minister was a wonderful man every 
way, and as wonderful in his eccentricities, follies, and vices, 
as in his intellect, eloquence, boldness, and command of the 
House of Commons ; Paxton was a place-hunter, bought 
office with money, and was as rapacious as the fabled harpy. 
As the disputes which preceded the war increased, the visits 
of Paxton to London became frequent. He went there as 
the authorized agent of the Crown officers, to complain of the 
merchants for resisting the obnoxious Acts of Parliament, and 
to care for the interests of himself and of his employers. He 
possessed " as much of the friendship of Charles Townshend 
as a selfish client may obtain from an intriguing patron " ; 
and it is known that he was in England, and was in the coun- 
sels of that minister when his plans relating to the Colonies 
were devised and presented to the House of Commons. The 
Board of Commissioners of the Customs was established at 
Boston while Paxton was abroad, and he was appointed a 
member of it, as I think there is evidence, simply, for a 
pecuniary consideration. 

After he entered upon his duties, he was efficient and active 
beyond his associates. John Adams says that he was " the 
essence of customs, taxation, and revenue " ; that he appeared 
at one time " to have been Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, 

PAXTON. 155 

Secretary, and Chief Justice." From the founding of the 
Board of Customs, how rapid were the events that terminated 
in Revolution ! Paxton and his fellow-Commissioners, per- 
sonally offended with Hancock, seized one of his vessels for 
smuggling wine, which caused a fearful mob, and the flight 
of the officers of the revenue to Castle William. Then came 
the hanging of Paxton in effigy, on the Liberty tree ; then, at 
the instance of the Commissioners, the first troops came to 
Boston ; then the card of Otis, denouncing the Commissioners 
by name, the assault upon him with bludgeons, in answer to 
it, and the increased irritation of the public mind ; then the 
affray near the Custom-House, in King Street, on the fifth of 
March ; then the receipt of the letters sent from England by 
Franklin, of which Paxton was one of the writers ; then the 
Committee of Correspondence, that laid the foundation of 
Colonial Union ; then the destruction of the three cargoes of 
of tea ; then the shutting of the port of Boston ; then the 
First Continental Congress ; then w T ar, — war, which cost 
England five hundred millions of dollars, and the Anglo- 
Saxon race one hundred thousand lives, in battle, in storm, 
and in prison, with all the attendant miseries to survivors ; 
war, to enforce a wicked discrimination between British sub- 
jects, in civil, military, commercial, and political rights. 

In 1776, accompanied by his family of five persons, Mr. 
Paxton embarked at Boston for Halifax with the British 
Army ; and in July of that year sailed for England, in the 
ship Aston Hall. Potent as he was here, he seems to have 
lived obscurely enough afterwards. He was a pall-bearer at 
the funeral of Governor Hutchinson, in 1780, and in June, 
1781, he was seen walking with Harrison Gray, the last Colo- 
nial Treasurer of Massachusetts, near Brompton. I do not 
meet his name again until 1788, when I find his death, at the 
age of eighty-four, at the seat of William Burch, (one of his 
fellow-Commissioners,) Norfolk County, England. 

Paxton, Joseph. Of Bucks County, Pennsylvania. He 
joined the British Army in Philadelphia, and was taken 
prisoner at Stony Point. In September, 1779, he was in jail, 


waiting trial for treason. Convicted subsequently, and estate 

Pearis, Robert. Of South Carolina. Confined in prison 
in Charleston, for adherence to the Crown. In a report to 
the Provincial Congress, it appears that he was committed to 
a room in the jail which had neither sashes nor glass, that the 
roof leaked badly, and that he was sick. He was disposed to 
take an oath of neutrality, but would insist that he was a 
British subject, notwithstanding the Declaration of Independ- 

Pearsall, William and Thomas. Of Queen's County, 
New York. Acknowledged allegiance, October, 1776. Wil- 
liam was subsequently in arms on the side of the Crown, and 
a party who robbed the mother-in-law of Thomas, struck at 
him with an axe. In 1781 Thomas was made prisoner by a 
party of Whigs who came to North Hempstead. 

Pease, Simeon. Of Rhode Island. Captain in the Loyal 
Newport Associators. He died, probably, in 1777, as the 
vacancy was filled by Pigot, January 1, 1778. 

Pecker, James. Of Boston. Physician. Graduated at 
Harvard University in 1743. The Council of Massachusetts 
ordered his arrest, April, 1776. He was was Vice-President 
of the Massachusetts Medical Society. He died in 1794. 

Pecker, Jeremiah. Of Haverhill, Massachusetts. Grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1757. After the Revolution, 
he taught a school in St. John, New Brunswick, and died in 
that city in 1809. 

Pederick, John. Of Marblehead, Massachusetts. Mer- 
chant. An Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774. He died 
previous to January, 1781. Hannah, his widow, administered 
on his estate. 

Peirce, John. Of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Eldest 
son of the Hon. Daniel Peirce. Was born in 1746, and 
died June, 1814. He was opposed to the Revolution, at the 
beginning ; but was respected by the Whigs, as a man of 
principle and integrity. He was educated a merchant, and 
became not only a thorough accountant, but had a peculiar 

PELL. — PELLEW. 157 

faculty of adjusting intricate and long-contested claims. His 
friends, his townsmen, corporations, and landed proprietors, at 
various periods, honored him with important trusts ; and he 
was connected, from time to time, with almost every matter 
which required the exercise of his properties of character. 
He was distinguished for benevolence, decision, and sound 
judgment. Under President Adams, he was Loan Officer for 
New Hampshire. He seems to have been a superior man 
every way. 

Pell, John. Of New York. Ensign in the Queen's 
Rangers. A prisoner in Northampton, Massachusetts ; re- 
leased from jail, November 5, 1779. 

Pellew, Humphrey. Was an extensive merchant, and 
largely concerned in shipping and in the American trade. 
He purchased a tobacco plantation, of two thousand acres, in 
Maryland, but it is not certain that he ever came to reside 
upon it, or to visit it. This estate was confiscated, and the 
city of Annapolis is built partly upon it. Three of his grand- 
sons served on the Royal side during the Revolution, and 
Washington expressed the opinion, to a friend of the family, 
that this circumstance would prevent the success of an appli- 
cation to Maryland for its restoration ; and as no compensa- 
tion was made under the Act of Parliament, the loss was 
total. These grandsons were John, Israel, and Edward Pel- 
lew. John was aide-de-camp to General Phillips, and was 
killed in one of the battles which preceded the surrender of 
Burgoyne. Israel was an officer in the Flora frigate, and 
was on the American station some part of the war. In after 
life he became Admiral Sir Israel Pellew, K. C. B., and died 
in 1832. Edward was also a naval officer, and was engaged 
on Lake Champlain. Arnold barely escaped becoming his 
prisoner. The circumstance, as related at the time, and as 
confirmed by Arnold's son, James Robertson, (who is now, 
1850, a General in the British Army,) was briefly this : Ar- 
nold, while in command of the Whig flotilla, ventured out 
upon the lake in a small boat, was seen, and chased by young 
Pellew, who gained upon him, and compelled him to make 

VOL. II. 14 


the nearest landing upon the shore, and fly ; leaving behind 
him in the boat his stock and buckle, which were taken by 
his pursuer, and which are still preserved in the Pellew fam- 
ily. Edward subsequently joined Burgoyne, and was included 
in the capitulation. He is known in British naval history as 
Lord Exmouth, and one of the most celebrated commanders 
of his time. His attack on the defences of Algiers, in 1816, 
is one of the most memorable and successful enterprises on 
record. He died in 1833, aged seventy-six. 

Pemberton, Rev. Ebenezer, D.D. Of Boston. Pastor 
of the Old North Church. Son of the Rev. Ebenezer Pem- 
berton, Pastor of the Old South. He graduated at Harvard 
University in 1721, and became Chaplain at Castle William, 
Boston Harbor. In 1727 he accepted the call of the First 
Presbyterian Church in New York. After a ministry of 
twenty-two years, the bigotry of some and the ignorance of 
others, induced him to ask dismission. He returned to Bos- 
ton one of the most popular preachers of his time. He lived 
to see " only a few familiar faces scattered about amongst 
almost empty pews." His known friendship for Governor 
Hutchinson, who was one of his flock, caused an imputation 
of loyalty, and in the course of events diminished his useful- 
ness, and gave rise to strifes and contentions. In 1771 he 
'was the only minister of Boston, who, from the pulpit, read 
the Governor's Proclamation for the annual Thanksgiving. 
The Doctor himself began it in trembling, confused tones ; 
and the Whigs present testified their disapprobation by 
" walking out of the meeting in great indignation." In 
1775 his church was closed. During the siege he lived at 
Andover ; and he never officiated, probably, after the evacu- 
ation. He died at the age of seventy-three, in the fifty-first 
year of his ministry. By the catalogue of Harvard Univer- 
sity, his death occurred in 1777 ; in " Robbins's History of 
the Old North," the date is September 9, 1779. It is said 
of him "that he was a man of polite breeding, pure morals, 
and warm devotion." 

Pemberton, James. Of Philadelphia. A colleague of 


Franklin, prior to the Revolution, in the House of Assembly of 
Pennsylvania, and his successor as President of the Society for 
the Amelioration of the Condition of the Africans in Slavery. 
From his youth he was distinguished for diligence, integrity, 
and benevolence. His life was devoted to deeds of charity 
and love. He was averse to war, and to the movements of 
the Whigs, because he was a Quaker. He died at Philadel- 
phia, universally respected, in 1809, aged eighty-six. 

Pemberton, John. Of Philadelphia. In 1777, ordered 
to Virginia, a prisoner. His offence was the publication of a 
seditious paper, in behalf of certain persons in Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey, which attracted the attention of Congress. 

Pendarvis, Richard. Of South Carolina. Held a 
Royal commission after the capitulation of Charleston. His 
property, in the possession of his heirs or devisees, was con- 
fiscated by the Act of 1782. 

Penman, John. Of Georgia. In 1779 he was appointed 
one of the Commissioners to take possession of the negroes 
and other property of active Whigs. The Board opened an 
office in Savannah, and entered upon the performance of their 

Penman, James. Of Georgia. In the effort, 1779, to 
reestablish the Royal Government, he was appointed a mem- 
ber of the Council, and a Commissioner of Claims. 

Penn, John. Of Pennsylvania. He was born in Philadel- 
phia, and was called " the American Penn." He was a son 
of Richard Penn, a grandson of William Penn, 1 and Governor 
of Pennsylvania from 176o to 1771, and from 1773 to the 
beginning of hostilities. In June, 1774, about nine hundred 
respectable freeholders, in and near the city of Philadelphia, 
in an urgent petition, requested him to call a session of the 
Assembly, to consider the subject of the Boston Port Act, 

1 " Died at Philadelphia, in 1809, in her one hundred and ninth year, 
Susannah Warden, formerly wife of Virgil Warden, one of the house- 
servants of the "Teat William Penn. This aged woman was born in 
William Penn's house, at Pennsburg Manor, in Mareh, 1701, and has of 
late been supported by the Penn family." — Gent'i Muyuzine. 

160 PENN. 

but he refused. Through the same year he kept Lord Dart- 
mouth regularly advised of the proceedings of the Continental 
Congress, and in announcing to his Lordship the adjournment 
of that body, took occasion to remark that he had not " had 
the least connection or intercourse with any of the members." 
He continued in the country after his government was at an 
end, and in 1777, having refused to sign a parole, was sent 
by the Whigs to Fredericksburgh, Virginia ; where, though 
restrained in his liberty, and prevented from communicating 
with his political friends, and from affording aid to the Royal 
cause, he was treated with the respect and consideration due 
to his position in society, and to his private worth. His 
rights in Pennsylvania were forfeited. And from a petition 
presented to Parliament, in 1774, it appears that he and 
Thomas Penn, who was a son of William, the founder, were 
true and absolute Proprietaries of the Colony ; though, from a 
note in Sparks's " Franklin," it is evident that the interest of 
Thomas was by far the largest. That the reader may under- 
stand something of the nature and value of the property of 
the Penns in Pennsylvania, at the Revolutionary era, a brief 
outline of the original grant will be necessary. The Royal 
charter to the distinguished William Penn bears date in 1681. 
The consideration recited in the preamble is, to reward the 
merits and services of Admiral Penn, and to indulge the 
desire of his son William to enlarge the British Empire, 
civilize the savage nations, &c. The form of government 
was to be Proprietary ; that is, the soil was given to William 
Penn in fee, but he, and his heirs and assigns and tenants, were 
to bear true faith and allegiance to the Crown. Penn and his 
successors were authorized to govern the country by a legis- 
lative body, to erect courts of justice, and administer the laws, 
and generally do all things needful for the well-being of the 
inhabitants, so long as they kept within the statutes of the 
realm. But yet there was an appeal to the tribunals of Eng- 
land, and the patent required that an agent or representa- 
tive should reside constantly in Great Britain, to answer to 
alleged abuses, and to meet the representations of individuals. 

PENN. 161 

Thus Pennsylvania was a sort of hereditary monarchy in 
miniature. In time, and as the Colony became rich and pop- 
ulous, disputes arose between the Governors who represented 
the Penns, and the members of the Assembly who repre- 
sented the people. The popular party attained great strength, 
finally, and attempted to overthrow the Proprietary form of 
government instituted by the patent, and to procure the estab- 
lishment of another more congenial to their interest and feel- 
ings. Franklin was one of the leaders of this party, and went 
to England as their authorized agent as early as the year 1757. 
No change was, however, effected. The Revolution — merg- 
ing all other dissensions — dispossessed the Penns at once of 
political power, and of their rights of soil. These rights were 
of immense value. 

Mr. Sparks has preserved, in Franklin's Works, a curious 
paper drawn up by Thomas Penn, which gives a minute cal- 
culation of the supposed worth of the Proprietary estate in 
Pennsylvania, and which Franklin completed on Penn's ba- 
sis. By Franklin's additions and computations, the aggregate 
value was <£15,875,500 12s., of the currency of Pennsylva- 
nia ; or about ten million pounds sterling. This estimation 
is, of course, extravagant. Yet Franklin said, that, after " de- 
ducting all the articles containing the valuation of lands yet 
unsold and unappropriated within their patent, and the man- 
ors and rents to be hereafter reserved, and allowing for any 
small over-valuations in their present reserved lands and in- 
comes, (though it is thought if any be, it will be found not to 
exceed the under-valuation in other instances,) there cannot 
remain less than a million of property which they now at this 
time have in Pennsylvania." Thus, then, Franklin's own 
opinion, in 1759, would make the Penns' Proprietary interest 
at that period, five millions of dollars. But still that sum in- 
cluded — to some degree at least — the prospective value as 
well as the present. Whatever was the actual worth in 1759, 
or twenty years later, the whole property of the Proprietary, 
except " the tenths " of the lands already surveyed, was con- 
fiscated. Yet the Penns had private estates distinguished 


162 PENN. 

from their Proprietary interest, such as manors, farms, and 
city and town lots, which were not included in the forfeiture. 
Some part of these estates is yet held — or was a few years 
since — by one of the family. 

The Penn estate was by far the largest that was forfeited 
in America, and perhaps that was ever sequestered during 
any civil war in either hemisphere. The claim to compensa- 
tion made by the Proprietaries upon the British Government, 
caused the commissioners much labor and investigation. The 
amount claimed was £ 944,817 sterling. It was reduced to 
X 500,000, and as thus estimated and liquidated, was recom- 
mended to Parliament for allowance. The Commissioners 
made a special report of this case, (as they did of a few 
others), and from its complicated nature, it occupied their 
attention many weeks. Before coming to a decision, they 
obtained from Pennsylvania the evidence of the person who 
had been the Receiver-General of the Proprietaries from 1753 
to the Revolution, who carried to England many accounts and 
papers which served to explain the value of the property, and 
the amount of the income derived from it. But the final ad- 
justment appears to have been different from that adopted by 
the Government in common claims, since, instead of granting 
a stipulated sum, a settlement with the Penns was proposed 
by Mr. Pitt, which gave to them and their heirs an annuity 
of £4000. His recommendation to Parliament was, to grant 
£3000 per annum to John Penn, of Stoke Regis, in the 
county of Bucks, the son of the elder branch, and £1000 
per annum to John Penn, of Wimple Street, the son of the 
younger branch of the family, " to be considered as real 
estate, and issuing out of the county of Middlesex " ; and 
this plan was executed by an Act during the year 1790. 

In addition to £4000 annuity thus secured to the two John 
Penns, the State of Pennsylvania made a liberal provision for 
others of the lineage and name, " in remembrance of the en- 
terprising spirit of the founder," and " of the expectations and 
dependence of his descendants ; " and "enacted, that the sum 
of £130,000 should be paid to the devisees and legatees of 

PENN. 163 

Thomas Perm and Richard Perm, late Proprietaries, and to 
the widow and relict of Thomas Penn, in just and equitable 
proportions, by instalments ; the first payment to be made at 
the expiration of one year after the termination of the war." 
This large sum, the annuity of Parliament, the provision to se- 
cure (in the Confiscation Act) to the different members, of the 
family their private lands, estates, and hereditaments, as above 
mentioned, together with the offices which were subsequently 
conferred, formed a very large remuneration ; and probably 
placed the Penns in a condition quite as independent as that 
which they enjoyed previous to the Revolution. But if they 
were actually losers, it is still to be remembered, that, without 
a separation of the Colonies from England, some change in the 
tenure and value of their property must soon have happened. 
Their rights, as secured by the original grant, were opposed 
to the spirit of the time, and to the progress in American 
society ; and men would have been found, who, like Frank- 
lin, would have demanded concessions, and have continued 
their endeavors until concessions were obtained. But yet 
the events which extinguished the rights and terminated the 
influence of the Penns, the Fairfaxes, Johnsons, Phillipses, 
Robinsons, Pepperells, and other large landholders, and which 
committed the destinies of the New World to "new families," 
produced a ruinous change in the political fortunes and pros- 
pects of the " old families," who, up to the hour of the dismem- 
berment of the Empire, had been but little less than heredi- 
tary colonial noblemen, and viceroys of boundless domains. 

Governor John Penn died in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 
in 1795. His remains, some time after his decease, were 
removed to England. Anne, his widow, died at London, in 
1830, aged eighty-four. 

John Penn, of this family, died unmarried at Stoke Park, 
England, in 1834, aged seventy-five. He was Governor of 
Portland Castle, in the county of Dorset ; and in the English 
accounts of him, is called the " Proprietary and Hereditary 
Governor of Pennsylvania." He was the eldest surviving 
son of Thomas, and, therefore, grandson of William Penn, 

164 PENN. 

and succeeded to the family estates when a minor, on the 
death of his father, in 1775. His mother was a daughter of 
the Earl of Pomfret, and he was received as a nobleman 
when he entered the University of Cambridge. He pub- 
lished writings both in prose and poetry. His brother Rich- 
ard was a member of Parliament, and remarkable for his 
classical attainments and powers of memory. Granville Penn, 
another brother of John, (fifth, second surviving, and young- 
est son of Thomas,) who distinguished himself by several able 
critical works, and a Life of his great-grandfather, Admiral 
Sir William Penn, died at Stoke Park, in 1844, aged eighty- 

Penn, Richard. Brother of John Penn, and himself a 
Governor of Pennsylvania from 1771 to 1773. At this 
period there was a personal difficulty between the two broth- 
ers, and though they dined together in public, they did not 
even exchange the common civilities of life. Said Chief 
Justice Shippen, in a letter to Colonel Burd, " Mr. Bob 
Morris, the head man at the merchants' feast, placed Gov- 
ernor Penn on his right hand, and his brother, the late Gov- 
ernor, on his left hand, but not a word passed," &c. 

Richard, unlike John, maintained friendly relations with 
members of Congress. Mr. Caesar Rodney wrote to Thomas 
Rodney from Philadelphia, September 24, 1774, that Mr. R. 
Penn is a great friend to liberty, and has treated the gentle- 
men Delegates with the greatest respect. More or less of 
them dine with him every day. . . . All these matters 
are for your own private speculation, and not for the public 
view." From Washington's journal, it appears that he was 
a guest at Mr. Penn's table. The liberal course of Richard 
seems to have won general confidence ; and when in 1775 
he embarked for England, he was entrusted with the care 
of the second Petition of the Continental Congress to the 
King. After his arrival at London, he was examined in the 
House of Lords as to American affairs, and expressed the 
opinion that " a majority of the people were not for indepen- 
dency." While John Penn was Governor, Richard was a 


member of his Council, and Naval Officer of Pennsylvania, 
with a salary of £600. As Governor, Richard was very 
popular. He was " a fine, portly looking man." He died in 
England, in 1811, aged seventy-six. Mary, his widow, died 
at the house of his son Richard, Great George Street, Lon- 
don, in 1829, aged seventy-three. 

Pennington, William. Of Wilmington, North Caro- 
lina, and Comptroller of the Customs. An elegant writer, 
and admired for his wit and polished manners. Went to 
England. Was Master of Ceremonies at Bath. 

Pennington, Edward. Of Philadelphia. An eminent 
merchant. Born in that city in 1726. A member of the 
Assembly before the Revolution, and on terms of intimacy 
with Franklin. The two were among the few projectors of 
the Pennsylvania Hospital. A grandson of Mr. Pennington 
communicates for this Work an anecdote of Franklin which 
is worthy of preservation. At the first meeting of those 
who favored the founding of the institution just mentioned, 
objection was made that the plan was too comprehensive, 
and if carried out, would induce the sick and the maimed to 
come from other Colonies. "Then," replied the Philosopher, 
" then, we shall do more good than we expected." 

Mr. Pennington, while on a visit to the father of Benjamin 
West, was shown some efforts of the youthful artist, which, 
as he was told, were painted with colors obtained of the In- 
dians, and with brushes made of the hair of the family cat ; 
and pleased with the genius of the boy, sent him, on his 
return to the city, canvas, proper pencils and paints, and 
soon after employed him to execute two pictures, which are 
now (1854) in the possession of one of his descendants. 

In 1774 Mr. Pennington was a member of the Philadel- 
phia Committee of Correspondence, and of the Pennsylvania 
Convention. He " was a zealous opponent of the measures 
of the British ministry, but objected to the Declaration of 
Independence." He was the friend of domestic manufac- 
tures, and planted the old family domain in Race Street with 
the mulberry, for the purpose of making silk, and lessening 


dependence on the mother country. In 1777, deemed " in- 
imical to the Whig cause," he was ordered to be sent prisoner 
to Virginia. After the surrender of Cornwallis his house 
was attacked by a mob, because it was not illuminated in 
testimony of joy for that event. Joseph Galloway was his 
intimate friend and legal adviser. His ancestors were familv 
connections of William Penn's first wife. He died in Phila- 
delphia, September 20, 1796. 

Pensil, . Was engaged in the Massacre at Wyo- 
ming. A brother, who was a Whig, sought refuge in a 
cluster of willows, and claimed his mercy. Deaf to the 
appeal, the Loyalist instantly shot the other dead — exclaim- 
ing, as he raised his gun, — "Mighty well, you damned 

Pepperell, Sir William, Baronet. Of Kittery, Maine. 
Among the men of Cornwall who came to America was Wil- 
liam Pepperell, who settled at the Isles of Shoals about the 
year 1676, became a fisherman, acquired property, and re- 
moved to Kittery, where he died in 1734, leaving an only son 
of his own name, who continued the business of fishing, 
amassed great wealth, and arrived at great honors. The 
second William Pepperell was born in 1696 at Kittery, and 
when about the age of thirty-three, was elected a member of 
the Council of Massachusetts, and held a seat in that body, by 
annual election, for thirty-two years, until his death. He was 
also selected to command a regiment of militia, and being 
fond of society, and the life and spirit of every company, rich 
and prosperous, was highly popular, and possessed much in- 
fluence. Indeed, Colonel Pepperell was a man of distin- 
guished consideration in all respects, and the leading personage 
of Maine. His political connections, and his ample estate, 
gave him access to the best circles of the capital ; and his 
business relations required him to mingle with all classes of 
people who lived on the Piscataqua and the Saco. He owned 
lands on both of these rivers, where he erected mills and en- 
gaged in lumbering, and he employed hundreds of men annu- 
ally in fishing in the waters of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton. 


The Treaty of Utrecht, which secured the former Colony 
to the British Crown, gave France undisputed right to the 
latter, and the French founded and built upon it the city of 
Louisburg, at enormous cost, and protected it with fortresses 
of great strength. The walls of the defences were formed 
with bricks brought from France, and they mounted two hun- 
dred and six pieces of cannon. The city had nunneries and 
palaces, gardens, squares, and places of amusement, and w r as 
designed to become a great capital, and to perpetuate French 
dominion and the Catholic faith in America. Twenty-five 
years of time, and thirty million of livres in money were 
spent in building, arming, and adorning this city, " the Dun- 
kirk of the New World.!' That such a place existed at so 
early a period of our history, is a marvel ; and the lovers of 
the wonderful may read the works which contain accounts of its 
rise and ruin, and be satisfied that " truth is sometimes stran- 
ger than fiction." Louisburg soon became a source of vexa- 
tion to the fishermen who visited the adjacent seas, and its 
capture was finally seriously conceived, and undertaken. 
Governor Shirley, in 1744, listening to the propositions made 
to him on the subject, submitted them to the Legislature of 
Massachusetts, and that body in secret session, (the first ever 
held in iVmerica,) and by a casting vote, authorized a force to 
be raised, equipped, and sent against it. Other New England 
Colonies joined in the enterprise, and the command was con- 
ferred upon Colonel Pepperell. His troops consisted of a mot- 
ley assemblage of fishermen and farmers, sawyers and loggers, 
many of whom were taken from his own vessels, mills, and 
forests. Before such men, and before others hardly better 
skilled in war, in the year 1745, Louisburg fell. The achieve- 
ment is the most memorable in our Colonial annals. Vauo;- 
han, a son of the Lieutenant-Governor of New Hampshire, 
who was second in command, who conducted extensive fish- 
eries, and who claimed the merit of conceiving the expedition 
upon the representations of his fishermen, who had ascertained 
the weak points of the defences, died without reward, while 
in England, pressing his claims to consideration ; but Colonel 


Pepperell was created a Baronet in 1746, 1 and was the only 
native of New England who received that honor during the 
whole period of our connection with Great Britain. 

After the fall of Louisburg, Pepperell went to England, and 
was presented at Court. In 1759 he was appointed Lieuten- 
ant-General ; he died the same year, at his seat at Kittery, 
aged sixty-three years. His children were two : Andrew, a 
son, who graduated at Harvard University in 1743, and who 
died under the most distressing circumstances, in 1751, at the 
age of twenty-five ; and a daughter, Elizabeth, who married 
Colonel Nathaniel Sparhawk. Lady Pepperell, who was 
Mary Hirst, daughter of Grove Hirst, of Boston, and grand- 
daughter of Judge Sewall, of Massachusetts, survived until 
1789. Mrs. Sparhawk bore her husband five children : 
namely, Nathaniel, William Pepperell, Samuel Hirst, Andrew 
Pepperell, and Mary Pepperell. Sir William, her father, soon 
after the decease of her brother, executed a will by which, 
after providing for Lady Pepperell, he bequeathed the bulk of 
his remaining property to herself and her children. Her 
second son was made the residuary legatee, and inherited a 
large estate. By the terms of his grandfather's will, he was 
required to procure an Act of the Legislature to drop the name 
of Sparhawk, and assume that of Pepperell. This he did on 
coming of age, and was allowed, by a subsequent Act, to take 
the title of Sir William Pepperell, Baronet. 

The second Sir William, of whom we are now to speak, 
received the honors of Harvard University in 1766 ; subse- 
quently he visited England, and became a member of the 
Council of Massachusetts. In 1774, when that body was re- 
organized under the Act of Parliament, he was continued 
under the mandamus of the King, and incurred the odium 
which was visited upon all the councillors who were thus ap- 
pointed contrary to the charter. The people of his own coun- 
ty passed the following resolution in convention, in November 
of 1774. 

" Resolved, — Whereas the late Sir William Pepperell, 

1 He received the arms, crest, and motto of " Peperi." 


Baronet, deceased, well known, honored, and respected in 
Great Britain and America for his eminent service in his life- 
time, did honestly acquire a large and extensive real estate in 
this country, and gave the highest evidence not only of his 
being a sincere friend to the rights of man in general, but of 
having a paternal love to this country in particular ; and 
whereas the said Sir William, by his last will and testament, 
made his grandson, the present William Pepperell, Esq., re- 
siduary legatee and possessor of the greatest part of said estate ; 
and the said William Pepperell, Esq., hath, with purpose to 
carry into force Acts of the British Parliament, made with ap- 
parent design to enslave the free and loyal people of this con- 
tinent, accepted and now holds a seat in the pretended Board 
of Councillors in this Province, as well in direct repeal of the 
charter thereof, as against the solemn compact of kings and 
the inherent rights of the people. It is, therefore, Resolved, 
that said William Pepperell, Esq., hath thereby justly for- 
feited the confidence and friendship of all true friends to 
American liberty, and, with other pretended councillors now 
holding their seats in like manner, ought to be detested by 
all good men ; and it is hereby recommended to the good peo- 
ple of this county, that as soon as the present leases made to 
any of them by said Pepperell are expired, they immediately 
withdraw all connection, commerce, and dealings from him ; 
and that they take no further lease or conveyance of his 
farms, mills, or appurtenances thereunto belonging, (where 
the said Pepperell is the sole receiver and appropriator of the 
rents and profits,) until he shall resign his seat pretendedly 
occupied by mandamus. And if any persons shall remain or 
become his tenants after the expiration of their present leases, 
we recommend to the good people of this county not only to 
withdraw all connection and commercial intercourse with 
them, but to treat them in the manner provided by the third 
resolve of this Congress." 

The Baronet, not long after, thus denounced by his neigh- 
bors and the friends of his family, retired to Boston. In 1775 
he arrived in England, under circumstances of deep affliction ; 

VOL. II. 15 


Lady Pepperell, who was Elizabeth, daughter of Hon. Isaac 
Royall, of Medford, Massachusetts, having died on the pas- 
sage. In 1778 he was proscribed and banished ; and the year 
following was included in the Conspiracy Act. In May, 
1779, the Committee on confiscated estates offered for sale his 
" large and elegant house, with the out-houses, gardens, and 
other accommodations," &c, " pleasantly situated in Summer 
Street, Boston, a little below Trinity Church." His vast 
domain in Maine, though entailed upon his heirs, was confis- 
cated. This estate extended from Kittery to Saco on the 
coast, and many miles back from the shore ; and, for the pur- 
poses of farming and lumbering, was of great value ; and the 
water-power and mill-privileges, rendered it, even at the time 
of the sequestration, a princely fortune. The principles which 
applied in the case of the Morris 1 heirs would seem to apply 
here, and thus cast a doubt upon the legality of the Confisca- 
tion Act, as far as the remainder or reversionary interest of 
the heirs of the first Sir William were concerned ; since it is 
apparently clear that the life-interest of the second Sir Wil- 
liam could only be, or by the statute actually was, diverted 
and passed to the State. But however this may be, the con- 
fiscation was total ; and so utter became the poverty of the 
last survivors of the family, that they were literally saved 
from the almshouse by the charity of individuals who com- 
miserated their fallen condition. 

During the Revolution the Baronet was treated with great 
respect and deference by his fellow-exiles in England. His 
house in London was open for their reception, and in most 
cases in which the Loyalists from New England united in rep- 
resentations to the ministry or to the throne, he was their 
chairman or deputed organ of communication. He was al- 
lowed £500 sterling per annum by the British Government, 
and this stipend, with the wreck of his fortune, consisting of 
personal effects, rendered his situation comfortable, and en- 
abled him to relieve the distresses of the less fortunate. And 
it is to be remembered to his praise, and to be recorded in re- 
1 See notice of Roger Morris. 


spect for his memory, that his pecuniary benefactions were 
not confined to his countrymen who were in banishment for 
their adherence to the Crown, but were extended to Whigs 
who languished in England in captivity. It is to be remem- 
bered, too, that his private life was irreproachable, and that 
he was among the founders of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society. In 1779 the Loyalists then in London formed an 
Association, and Sir William was appointed President. As a 
matter of curious history, the proceedings of this body may 
not be unworthy of preservation. The account which fol- 
lows, is derived from a manuscript record in the possession of 
a friend. 

The first meeting was at Spring Garden Coffee-House, May 
29, 1779, and the Baronet occupied the chair. This was 
merely preliminary, and a Resolution to hold a general meet- 
ing at the Crown and Anchor, in the Strand, on the 26th of 
the same month, " to consider of measures proper to be taken 
for their interest and reputation in the present conjuncture," 
was the only business of moment which was transacted. 
About ninety persons met at the place and time designated ; 
when a committee, composed of Loyalists from each Colony, 
was appointed, " to consider of the proper measures to be pur- 
sued on the matters which have been proposed relative to the 
affairs of the British Colonies in North America, and to pre- 
pare anything relative thereto, and make report at the next 
meeting, to be called as soon as ready." 

This Committee, accordingly, reported an Address to the 
King, which was taken up on the 6th of July, and which, 
having been read " paragraph by paragraph, and debated, was 
agreed on." In this document it is said, that, " notwithstand- 
ing your Majesty's arms have not been attended with ail the 
effect which those exertions promised, and from which occa- 
sion has been taken to raise an indiscriminate charge of dis- 
affection in the Colonists, * we beg leave, some of us from our 

1 It will be remembered that at this time the Royal cause wore an un- 
promising aspect ; Burgoyne had surrendered, and France had formed an 
alliance with the Whigs, and the allusions of the Address were probably 
to these circumstances. 


own knowledge, and others from the best information, to 
assure your Majesty that the greater number of your subjects 
in the Confederated Colonies, notwithstanding every art to 
seduce, every device to intimidate, and a variety of oppres- 
sions to compel them to abjure their sovereign, entertain the 
firmest attachment and allegiance to your Majesty's sacred 
person and government. In support of those truths, we need 
not appeal to the evidence of our own sufferings ; it is notori- 
ous that we have sacrificed all which the most loyal subjects 
could forego, or the happiest could possess. But, with confi- 
dence, we appeal to the struggles made against the usurpations 
of Congress, by Counter Resolves in very large districts of 
country, and to the many unsuccessful attempts by bodies of 
the loyal in arms, which have subjected them to all the rigors 
of inflamed resentment ; we appeal to the sufferings of multi- 
tudes, who for their loyalty have been subjected to insults, 
fines, and imprisonments, patiently enduring all in the expec- 
tation of that period which shall restore to them the blessings 
of your Majesty's Government ; we appeal to the thousands 
now serving in your Majesty's armies, and in private ships-of- 
war, the former exceeding in number the troops enlisted to 
oppose them ; finally, we make a melancholy appeal to the 
many families who have been banished from their once peace- 
ful habitations ; to the public forfeiture of a long list of estates ; 
and to the numerous executions of our fellow-citizens, who 
have sealed their loyalty with their blood. If any Colony or 
District, when covered or possessed by your Majesty's troops 
had been called upon to take arms, and had refused ; or, if 
any attempts had been made to form the Loyalist militia, or 
otherwise, and it had been declined, we should not' on this 
occasion have presumed thus to address your Majesty ; but if, 
on the contrary, no general measure to the above effect was 
attempted, if petitions from bodies of your Majesty's subjects, 
who wished to rise in aid of Government, have been neglected, 
and the representations of the most respectable Loyalists dis- 
regarded, we assure ourselves that the equity and wisdom of 
your Majesty's mind will not admit of any impressions inju- 


rious to the honor and loyalty of your faithful subjects in 
those Colonies." 

Sir William Pepperell, Messrs. Fiteh, Leonard, Rome, Ste- 
vens, Patterson, Galloway, Lloyd, Dulaney, Chalmers, Ran- 
dolph, Macknight, Ingram, and Doctor Chandler, composing a 
committee of thirteen, were appointed to present this Address. 
At the same meeting it was resolved, " That it be recom- 
mended to the General Meeting to appoint a Committee, with 
directions to manage all such public matters as shall appear 
for the honor and interest of the Loyal in the Colonies, or who 
have taken refuge from America in this country, with power to 
call General Meetings, to whom they shall from time to time 
report." Of this Committee, Sir Egerton Leigh, of South Caro- 
lina, was Chairman. This body was soon organized. On the 
26th of July, Mr. Galloway, of Pennsylvania, who was a mem- 
ber of it, reported rules for its government, which, after being 
read and debated, were adopted. The proceedings of this 
Committee do not appear to have been very important ; in- 
deed, to meet and sympathize with one another, was probably 
their chief employment. On the 2d of August, it was, how- 
ever, " Resolved, That each member of the Committee be de- 
sired to prepare a brief account of such documents, facts, and 
informations, as he hath in his power, or can obtain, relat- 
ing to the rise, progress, and present state of the rebellion in 
America, and the causes which have prevented its being sup- 
pressed, with short narratives of their own, stating their facts, 
with their remarks thereon, or such observations as may occur 
to them ; each gentleman attending more particularly to the 
Colony to which he belongs, and referring to his document for 
the support of each fact." This resolution was followed by 
another, having for its design to unite with them the Loyalists 
who remained in America, in these terms : " Resolved, That 
circular letters be transmitted from the Committee to the prin- 
cipal gentleman from the different Colonies at New York, in- 
forming them of the proceedings of the General Meeting, the 
appointment and purposes of this Standing Committee, and 

requesting their cooperation and correspondence." 



August 11, 1779, at a meeting of the Committee, report 
was made that General Robertson had been " so obliging as 
to undertake the trouble of communicating to our brethren in 
New York our wishes to have an institution established there 
on similar principles to our own, for the purpose of corre- 
sponding with us on matters relative to the public interests of 
British America." Whereupon it was resolved, that, in place 
of the circular letter resolved upon on the 2d, u a letter to 
General Robertson, explanatory of our designs and wishes, 
and entreating his good offices to the furtherance of an estab- 
lishment of a Committee at New York, be drawn up and trans- 
mitted." At the same meeting, (August 11th,) Sir William 
Pepperell stated that Lord George Germain had been apprised 
of the proceedings of the " Loyalists for considering of Amer- 
ican affairs in so far as their interests were concerned, and that 
his Lordship had been pleased to declare his entire approbation 
of their institution." 

/The framing of the letter to General Robertson, above 
mentioned, seems to have been, now, the only affair of mo- 
ment, which, by the record, occupied the attention of the 
Association. It may be remarked, however, that agreeably to 
the recommendation above stated, a Board of Loyalists was 
organized at New York, composed of delegates from each 
Colony. Another body, of which the Baronet was President, 
was the Board of Agents constituted after the peace, to prose- 
cute the claims of Loyalists to compensation for their losses 
by the war, and under the Confiscation Acts of the several 
States. Sir James Wright, of Georgia, was first elected, but 
at his decease, Sir William was selected as his successor, and 
continued in office until the Commissioners made their final 
report, and the commission was dissolved. Sir William's own 
claim was of difficult adjustment, and occupied the attention 
of the Commissioners several days. In 1788, and after Mr. 
Pitt's plan had received the sanction of Parliament, the Board 
of Agents presented an Address of thanks to the King for the 
liberal provision made for themselves and the persons whom 
they represented, which was presented to his Majesty by the 


Baronet. On this occasion, he and the other Agents were 
admitted to the presence, and "all had the honor to kiss his 
Majesty's hand." As this Address contains no matter of 
historical interest, it is not here inserted. But some mention 
may be made of West's picture, the " Reception of the Amer- 
ican Loyalists by Great Britain in 1783," of which an engrav- 
ing is before me. The Baronet is the prominent personage 
represented, and appears in a voluminous wig, a flowing gown, 
in advance of the other figures, with one hand extended and 
nearly touching the crown, which lies on a velvet cushion on 
a table, and holding in the other hand, at his side, a scroll or 
manuscript half unrolled. 

The full description of this picture is as follows : " Re- 
ligion and Justice are represented extending the mantle of 
Britannia, whilst she herself is holding out her arm and shield 
to receive the Loyalists. Under the shield is the Crown of. 
Great Britain, surrounded by Loyalists. This group of fig- 
ures consists of various characters, representing the Law, the 
Church, and the Government, with other inhabitants of North 
America ; and as a marked characteristic of that quarter of 
the globe, an Indian Chief extending one hand to Britannia, 
and pointing the other to a Widow and Orphans, rendered so 
by the civil war ; also, a Negro and Children looking up to 
Britannia in grateful remembrance of their emancipation from 
Slavery. In a Cloud, on which Religion and Justice rest, 
are seen in an opening glory the Genii of Great Britain and 
of America, binding up the broken fasces of the two countries, 
as emblematical of the treaty of peace and friendship between 
them. At the head of the group of Loyalists are likenesses of 
Sir William Pepperell, Baronet, one of the Chairmen of their 
Agents to the Crown and Parliament of Great Britain ; and 
William Franklin, Esq., son of Dr. Benjamin Franklin, who, 
having his Majesty's commission of Governor of New Jersey, 
preserved his fidelity and loyalty to his Sovereign from the 
commencement to the conclusion of the contest, notwithstand- 
ing powerful incitements to the contrary. The two figures 
on the right hand are the painter, Mr. West, the President 


of the Royal Academy, and his lady, both natives of Phila- 
delphia." l 

Sir William continued in England during the remainder of 
his life. He died in Portman Square, London, in December, 
1816, aged seventy. William, his only son, deceased in 1809. 
The baronetcy was inherited by no other member of the fam- 
ily, and became extinct. His daughters were Elizabeth, who 
married the Rev. Henry Hutton, of London ; Mary, the wife 
of Sir William Congreve ; and Harriet, the wife of Sir Charles 
Thomas Palmer, Baronet. The Pepperell mansion-house, at 
Kittery, (1848,) is still standing. It is plain, but very large, 
and contains several rooms, some of which are spacious. It 
is near the sea, and lately passed into the hands of fishermen, 
at a very low price, and is occupied by a number of families. 
The tomb, which was erected in 1734, is near; and when en- 
tered by a visitor, a few years since, contained little else than 
bones strewed in confusion about its muddy bottom. Among 
them were, of course, all that remains of the victor of Louis- 
burg, who was deposited in it at his decease, in 1759. His 
papers, (or many of them,) not long ago, were seen in a build- 
ing which had insecure fastenings, and packed in disorder in 
open casks and boxes. 

Perannear, Henry. Was banished, and his property 
confiscated. In 1794, his executor, Robert Cooper, in a me- 
morial dated at London, stated to the British Government 
that several large debts due to him in America at the time of 
his banishment were unpaid, and interposition and interference 
w r ere desired to recover them. 

Perkins, Nathaniel. Of Boston. Physician. Graduated 
at Harvard University in 1734. When, in 1764, hospitals 
were established in Boston Harbor for treatment of the small- 
pox by inoculation, he was one of the attending physicians ; 
as were Doctors Sylvester Gardiner, James Lloyd, and Miles 
Whitworth, fellow-Loyalists, who are noticed in these pages. 

1 Mr. West was not born in Philadelphia, but in Springfield, Penn- 
sylvania : Moses, the engraver, was mistaken. Mrs. West was Elizabeth 


Dr. Perkins was an Addresser of Gage in 1774 ; went to 
Halifax with the British Army in 1776 ; was proscribed and 
banished in 1778 ; and died in 1799. 

Perkins, James. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutch- 
inson and of Gage, and a Protester against the Whigs. In 
April, 1776, he was arrested by order of the Council. He 
died in his own house, on the spot where the Tremont House 
now stands, in 1803, aged eighty-seven, and was interred in 
the Granary Burying-ground. 

Perkins, Houghton. Of Boston. Born in that town in 
1735. Went to Halifax, and died there in 1778. 

Perkins, William Lee. Of Boston. Physician. An 
Addresser of Gage in 1775. Went to Halifax with his fam- 
ily in 1776. Washington, on taking possession of Boston, 
ordered his stock of medicines to be seized for the use of the 
Continental Army. In 1778 Dr. Perkins was proscribed 
and banished. He died at Hampton Court, England, in 
1797. He was the author of several medical publications of 
much merit. 

Perkins, Azariah. Died in King's County, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1825, aged eighty-three. 

Peronneau, Henry. Of South Carolina. Treasurer of 
the Colony. Went to England, and died there in 1786. 

Peters, Samuel, D.D. An Episcopal clergyman. Was 
born at Hebron, Connecticut, in 1735, and graduated at Yale 
College in 1757. In 1762, he took charge of the churches 
at Hebron and Hartford ; and was dismissed in 1774. In a 
curious tract, I find the misfortunes of the church in Hebron, 
in procuring a minister, cited as an argument for an Amer- 
ican Episcopate. It appears that they sent one candidate to 
England for ordination, who perished on the return passage ; 
a second, who died on shipboard, and was buried in the ocean ; 
a third, who was taken by the French, and passed the remain- 
der of his life in prison ; and that Mr. Peters himself, who was 
the fourth, came near dying, while absent, of the small-pox. 

The loyal conduct and imprudence of Dr. Peters involved 
him in many difficulties ; and perhaps no clergyman of the 

178 PETERS. 

time was more obnoxious. He was charged with making 
false representations to his correspondents in England, and 
various acts of a similar nature. To answer these accusations 
he signed the following declaration, in August, 1774 : " I, the 
subscriber, have not sent any letter to the Bishop of London, 
or the venerable Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 
&c, relative to the Boston Port Bill, or the Tea affair, or the 
Controversy between Great Britain and the Colonies, and de- 
sign not to, during my natural life, as these controversies are 
out of my business as a clergyman ; also, I have not wrote to 
England to any other gentleman or designed Company, nor 
will I do it. Witness my hand," &c. 

This paper was extorted from him by about three hundred 
persons, who assembled at his house, some of whom, in 
charging him with his offences, threatened him with a coat of 
tar and feathers. They demanded to see copies of all his let- 
ters, and of the articles which he had sent to the newspapers 
for publication ; and they obtained a copy of certain Resolves, 
which he confessed he had composed for the press. These 
resolves are thirteen in number, and relate, principally, to 
the Tea question. They are not temperate, and contain some 
allusions which might well create ill-feeling among the Whigs ; 
and their publication produced new difficulties. In Septem- 
ber he was again visited by the people, who made known their 
determination to obtain retraction and satisfaction. He en- 
deavored to reason with a committee of their number, and to 
justify his conduct, and the principles of the offensive resolves. 
The committee, after listening awhile, told him that they did 
not come to dispute with him, and advised that he should go 
out and address the body without, who surrounded his house, 
and promised him that he should return unharmed. He com- 
plied, and placing himself in the midst of the multitude, com- 
menced an harangue, which was disturbed by the discharge 
of a gun in his house. It is said that Dr. Peters had assured 
the committee no arms were in his dwelling, except one or 
two old guns, which were out of repair ; but, on searching it, 
several guns and pistols, loaded with powder and ball, some 

PETERS. 179 

swords, and about two dozen large wooden clubs, were found 
concealed ; but he was still allowed to finish his address, and 
to retire without molestation, as had been promised to him. 
Yet it was insisted that he should draw up and sign another 
declaration. He completed a paper of this description, which 
Avas rejected. He was then urged by the committee to affix 
his name to another framed by themselves. This he declined 
to do ; and while in conversation on the subject, the mass, im- 
patient of delay, and weary and hungry, rushed into the house 
by the door and one window, and seizing the Doctor, bore 
him to a horse, and carried him to the Meeting-house Green, 
or parade-ground, three quarters of a mile distant, and com- 
pelled his acquiescence. Having signed the paper prepared 
by the committee, he read it to the people himself; when 
they gave three cheers and dispersed. During the affair, his 
gown and shirt were torn, one sash was somewhat shattered, 
a table was turned over, and a punch-bowl and glass were 
broken. Thus the damage to his person and property was 
inconsiderable ; though the multitude — about three hundred 
in number — were much exasperated in consequence of the 
arms found secreted in his house, contrary to his assurances. 
The Doctor, soon after this occurrence, fled from Hebron 
to Boston, with the design of embarking for England, to make 
a representation of the treatment which he had received from 
the inhabitants of his town and neighborhood. It was feared 
that he would state his grievances in a light which would en- 
danger the Charter of Connecticut, and some anxiety was 
manifested by the Whigs of that Colony ; and the more 
especially, as at Boston he received the countenance of the 
Governor, of the Commissioners of the Customs, the Manda- 
mus Councillors, and the Episcopal clergy, all of whom, it 
was feared, would testify to his character, and to the injuries 
which he had sustained. It was deemed advisable, therefore, 
that his motions should be watched, that communications with 
his friends in Connecticut should be intercepted, and that 
other means should be adopted to prevent his procuring testi- 
mony to make out a case against the Colony of a nature likely 

180 PETERS. 

to engage the attention of the ministry in England. The fol- 
lowing letter to his mother, which was intercepted, shows that 
his plans were indeed similar to those which were suspected 
by the persons who observed his movements : — 

" Dear Mother : I am well, and doing business for my 
intended route. I hear a mob was gathered for me the day I 
left Hebron ; what they have done I cannot yet find out. As 
Jonathan will be obliged to attend at New Haven when the 
Assembly sits, I desire him to tell Mr. Jarvis, Andrews, 
Hubbard, &c, to collect all the facts touching mobs and in- 
sults offered the clergy of our churches, or her members ; 
likewise to send me a copy of the Clergy's petition to Gov- 
ernor Trumbull, and what he does in answer. If Jonathan 
is hurt, or my house is hurt or damaged, let that be trans- 
mitted to me within fourteen days, or, after that, send accounts 
to the care of Mr. Rice Williams, a woollen-draper, in Lon- 
don. I am in high spirits. I should be happy if my friends 
and relations at Hebron were provided for at these bad times, 
when things are growing worse. Six regiments are now com- 
ing from England, and sundry men-of-war ; so soon as they 
come, hanging work will go on, and destruction will first at- 
tend the seaport towns ; the lintel sprinkled on the side-posts 
will preserve the faithful. I wish Hannah to take some pa- 
pers which she and I laid away, and bring them to me ; she 
knows where they be ; or burn them if this letter appears to 
be opened before it is opened by you. Mr. Beebe, and Mr. 
David Jones, Mr. Warner, and Mr. Griffin, of Millington, 
must draught a narrative of their sufferings, and such words 
as Colonel Spencer, &c, have spoke by way of encourage- 
ment to mobs ; and let Dr. Beebe send the same to me, to the 
care of Mr. Thomas Brown, merchant, in Boston." 

In another letter to Rev. Doctor Auchmuty, of New York, 
which was intercepted at the same time, dated at Boston, Oc- 
tober 1, 1774, Doctor Peters says : " I am soon to sail for 
England ; I shall stand in great need of your letters and the 
letters of the clergy of New York. Judge Auchmuty, &c, 
&c, will do all things reasonable for the neighboring charter ; 

PETERS. 181 

necessity calls for such friendship, as the head is sick, and the 
heart faint, and spiritual iniquity rides in high places with 
halberts, pistols, and swords," &c. ; and he closes with the 
significant remark, that " The bounds of New York may 
directly extend to Connecticut River, Boston meet them, 
and New Hampshire take the Province of Maine, and Rhode 
Island be swallowed up as Dathan." 

He went to England, as he contemplated, and carried with 
him, as is manifest, a desire to divide Connecticut between 
New York and Massachusetts, and to swallow up Rhode Isl- 
and ; but the Ministry, soon after his departure, had graver 
work to attend to than any which he could have proposed, 
and those whom he left behind soon lost sight of him and 
his plans in the turmoils of civil war. He remained abroad 
until the year 1805, when he returned to America. While 
absent he was elected Bishop of Vermont, but declined the 
station. He preached sometimes in London, but his style 
of composition, as well as his manner of speaking, failed 
to interest hearers ; and a fellow-Loyalist, who heard him 
deliver a sermon in a London pulpit, said it was " hard to 
conceive how he got there." - While absent, too, he pub- 
lished a "History of Connecticut," which "is embarrassed 
in its authority by a number of fables," and which is ever 
referred to in amusement or in disgust. He never, it is 
affirmed, acknowledged that he was the author of this book ; 
but the fact is now well ascertained. In 1817 and 1818 he 
made a journey to the West, and as far as the Falls of St. 
Anthony, claiming a large territory under Carver. 

" On his return from his Western journey," said the late 
Governor John S. Peters of Connecticut, " he settled down 
in New York, and lived in poverty and obscurity on his ficti- 
tious land sales, and on charity, promising himself and friends 
an abundance when he should receive pay for his land. In 
1825 I went to New York to visit him, with a view to induce 
him, if possible, to remove to my house ; and I actually urged 
it until his patience failed, and he turned from me in a rage. 
" I won't go — I'll perish first," said he. I ventured one 

VOL. II. 16 

182 PETERS. 

step further. " My dear uncle," said I, " will you consent 
that, at your decease, your body should be removed to He- 
bron, and laid by the side of your wives ? He instantly 
burst into tears, and walked off towards his lonely home." 

He died at New York, April 19, 1826, in his ninety-first 
year. His remains were conveyed to Hebron, where his grand- 
son, Samuel Jarvis Peters, of New Orleans, has erected a mon- 
ument to mark the spot of his burial. His three wives de- 
parted before him : — Hannah, daughter of Silas Owen ; Abi- 
gail, daughter of Samuel Gilbert, who survived her marriage 
but twenty days ; and Mary, daughter of William Birdseye, 
who deceased three weeks after giving birth to a son. Two 
children survived him ; Hannah, who married William Jar- 
vis, Secretary of Upper Canada, and a son, who died at New 
Orleans. He was a man of very commanding appearance. 
" He was full six feet high, remarkably erect, and of a large 
and muscular body, but not fat ; his eyes were blue, and his 
face strongly marked by the small-pox. . . . He had an 
iron will as well as an iron frame ; and whatever he under- 
took he pursued with a spirit of indomitable perseverance. 
His ruling passion, perhaps, was ambition. . . . He 
loved kings, admired the British Government, and revered 
the hierarchy. He aped the style of an English nobleman : 
built his house in a forest, kept a coach, and looked with some 
degree of scorn upon Republicans ; hence the fierce opposition 
he had to encounter from the Whigs. In his domestic and 
private relations he was everything that could be desired." 
Two of his friends, who were known to have visited him, 
were accused, on their return, of having brought letters to his 
family, but denied the fact. They were seen, however, after- 
wards, to go to a stone-wall, which, on being examined, was 
found to contain two letters ; that given in the text is a copy of 
one of them, and these men, when again questioned, confessed 
that they had deposited them there. 

In McFingal we read, — 

" From priests of all degrees and metres, 
T' our fag-end man, poor Parson Peters." 

PETERS. 183 

Peters, Bemslie. Of Hebron, Connecticut. Brother of 
Rev. Samuel. Removed his family to Mooretown, Vermont, 
in 1774, but returned to Hebron the next year, in consequence 
of failing to obtain title to lands of which he was the agent 
of the proprietors, and because of the political troubles of the 
time. In 1777 he went to New York, sailed soon for Ens- 
land, and joined his brother in London. In consideration of 
his loyalty, he obtained the commission of Captain. In 1794 
he drew a large tract of land near Toronto, Upper Canada, 
and settled upon it. He died in 1799. His wife was Annis 
Shipman. His son, Hon. John S. Peters, late Governor of 
Connecticut, died at Hebron, unmarried, in 1858, aged eighty- 

Peters, John. Of Hebron, Connecticut. Born in 1740. 
A most devoted Loyalist. He went to Canada finally, and 
raised a corps called the Queen's Loyal Rangers, of which 
Lord Dorchester gave him command, with the rank of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. At the peace he retired to England, and 
died at Paddington of gout in the head and stomach, in 1788, 
His property was confiscated. He left a wife and eight chil- 
dren, who, at the time of his decease, w r ere at the island of 
Cape Breton. A notice of him concludes thus : " Rebellion 
and Loyalty are alike fatal to some families, and alike prosper- 
ous to others." 

Peters, James. Of New York. He was one of the fifty- 
five petitioners. [See Abijah Willard.~] He settled in New 
Brunswick in 1783, and was one of the agents to locate lands 
granted to the Loyalists who removed to that Province. Of 
the city of St. John he was a grantee. In 1792 he was a 
magistrate of Queen's County. He was a member of the 
House of Assembly for a long period. He died at his seat in 
Gagetown, New Brunswick, in 1820, aged seventy-five. 

Two of his sons died at Fredericton, the capital of the Prov- 
ince, in 1848, namely : Charles Jeffrey Peters, Attorney- 
General, and a member of the Executive and Legislative 
Councils, in his seventy-sixth year ; and William Tyng Peters, 
Clerk of the Courts and of the Legislative Council. 


Peters, Harry. Son of James Peters. He was at New 
York in July, 1783, and was one of the fifty-five petitioners. 
[See Abijah WillardJ] He went to New Brunswick, and was 
a member of the Council. 

Peters, Valentine Hulet. Clerk of the town of Hemp- 
stead, Queen's County, New York. In April, 1775, he cer- 
tified to the proceedings of " the most numerous town-meet- 
ing that had been held there for many years past." The Re- 
solutions — six in number — appear to have been adopted with 
great unanimity ; they are very loyal in their tone, and un- 
sparing in censures of the course of the Whigs. In 1780 
he was an Addresser of Governor Robertson, and a magis- 

Peters, William. Died at Woodstock, New Brunswick, 
January, 1835. He emigrated to that Province at the close 
of the Revolution. For ten years he was a member of the 
House of Assembly, and was a magistrate for a much longer 

Peters, William. Died in King's County, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1805. 

Peters, Thomas. A magistrate ; died at Fredericton, 
New Brunswick, 1813, aged sixty-four. 

Pettingill, Matthew. Died at St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, 1817, aged eighty-one years. 

Phair, Andrew. In 1782 he was Adjutant of Arnold's 
American Legion. He settled in New Brunswick ; received 
half-pay ; was Postmaster of Fredericton, and died in that 

Phillips, Josiah. Of Princess Anne County, Virginia. 
He was commissioned by Lord Dunmore, and commanded 
a band of Tories, who were much feared in the section of 
country which they desolated. Murders, the burning of 
houses, the wasting of farms, and other crimes at which hu- 
mane men shudder, were common acts during the summer of 
1777. All efforts to apprehend Phillips, or disperse his asso- 
ciates, were, for a time, wholly unsuccessful. The Legisla- 
ture, after various means to bring him to justice had failed, 


passed an Act, commanding him to surrender on or before a 
specified day, and abide a trial according to the customary 
forms, or be proclaimed an outlaw and a traitor. He did not 
appear, but continued his lawless course, and was finally cap- 
tured in arms. Instead of proceeding against him under the 
Act of Attainder, the Attorney-General of Virginia procured 
his indictment at common-law, as a murderer and a robber. 
Phillips pleaded that he was a British subject ; that he had 
acted under a commission from Lord Dunmore ; and that he 
stood before the Court as a mere prisoner of war. His plea 
was overruled, and he was convicted by the jury upon the 
evidence. Soon after, and in 1778, he was executed. Though 
the facts of the case were undoubtedly as here stated, there 
was much sympathy excited in his behalf, and much clamor 
raised against those who were instrumental in bringing him 
to punishment. 

Phillips, John. Of Massachusetts. Commander of Cas- 
tle William, (Fort Independence,) Boston Harbor. Went to 
England, and was an Addresser of the King, at London, in 
1779. At the peace, accompanied by his family of four per- 
sons, he went from New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, 
where the Crown granted him one town lot. He was subse- 
quently in Canada. He died at Boston, in 1794, aged fifty- 
eight. Mary, his widow, died at the same place the same 

Phillips, John. Residence unknown. Was Captain- 
Lieutenant of the Royal Garrison Battalion. Possibly the 
same who was many years a resident at Halifax, Nova Scotia, 
and who died in England, in 1801, aged sixty-four. 

Phillips, Frederick. Of New York. He was de- 
scended from Frederick Phillips, who emigrated from Hol- 
land in 1658. The first Frederick was one of the founders of 
the city of New York, and brought with him money, plate, 
and jewels, with the design of settling upon and improving 
large estates which he had purchased on the Hudson River. 
He had obtained two patents. The upper was named Phil- 
lipsbourgh, and the lower Fredericksbourgh. The one con- 



tained one hundred and fifty, and the other, two hundred and 
forty square miles of territory. He also purchased several 
houses in the city, as well as lands there, and laid out lots 
and streets, and erected buildings ; and having established 
his residence in the city, he commenced the contemplated 
improvements on the estate called Phillipsbourgh. At his 
decease, the whole property descended to his heir. At the 
period of the Revolution, it had been divided, by the will of 
the previous possessor, (whose name was Frederick Phillips,) 
between his four children : and was in possession of Frederick 
Phillips, who is the subject of this notice ; of the heirs of 
Philip Phillips ; of Susanna and Beverley Robinson ; and 
of Roger and Mary Morris. 

The Frederick Phillips of whom we are now to speak occu- 
pied an elevated position in Colonial society, but he does not 
appear to have been a prominent actor in public affairs. He 
was, however, a member of the House of Assembly, and held 
the commission of Colonel in the militia. Nor does it seem 
that, though a friend of existing institutions, and an opposer 
of the Whigs, he was an active partisan. In April, 1775, he 
went to the ground appointed by the Whigs of West Chester 
County, to elect deputies to Congress ; and declared that he 
would not join in the business of the day ; and that his sole 
purpose in going there was, to protest against their illegal and 
unconstitutional proceedings. On some other occasions he 
pursued a smilar line of conduct ; but his name is seldom met 
with in the documents of the time. Soon after 1771, Colonel 
David Humphreys, who subsequently became an aide to 
Washington, and, under the Federal Government, Minister to 
Portugal and Spain, and who had just completed his studies 
at Yale College, became a resident in his family, then living 
on Phillips Manor. The late President D wight was well ac- 
quainted with him at this time, and speaks of him as " a wor- 
thy and respectable man, not often excelled in personal and 
domestic amiableness ;" and of Mrs. Phillips he remarks that 
she "was an excellent woman." 

In the progress of events, Colonel Phillips abandoned his 


home, and took refuge in the city of New York, and finally 
embarked for England. In person he was extremely large ; 
and on account of his bulk his wife seldom rode in the same 
carriage with him. Colonel Phillips had one brother and 
two sisters, who inherited the Manor of Fredericksbourgh in 
equal portions. His brother, whose name was Philip, died 
before the Revolution, and as his children were too young to 
take a part in the war, their share was saved, and is (1846) 
still in the family. For an account of Susanna and Mary, 
the sisters, the reader is referred to the notices of their hus- 
bands, — the senior Colonel Beverley Robinson, and Colonel 
Roger Morris. The Manor of Phillipsbourgh was the proper- 
ty of Colonel Phillips, and, like his sisters' shares of the other 
estate, was confiscated. He applied to the British Govern- 
ment for compensation, and was allowed .£62,075 sterling, or, 
about three hundred thousand dollars. In 1809, in an Eng- 
lish work, the value of the two manors^ or the whole of the 
original Phillips property, was estimated at six or seven hun- 
dred thousand pounds. Nor was the smaller sum extravagant. 
But it is to be remembered, that lands, in 1783, hardly had a 
fixed value ; while in 1809, the impulse which the Revolution 
had given to settlements, to increase of population, &c, had 
already effected vast changes in the marketable prices of real 

Colonel Phillips died in England in 1785. His widow 
survived until 1817, and until the age of eighty-four. His 
eldest daughter, Maria Eliza, married the fifth Viscount 
Strangford, — grandfather of the present (1854) Viscount, 
— in 1779, and died in 1838. Five sons were bred to 
arms. Of these, I find certain mention of two. John 
Phillips entered the navy, was in thirteen engagements, 
particularly distinguished himself in the memorable battle 
of Camperdown, and died "at Bristol, England, a Post-Cap- 
tain, at the age of forty-seven. Charles Phillips was com- 
missioned an Ensign in 1783, as a Colonel in 1812, as a 
Major-General in 1814, and as a Lieutenant-General in 
1830 ; was in service in the West Indies, in England, at 


Gibraltar, in Egypt, at Malta, in Italy, and Sicily ; and died 
in 1846, at his seat, Linwood, near Lyndhurst, New Forest. 
I find the decease of two other members of this family : thus, 
at Bath, in 1828, " Miss Phillips, youngest daughter of the 
late General Phillips, and aunt to Viscount Strangford"; and 
at Horsley Hall, in 1829, her brother, P. Phillips. It is quite 
likely that the concluding paragraph of this notice contains 
some errors. 

Phillips, Frederick, Jr. Of New York. Son of 
Frederick Phillips. Estate confiscated. Went to Eng- 
land. Married a niece of Sir Alurecl Clarke, Governor of 
the Cape of Good Hope. 

Phips, David. Graduated at Harvard University in 1741. 
His father was Spencer Phips, a Lieutenant-Governor, and 
adopted son of Sir William Phips, the first Governor of Mas- 
sachusetts under the charter of William and Mary. David 
was Colonel of a troop of guards in Boston, and Sheriff of 
Middlesex County. He was an Addresser on three occasions: 
as his name is found among the one hundred and twenty- 
four merchants and others, of Boston, who addressed Hutch- 
inson in 1774 ; among the ninety-seven gentlemen and prin- 
cipal inhabitants of that town ; and among the eighteen coun- 
try gentlemen who were driven from their homes, and who 
addressed Gage, in October, 1775. He went to Halifax in 
1776, and was proscribed and banished under the Act of 
1778. His house at Cambridge was confiscated. He died 
at Bath, England, in 1811, aged eighty-seven. 

Pickard, Benjamin. Drummer in Butler's Rangers. 
Settled at the peace — when the corps was disbanded — in 
Canada, near Niagara, and received a grant of land from the 
Crown. He was living in 1855, at the age of ninety-two, 
" hale and hearty " ; and was supposed to be the only survivor 
of the Rangers, a corps, in the Revolution, " seven hundred 

Pickett, David. Of Stamford, Connecticut. In April, 
1776, the Committee of Inspection advertised him as an 
enemy to his country, and recommended to all persons to 


break off commerce and intercourse with him. Accompanied 
by his wife and seven children, he went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, in the ship Union, in 1783, and passed the re- 
mainder of his life in that Province. He was Treasurer of 
King's County, and many years a Judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas. He died in 1826. 

Pickett, James. Of Norwalk, Connecticut. Arrived at 
St. John, New Brunswick, with his wife and two children in 
the ship Union, and was a grantee of that city. He died at 
Portland, New Brunswick, in 1812. 

Pickle, Nicholas. Died at Upham, King's County, New 
Brunswick, in 1843, aged ninety-eight ; and his wife died at 
the same place, the same year, at the age of eighty-three. 

Pickman, Benjamin. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Was 
born at Salem in 1740, and graduated at Harvard University 
in 1759. He was a merchant, a Representative to the Gen- 
eral Court, and a Colonel in the militia. " He is very spright- 
ly, sensible, and entertaining," — said John Adams in 1772, 
— " talks a great deal, tells old stories in abundance about the 
witchcraft, paper money," &c. In 1774, Colonel Pickman 
was an Addresser of Gage. He went to England. In 1775 
we find him a guest of Governor Hutchinson ; and the next 
year, a member of the Loyalist Club, London. In 1778 he 
was proscribed and banished. A year later, his home was at 
Bristol. In 1783 he was in London, and saw Mrs. Siddons 
play Jane Shore at Drury Lane Theatre. He returned to 
Massachusetts, and in 1787 the Legislature restored citizen- 
ship, and a part of his confiscated estate. He died at Salem, 
in 1819, aged seventy-nine. Gentlemen of his lineage are of 
great respectability in his native State at the present time. 

Pike, John. Of Pennsylvania. Attainted of treason ; 
surrendered, and was discharged. 

Pike, Thomas. A fencing-master, of Philadelphia. Dis- 
sembled, and was supposed to be Whiggish. But in 1777 he 
was apprehended (with several others), and sent to Virginia 
for safe keeping. On the journey he acted the part of major- 
domo, or caterer, at the inns at which the party stopped. 

190 PILE. 

Pile, John. Of North Carolina. Colonel in the Loyal 
Militia. The family of this name, of whom the subject of 
this notice was the head, was noted for their attachment to the 
Crown. In January, 1776, Governor Martin authorized Col- 
onel Pile to erect the King's standard, to enlist and array the 
loyal subjects in Chatham County, and " to oppose all rebels 
and traitors." The duty was promptly performed. But the 
Colonel, before the close of the year, was seized and borne off 
from the house of a fellow-Loyalist ; and, taken prisoner in the 
battle of Cross Creek, was confined in Halifax Jail. We 
hardly hear of him again until February, 1781, when, in the 
words of another * : — 

" Pickens had ordered a halt, to allow those engaged in the 
night's expedition to refresh themselves with some breakfast, 
when an alarm was given of the approach of the enemy in 
force. Great was the joy of the camp, however, to learn that 
the advancing column was not Tarleton, with his famous 
cavalry, in quest of the captors of the picket, but Lieutenant- 
Colonel Lee, at the head of his legion, who had been sent bv 
General Greene, in advance of the main army, to keep an eye 
upon the enemy, and prevent, if possible, the junction of any 
Loyalists to his standard. This was the first meeting of these 
renowned leaders, who cooperated so actively during the re- 
sidue of the campaign. Informing themselves correctly of 
the situation and movements of the enemy, and learning that 
Tarleton had been despatched westward, to encourage the 
Loyalists beyond the Haw river, and escort to head-quarters 
any who desired to join the King's Army, they set out in 
pursuit, to cut off the communication, and, if possible, compel 
him to action. By a complete surprise on both sides, in the 
search for Tarleton, they came suddenly upon a body of six 
hundred Loyalists, under Colonel Pile, who, inspirited by the 
apparent success of the British arms, and the proclamation of 
their General, to take service under his flag, were on their 
march to Hillsboro' with that object. Expecting to meet 

1 Hon. William A. Graham, of North Carolina. Address before the 
New York Historical Society, 1852. 

PILE. 191 

Tarleton, they supposed the army of Lee and Pickens to be 
his, until they were overthrown, with terrible slaughter. Nine- 
ty lay dead upon the field, and nearly all the residue were 
wounded. Lee and Pickens, hurrying forward, espied the 
camp of Tarleton in the evening, and were at the same time 
joined by Colonel Preston, with three hundred men from the 
mountains of Virginia, who, having heard of the straits of 
Greene's army on his retreat, were marching to join him, 
ignorant that he had passed. . . . But the united forces 
postponing their attack until the morning, Tarleton eluded 
their grasp, and made good his retreat to Hillsboro'." 

Stedman, a British historian of the war, who served in the 
Royal Army at the South, relates that the Loyalists under 
Pile, apprehending no danger, were met in a lane by Lee, and, 
mistaking his cavalry for Tarleton's dragoons, allowed them- 
selves to be surrounded before they discovered their error. 
He says further, that, when they ascertained the truth, they 
called for quarter, but no quarter was granted ; and that 
between two and three hundred of them were inhumanly 
butchered while in the act of begging for mercy. And he 
adds, " Humanity shudders at the recital of so foul a mas- 
sacre." Stedman was not well informed. I nowhere find the 
number of slain stated at more than one hundred. There was, 
indeed, a cry for "mercy " in some parts of Pile's line, and the 
assurance that " We are the King's best friends " ; but Tarle- 
ton's force was within a mile ; and, as Lee remarks, the Whigs 
were compelled to consult their own safety, and to disable their 
foes, in accordance with the "first injunction of humanity." 
The truth is that the conflict was in opposition to the plan 
of the Whig leaders, who designed to place their force in a 
position to convince Pile of the impossibility of successful 
resistance, then to discover their real character, and, failing 
to induce the Loyalists to join them, to give solemn assurance 
of a safe return to their homes. Lee had actually passed 
along Pile's line with a smiling countenance and words of 
compliment, had grasped the hand of Pile himself, and was 
about to communicate his purpose, when the Loyalists on the 


left discovered Pickens's militia, and opened a fire on the rear 
of the Whig cavalry. This untoward circumstance caused 
the " massacre." Colonel Pile fell with many w r ounds, and 
was left on the field as dying ; but he survived. 

This affair, as relates to the Whigs, was of consequence. 
The " capricious goddess gave us Pile and saved Tarleton " ; 
but General Greene was of the opinion that the destruction of 
the former was of more advantage than would have been a 
victory over the latter. 

Pinckney, Charles. Of South Carolina. In 1774 he 
was a member of the Committee of Charleston, appointed to 
receive donations for the relief of the sufferings at Boston, 
caused by the passage of the Boston Port Bill. At that time 
he was also a member of the Charleston Committee of Cor- 
respondence. In 1775 he was President of the South Caro- 
lina Provincial Congress. But in 1782, in consequence of his 
defection from the Whig cause, his estate was amerced twelve 
per cent. This gentleman was known as Charles Pinckney, 
Sen. He was a Colonel in the militia, and a member of the 
House of Assembly. He was educated for the bar, and at the 
period of the Revolution was one of the three eminent law- 
yers of South Carolina, and, as a public speaker, was surpassed 
but by few. In 1775 the Whig Charles Pinckney was a 
youth of seventeen. 

Pine, Alpheus. He was a native of New York, and ac- 
companied the Loyalists of that State to New Brunswick. 
For several years he commanded a vessel on the river St. 
John. On one occasion he sold a quantity of wood to Gen- 
eral Arnold, who, after the peace, lived for some time at 
St. John. Arnold not paying for it, and taking it away 
as had been agreed, he sold it a second time. Just as the 
second purchaser was commencing to haul it off, Arnold 
appeared, and a quarrel ensued. In the affray, Pine caught 
a stick from the pile, and was about to "break the traitor's 
head," when some persons in the crowd interfered. " But 
for this," Pine has frequently told the writer, " I would not 
have left a whole bone in his skin." After living in New 

PINE. 193 

Brunswick for a considerable period, the Captain removed to 
East-port, Maine, where he kept a hotel, which was celebrated. 
Returning to St. John, he died there in March, 1846, of apo- 
plexy, aged eighty-four years. He was universally known as 
an honest man. Fond of relating anecdotes, and possessed of 
a ready memory, he always had a story. His account of the 
sufferings of the Loyalists, after they removed to New Bruns- 
wick, was interesting and painful. 

Pine, Stephen.^ Of Pine's Ferry, New York. He was 
in the service, and connected with the transportation or wagon 
department, until after the battle of Brandywine. In 1783 he 
went to New Brunswick, and died on the river St. John, in 
that Province, about the year 1786, aged sixty-six. Three 
sons, Henry, Alpheus, and Stephen, survived him. Stephen 
is yet (1846) living, at the age of seventy-seven years, and 
resides at Eastport, Maine. Pine's Ferry was a noted cross- 
ing-place on the Croton River, and belonged to the family. 
At the period of the Revolution, a bridge had been erected 
across the stream, which, in turn, was known as Pine's Bridge. 
Smith, who conducted Andre on his way to New York, took 
his leave at this bridge, in the belief that no difficulty would 
happen for the remainder of the journey. The M Cow-Boys 9 ' 
had recently been above it, while the territory below it was con- 
sidered their appropriate domain. These miscreants, though 
mostly Refugees, and therefore belonging to the British side, 
Smith was anxious to avoid ; but Andre, it was supposed, 
would meet no interruption from them. It happened, how- 
ever, that, on the morning he passed the bridge, several persons 
who resided within the Neutral Ground went out for the pro- 
fessed object of obtaining whatever booty chance might throw 
in their way. Whether the three of this party, into whose 
hands Andre fell, were better, or indeed whether they were 
other than " Cow-Boys," has been a question of some discussion. 
Andre himself was of the opinion that Paulding, Van Wart, 
and Williams were men of doubtful virtue ; and Major Tall- 
madge, a Whig officer of distinguished merit, who was ac- 
quainted with the circumstances, seems to have been impressed 

VOL. II. 17 


with the same conviction. One of the Pines has assured me 
that he knew Van Wart was — to use his own words — " a 
British militia-man," for he " had been told so by Van Wart 
himself." Mr. Sparks — a gentleman whose kindness and 
charity are ever manifested, and are as remarkable as his 
fidelity in historical examinations — pursues a course of argu- 
ment with relation to the captors of Andre, which relieves 
them of the weight of the imputations of their accusers. 

Pine, Henry. Son of Stephen Pine. He served in the 
Royal Army, and was discharged at Halifax at the peace. 
He continued to reside in Nova Scotia until his death, in 
1844. His age was ninety-five years. A numerous family 
survived him. 

Pinkney, Jonathan. Of Annapolis, Maryland. His 
ancestors went from Normandy with William the Conqueror, 
and he himself was born in England. After his emigration 
to America, " he lived in quiet seclusion." At the Revolu- 
tionary era " he adhered, with a mistaken but honest firmness, 
to the cause of the mother country, and suffered severely the 
consequences of his conscientiousness." His property was 
confiscated, and he died in poverty, " without a stain upon his 
honor," and a " victim to his sense of duty." 

He was the father of William Pinkney, who, born at An- 
napolis in 1764, became one of the most distinguished of 
American lawyers and Attorney-General of Maryland ; who, 
also an eminent statesman, was a Commissioner under Jay's 
Treaty, a Minister to the Courts of England, Naples, and 
Russia, and a Senator in Congress ; and who, the father of 
ten children by his wife Anna Maria, (daughter of John 
Rodgers of Havre de Grace, and sister of John Rodgers, Post- 
Captain in the United States Navy,) died February, 1822, in 
his fifty-eight year. The speech of William Pinkney in the 
Senate, in 1820, on the bill for the admission of Missouri into 
the Union, was the most elaborate and powerful effort on the 
part of the South, as was that of Rufus King, of New York, on 
the side of the North, during the debates on this vexed ques- 
tion. The main point of Mr. Pinkney's argument may be 


stated in a word — that new States could not be denied terms 
of perfect equality with the old, or the original thirteen. 

Pitcher, Moses. Of Boston. The Council of Massa- 
chusetts ordered his arrest, April, 1776. At the peace, ac- 
companied by his family and five servants, he went from New 
York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted 
him one farm, one town, and one water lot. He died at Hali- 
fax, in 1817, aged eighty-four. 

Pitfield, George. A magistrate ; died at Sussex Vale,, 
New Brunswick, in 1827, aged seventy-eight. 

Pleasants, Samuel. Of Philadelphia. In 1777, charged 
with disaffection to the Whigs, he was ordered to be sent pris- 
oner to Virginia. In a remonstrance to the President and 
Council, he said that "imprisonment, without trial, was against 

Plum, Reuben. Of Middletown, Connecticut. Reviled 
particular members of the Continental Congress ; refused to 
do duty as an officer in the militia ; damned the Whig cause ; 
and declared himself a Tory. " Nemine contradicente" there- 
fore the Committee of that town held him up, and published 
him to the world, as " an enemy to the United States of 

Plunkett, William. A Colonel in the Militia of Penn- 
sylvania. In the difficulties which occurred during the Revo- 
lutionary controversy, between the Connecticut people who 
emigrated to Wyoming and the authorities of Pennsylvania, 
he was a prominent actor, both as a magistrate and as the 
leader of an armed force designed to suppress the alleged mis- 
conduct of the Yankee settlers. He was a stout adherent of 
the Crown, and never, to his latest hour, would concede that 
the authority of his Royal master had passed away, or consent 
to take an oath to support the new Government. He died a 
bachelor, at an advanced age. He was an Irishman, and 
came to America in early life. In 1750 it is affirmed that 
he was concerned in several robberies in England. By his 
own admission, it appears that he aided in the robbery of 
Lord Eglintoun, on Hounslow Heath. He was recognized 


in this country by a person who had known him at home, but 
the secret of his crime was not divulged. From the accounts 
of him, it would seem that he was a rough, fearless man, of 
great energy and activity, but of an arbitrary and severe dis- 
position. He was buried at Sunbury, Pennsylvania. 

Polhemus, John. Of Long Island, New York. In 1775 
he signed a declaration of loyalty. The next year he ac- 
knowledged allegiance, and was confined ; but was released 
by the Provincial Congress on his recognizance in X500. In 
1777 he was designated a Trustee to provide fuel and other 
necessaries for the Guard-house and Hospital of the Royal 
troops at Jamaica. September 13, 1783, he advertised in 
Rivington's paper that the ship was ready to receive the 
Loyalists who had enrolled themselves in his company for 
Annapolis, Nova Scotia, and that those who neglected his 
notice would not be provided with passages at the expense 
of the Government. In 1784 the Commissioners of Confis- 
cation sold his estate. 

Pollard, . Ensign in De Lancey's Second Bat- 
talion. Killed at the siege of Savannah, 1779. A Loyalist 
named Benjamin Pollard embarked at Boston for Halifax, with 
the British Army, in 1776. 

Pollock, . A Jew, who was plundered of 900 

Johannes, by the British, at the capture of St. Eustatius. 
His case is thus described by Mr. Burke, in a speech before 
the House of Commons, May 14, 1781 : " He had formerly 
lived on Rhode Island ; and, because he had imported tea 
contrary to the command of the Americans, he was stripped 
of all he was worth, and driven out of the island ; his brother 
shared in his misfortunes, but did not survive them ; his death 
increased the cares of the survivor, as he got an additional 
family, in his brother's children, to provide for. Another 
Jew married his sister ; and both of them following the Brit- 
ish Army, had for their loyalty some lands given them, along 
with some other American Refugees, on Long Island, by Sir 
William Howe. They built a kind of fort there, to defend 
themselves, but it was soon after attacked and carried by the 


Americans, and not a man who defended it escaped either 
death or captivity ; the Jew's brother-in-law fell during 
the attack ; he survived, and had then the family of his de- 
ceased brother-in-law, his mother, and sister, to support. He 
settled at St. Eustatius, where he maintained his numerous 
family, and had made some money, when he and his family 
were once more ruined by the commanders of the British 

Poole, Samuel Sheldon. He was a member of the As- 
sembly of Nova Scotia for fifty years, and was long known as 
the " Father of the House." A gentleman of high official posi- 
tion in that Province relates the following story : "Mr. Poole, 
year after year, used to ride his own horse to Halifax, and 
keep him there until the close of the session. At last the. 
animal died of mere old age ; and the ' Father of the House' 
thought the Province should grant him a sum of money to 
indemnify him for the loss. 4 That will never do,' said Mr. 
Archibald, the Speaker, who was ever full of fun ; ' but I '11 
tell you what we can do ; we can make a grant for an oat- 
milV ' And, concludes my informant, Mr. Poole was paid 
for his horse under a resolve for an oat-mill. He died at Yar- 
mouth, Nova Scotia, in 1835, aged eighty-seven. 

Porch, . Of North Carolina. Captured after a 

murderous affray in the house of a Whig ; tried by a court- 
martial, and hung. 

Porcher, Philip. Of South Carolina. Was in commis- 
sion under the Crown. His property was confiscated. Very 
probably he was a Whig at the outset, as, in 1775, he was a 
member of the Provincial Congress. 

Porter, Samuel. Attorney-at-law, of Salem, Massa- 
chusetts. Graduated at Harvard University in 1763. His 
name occurs among the barristers and attorneys who ad- 
dressed Hutchinson, on his departure ; and among the Salem 
Addressers of Gage, on his arrival. In 1776 he was a 
member of the " Brompton-Row Tory Club" or, the Loy- 
alist Club, London, for conversation and a dinner once a 
week. The next year he visited Wales. In 1778 he was 


198 PORTER. — POTE. 

proscribed and banished. July 21, 1782, he had jnst re- 
turned to London from Oporto, and gave some fellow-Loy- 
alists an account of his voyage. In 1784, one who met him 
said that he seemed without inclination to return to America. 
Curwen wrote that " neither time, climate, change of place, 
or circumstances, will ever alter this man's character"; and 
that he never knew " one whose characteristic qualities 
were so deeply impressed as his." Mr. Porter died at Lon- 
don in 1798. " 

Porter, James. Comptroller-General of the Customs. 
He embarked at Boston with the British Army, for Hali- 
fax, in 1776. He arrived in England in August of that 

Porter, Asa. Of New Hampshire. He graduated at 
Harvard University in 1762, and settled at Newburyport as a 
merchant. Previous to the year 1780 he removed to Haver- 
hill, New Hampshire, where he acquired a large landed estate. 
He suffered in person and property, in consequence of his ad- 
herence to the Royal cause, and was compensated by grants 
of Crown land in Canada. He was on terms of intimacy 
with Governor Wentworth, and other gentlemen of rank, and 
was himself a person of highly respectable character. He 
died at Haverhill, in 1818, aged seventy-six. His children 
were John, Benjamin, and Moses ; Mary, who married 
Judge Farrand ; Elizabeth, who married the Hon. Thomas 
W. Thompson ; and Sarah, who married the Hon. Mills Or- 
cutt. The late William T. Porter, editor of the " Spirit of 
the Times," who died in 1858, was a grandson. The widow 
of the late Hon. Rufus Choate is a granddaughter. 

Porter, George Dudley. Was in the Royal military 
service. He died at Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, in 1841, aged 

Pote, Jeremiah. Merchant, of Falmouth, Maine. He 
owned and occupied one of the two principal wharves erected 
in that town previous to the Revolution ; transacted a large 
business, and filled offices of trust and honor. In 1774 a pub- 
lic meeting was called to consider the state of public affairs, 


which he attended ; but he desired that his dissent might be 
entered against a resolution relative to the Ministry and East 
India Company, which was introduced and passed. In 1775 
he rendered himself obnoxious during the troubles with Mow- 
att, which resulted in the burning of the town. He was sum- 
moned before the Whigs, who, under Thompson, assumed the 
government, and organized themselves into a board of war, 
and required him to contribute money and provisions, and to 
give a bond, in the sum of ,£2000, to appear at the Provincial 
Congress of Massachusetts, and give an account of his con- 
duct. In the conflagration which soon followed, his loss in 
real estate was £656, and in other property £202. In 1778 
he was proscribed and banished. After the peace he settled 
in St. Andrew, at the mouth of the river St. Croix, New 
Brunswick, where he died, November 23, 1796, aged seventy- 
one years. His son Robert deceased at the same place, No- 
vember 8, 1794, at the age of twenty-five ; and his widow, 
Elizabeth, died December 24, 1809, aged seventy-nine. 

Pottle, William, Jr. Of Stratham, New Hampshire. 
In 1774, after having been accused of his manifold sins against 
the country in no gentle terms, he was hooted, mobbed, per- 
suecl, and dragged from his horse. 

Potts, Edward. Was Captain-Lieutenant of De Lan- 
cey's Second Battalion. In 1783, commissioned a Lieutenant 
of Infantry in the British Army. A gentleman of this name 
died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1809. 

Potts, John. Of Philadelphia. Judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas. After Galloway deserted the Whig cause 
and went to England, he was a correspondent. He fled to 
New York; and in November of that year he wrote, that "It 
is very evident that unless Government can disengage itself 
from an European war, and employ a greater force and more 
vigor in the prosecution of this, the game is certainly up and 
America lost." In 1779 his estate was confiscated. At the 
peace he was a petitioner for lands in Nova Scotia. [See 
Abijah Willard.'] In a Loyalist tract, published at London 
in 1784, I find it said that he was loval until the evacuation 

200 POWELL. 

of Philadelphia, when he offered half of his property to the 
Whigs if they would restore the other moiety, which they re- 
fused to do. 

Powell, William Dummell. Of Boston. He became 
Chief Justice of Upper Canada, and died at Toronto, in that 
Colony, in 1834, aged seventy-nine. His widow, Anne, died 
at the same place, in 1849, aged ninety-four. 

Powell, John. Of Boston. He was one of the fiftv-eight 
Boston memorialists, who, in 1760, arrayed themselves against 
the officers of the Crown. But in 1774 he was an Addresser 
of Hutchinson, and in 1775 an Addresser of Gage. He 
went to Halifax in 1776 ; and in 1778 he was proscribed 
and banished. In 1783 he was in England. 

Powell, Robert William. Of Charleston, South Caro- 
lina. Before the Revolution he was a merchant, and con- 
ducted a large business. In the early proceedings in that 
city, he appears to have acted with the Whigs. He was a 
member of the House of Assembly in 1774, and chairman of 
a general meeting called at Charleston, to consider the Boston 
Port Bill and other grievances, and to support the measures 
proper to be adopted in consequence thereof; and, as the or- 
gan of the committee, acquainted the House that during the 
recess they had nominated delegates to meet deputies from the 
other Colonies in the Congress at Philadelphia, in September 
of that year. The nominations were confirmed. At a subse- 
quent period he was found among the adherents of the Crown, 
and during the war raised and commanded a regiment or bat- 
talion of troops. He accordingly lost his large estate by con- 
fiscation, but received partial compensation as a Loyalist under 
the Act of Parliament. He went to England, and in 1794 
represented to the British Government, that, at the time of his 
banishment and the forfeiture of his property, large debts were 
due to him in America, which, though the debtors were able 
to pay, remained unpaid, and he prayed for interposition and 
relief. He died in 1835. 

Powell, James Edward. Of Georgia. A Dissenter to 
Whig resolutions in 1774. Went to England, and was an 


Addresser of the King, at London, in 1779. Banished, and 
estate confiscated. In 1781, appointed Lieutenant-Governor 
of the Bahama Islands. 

Powell, Solomon. Settled in Richebucto, Nova Scotia, 
and died there. Elizabeth, his widow, deceased at that place 
in 1837, aged ninety-one. 

Powell, Jacob. Went from New York to Richebucto, 
Nova Scotia, in 1783. He became a magistrate, and died 
in 1819, aged fifty-three. 

Power, Thomas. In 1782 a Lovalist Associator at New 
York, to settle at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, the following year, 
with his family of three persons. A person of this name died 
at Fredericton, New Brunswick, in 1829. 

Poynton, Thomas. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Was one 
of the forty-eight merchants and others, of the ancient town 
of Salem, who addressed Gage on his arrival to succeed 
Hutchinson, June, 1774. He went to England the follow- 
ing year, and died there before the peace. 

Pozer, George. Of New York. A native of the Grand 
Duchy of Baden, and born in 1752. He went to England in 
1773, thence emigrated to Philadelphia, and finally settled at 
Schoharie, New York, where he remained until the Revolu- 
tion. A determined Loyalist, he refused to swear allegiance 
to the Whigs, was driven off, and made good his escape to 
New York city, then in possession of the British Army. He 
engaged in trade with success until the peace, when he em- 
barked for England. After visiting Germany, to recover a 
small landed estate which he had inherited, he removed to 
Canada with his family. He died at Toronto, Upper Canada, 
in 1848, aged ninety-five. 

Price, Walter. He settled in York County, New Bruns- 
wick, as an Episcopal minister, and died there. 

Prince, John. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Physician. 
An Addresser of Gage. Went to Halifax, Nova Scotia, where, 
in 1779, he had acquired a competency as a merchant. His 
wife was a daughter of Richard Derby. He returned to the 
United States. 


Prince, John. Died at Hampton, New Brunswick, in 
1825, at an old age. 

Proud, Robert. Of Philadelphia. In 1761 he became 
a teacher of Greek and Latin in the Friends' Academy, and 
continued until the Revolution. Charles Brockden Brown, 
the celebrated novelist, was his pupil. He entered into an 
unfortunate enterprise with his brother, losing, as he averred, 
" by the confusion and the iniquities of the times." His want 
of success, however, was attributed by others to his " high 
Tory feelings." He wrote a History of Pennsylvania, which 
was published in two volumes, in the years 1797 and 1798. 
The work is valuable on many accounts ; but is deficient in 
continued and well sustained narrative. The publication was 
unprofitable, and occasioned him loss. 

He was not only decided in his attachment to the Crown, 
but was of the opinion that the Revolution would prove both 
the cause and the commencement of the decline of national 
virtue and prosperity in America. " Dominie Proud wore a 
curled, gray wig, and a half-cocked, ancient hat." He was 
tall, had a Roman nose, and " most impending brow." He 
was never married, and in his old age called himself " a de- 
cayed gentleman." He died in 1813, aged eighty-five. 

Prout, Timothy. Of Boston. Graduated at Harvard 
University in 1741. Arrested by order of the Council of 
Massachusetts, April, 1776. At New York, in 1782, a Loyal- 
ist Associator to settle at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, with his 
family of five persons. Said to have died within the British 
lines before the peace. , 

Punderson, Ebenezer. Of Connecticut. Physician. 
Born in Norwich. Graduated at Yale College in 1755. At 
the Revolutionary era he fared hard at the hands of the 
" Sons of Liberty." Of one affair, his own account is that 
he was hunted, pursued, and threatened with death ; and that 
he made two confessions to save his life. He escaped ; and 
after rowing a cockboat eighteen miles, was taken up by a 
vessel and put on board the frigate Rose bound to Boston. 
He went to England in 1775, and was in London in Decern- 


ber of that year, the companion of the Rev. Dr. Peters of 
Hebron. He returned to Connecticut previous to 1778, and, 
again molested, fled. The British Commissary sent him to 
Long Island, to exact grain from the inhabitants ; but, fearful 
of meeting people from New England who knew him, the 
service was not performed. He continued within the lines of 
the Royal Army, and was joined by his family. In July, 
1780, a party of Whigs surrounded his house, took him prison- 
er, and carried him to his native State. His captors told his 
wife that his seizure was in retaliation for the capture of John 
Smith, and that they should hold the Doctor for exchange. 
Such cases were not uncommon. He died at Rye, very aged, 
in 1809. 

Purcell, Rev. Robert. Of South Carolina. Episcopal 
minister. In 1769 he was elected Assistant to the Rector of 
the parish of St. Philip's, and was presented by the Vestry 
with £200 currency. The next year, arrangements were 
made for a new parsonage, and to lease a part of the glebe. 
In 1775 he went to England, intending to return ; but, the 
war breaking out, he remained. He received a pension of 
£100 as a Loyalist. 

Purdy. Of West Chester County, New York. Protest- 
ers against the Whigs at White Plains, April, 1775. Da- 
vid entered the service as an Ensign ; was a Captain in the 
King's American Regiment ; was wounded, August 29, 1778, 
in Rhode Island ; settled at St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
peace, and was the grantee of two city lots. Jonathan, Jr., 
joined a Loyalist corps, was taken prisoner, and confined in 
White Plains Jail ; petitioned for release, August, 1776. 
Elijah, of whom, in 1779, Burr wrote General Malcolm — 
" I can secure Elijah Purdy at any time, if you direct : there 
is no danger in delaying till I can hear from you. I wish to 
clear the country of these rascals. It would be of infinite 
service to hang a few up in this neighborhood." Gilbert 
went to St. John, and was a grantee of the city. Joseph, 
Jr., was drowned in the river St. John, 1844. Samuel died 
at St. John, 1841. Timothy was grandfather of Elijah F. 


Purely, late Surveyor of the Customs at the port of New York. 
Besides the Protesters, Archibald embarked for Nova Sco- 
tia in 1783 ; and Henry Purdy, a magistrate, died at Fort 
Lawrence, New Brunswick, 1827, aged eighty-three. 

Purvis, John. Of South Carolina. In June, 1775, when 
the Provincial Congress (of which body he was a member) 
raised two regiments of foot and one of horse, he was com- 
missioned a Captain in the latter, and took the field as a Whig 
officer. During the affair with the Cunninghams, in July of 
that year, he went over to the adherents of the Crown, and 
his troop followed his example. The desertion of Purvis and 
of Kirkland at the same time, with their commands, had a 
pernicious influence upon the affairs of the Whigs of South 
Carolina. A John Purvis, "formerly a merchant of Charles- 
ton, South Carolina," died at Pittsfield, Massachusetts, in 
1811, aged fifty-four. 

Putnam, James. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. He was 
born in Danvers, in that State, in 1725, and graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1746. He studied law with Judge Trow- 
bridge, and settled in Worcester. In 1757 he was a Major, 
and in service under Lord Loudon. In 1775 he was an Ad- 
dresser of Hutchinson, and the following year embarked with 
the Royal Army for Halifax. In 1778 he was banished and 
proscribed. After the division of Nova Scotia, and in 1784, 
he was appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court of New 
Brunswick, and a member of the Council. He died at St. 
John, in the last najned Province, in 1789. He was of the 
lineage of General Israel Putnam. I used to hear it said, 
when my home was on the frontier, that he was the ablest 
lawyer in all America. John Adams, who was his student at 
law and boarded in his family, remarks that he possessed great 
acuteness of mind, had a very extensive and successful prac- 
tice, and was eminent in his profession. 

The tablet erected over his remains records that his widow, 
Elizabeth, died in 1798, aged sixty-six ; his daughter Elizabeth 
Knox, in 1787, aged eighteen ; his granddaughter, Elizabeth 
Knox, in 1789, aged five months ; his son, Ebenezer, in 1798, 


aged thirty-six years ; and his great-grandson, James, in 1825, 
aged eleven months. The motto at the close of the inscrip- 
tions is, " VlVIT POST FUNERA VlRTUS." 

I have often stood at his grave and mused upon the strange 
vicissitudes of human condition, by which the master, one 
of the giants of the American Colonial Bar, became an out- 
law and an exile, broken in fortune and in spirit, while his 
struggling and almost friendless pupil, elevated step by step by 
the very same course of events, was finally known the world 
over as the Chief Magistrate of a Nation. 

Putnam, James, Jr. Son of James Putnam. Graduated 
at Harvard University in 1774. He was one of the eighteen 
country gentlemen who were driven to Boston, and who ad- 
dressed Gage on his departure in 1775. He went to Eng- 
land, and died there in March, 1838 ; having been a barrack- 
master, a member of the household, and an executor of the 
late Duke of Kent. 

Pynchon, William. Counsellor-at-law. Of Salem, Massa- 
chusetts. Graduated at Harvard University in 1743, and 
died March, 1789, aged sixty-eight years. He was one of the 
Salem Addressers of Gage, on his arrival to succeed Hutchin- 
son, in 1774 ; but remaining in the country, was not pro- 
scribed, though his property and his peace suffered from the 
fury of mobs. His name is also found among the barristers 
and attorneys who addressed Hutchinson. Katharine, his 
wife, survived him. His sons William and John died without 

Pynchon, Joseph. In 1782, at New York, a Loyalist 
Associator to settle at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, with his family 
of seven persons ; two years later, at Shelburne, a magistrate, 
and one of the Addressers of Sir Charles Douglas. 

Querry, Richard. Of the Continental Army. Sentenced 
to death, in 1777, for attempting to join the side of the Crown. 

Quigley, John. Of New Hampshire. Assistant Deputy- 
Surveyor of the King's Woods. He had an affray with "tres- 
passers," as early as 1772, when, overcome, he fled to a house 
and shut himself up in a chamber. His assailants pursued, 

VOL. II. 18 

206 QUINCY. 

and taking up the ceiling over his head, beat him with long 
poles, thrust from the attic, until he surrendered. In 1775 
he was seized and confined in jail at Amherst ; but released, 
finally, he departed the State. In 1778 he was proscribed 
and banished. 

Quincy, Samuel. Of Massachusetts. Second son of 
Josiah Quincy. Born in Braintree (now Quincy) in 1735. 
Graduated at Harvard University in 1754. Studied law, rose 
to distinction, and succeeded Jonathan Sewall as Solicitor- 
General of the Province. His father and brothers were 
Whigs ; and, for a time, his own sympathies seem to have 
been with the popular party. Influenced by his official du- 
ties and connections, he adhered to the Crown. When John 
Adams heard that Hancock had purchased twenty writs of 
him, he recorded, — " Oh, the mutability of the legal, com- 
mercial, social, political, as well as the material world ! For 
about three or four years I have done all Mr. Hancock's busi- 
ness, and have waded through wearisome, anxious days and 
nights in his defence ; but farewell ! ' : A remark of Mrs. 
Adams leads to the conclusion that Mrs. Quincy was not 
pleased with her husband's course in the politics of the time, 
and that he became a Loyalist against her advice. In 1775 
General Burgoyne occupied his house in Boston. " A lady 
who lived opposite, says she saw raw meat cut and hacked 
upon the mahogany tables, and the superb damask curtains 
exposed to the rajn, as if they were of no value." Well did 
Mrs. Adams add, " How much better do the Tories fare than 
the Whigs ? " On the 25th day of May of the year last men- 
tioned, Mr. Quincy left Boston and went to England ; and 
soon after his arrival he saw the King robe, and from the 
throne assent to the American Prohibitory Bill. Early in 
1776 he was a member of the " Brompton-Mow Tory Club" 
or Loyalist Association in London, for conversation and a 
weekly dinner. His wife was still in Massachusetts. In a 
letter to her, January 1, 1777, he said : " The continuance 
of our unhappy situation has something in it so unexpected, 
so unprecedented, so complicated with evil and misfortune, it 


has become almost too burdensome for my spirits, nor have I 
words that can reach its description." Again, on the 12th of 
March : " You inquire whether I cannot bear contempt and 
reproach, rather than remain any longer separated from my 
family ? . . . Y^ou urge, as an inducement to my return, that 
my countrymen will not deprive me of life. I have never 
once harbored such an idea. Sure I am I have never merited 
from them such a punishment. Difference of opinion I have 
never known to be a capital offence ; and were the truth and 
motives of my conduct justly scrutinized, I am persuaded they 
would not regard me as an enemy plotting their ruin." A 
year later his name appeared in the Massachusetts Proscrip- 
tion and Confiscation Act. When he embarked for England 
he designed to be absent for a few months only ; but banished 
by the operation of the law of 1778, he turned his thoughts to 
official and professional employment in the West Indies ; and, 
March 15, 1779, he communicated to a friend that, at last, he 
had "obtained the place of Comptroller of the Customs at the 
port of Parham, in Antigua." 

Mrs. Quincy, who was a sister of Henry Hill, of Boston, 
died November, 1782. Mr. Quincy married again while at 
Antigua. Impaired in health, he sailed for England in 1789, 
accompanied by his wife. He died at sea, in sight of the Brit- 
ish coast. " His remains were interred on Bristol Hill. His 
widow immediately reembarked for the West Indies, but her 
voyage was tempestuous. Grief for the loss of her husband, 
to whom she was strongly attached, and suffering from the 
storm her vessel encountered, terminated her life on her home- 
ward passage." 

It is not a little singular that two of Mr. Quincy's brothers 
died, as he did, on shipboard ; Josiah, the youngest one, and 
father of the venerable Josiah Quincy (the elder) of our own 
day, was the most distinguished of the family, and one of the 
purest of the Whigs of the Revolutionary era. 

Quinton, Dixon. Of Worcester County, Maryland. The 
Whig Committee of that county pronounced him to be an 
enemy to his country, June 7, 1775. His offence consisted 


in dealing in salt, " imported contrary to the Resolves of the 
Continental Congress." 

Rainsford, Andrew. After the Revolution he became a 
resident of New Brunswick, and was Receiver-General, and 
Assistant Barrack-master of that Colony. He died at Fred- 
ericton, in 1820, at the age of eighty-six, leaving numerous 
descendants. Four of his sons, it is believed, held, or have 
held, military commissions in the British service. 

Rakestraw, Beson. Seized, with thirteen others, Febru- 
ary, 1778, near Philadelphia, by a party of Whigs ; died of 
privations and exposure after a fortnight's confinement. 

Rand, Isaac. Physician, of Boston. He was born in 
1743, and graduated at Harvard University in 1761. In 
1764 he settled in Boston as a practitioner of medicine, and 
rose to great eminence. His political opinions were well 
known. He continued in Boston during the siege ; but as 
he was at no time an active partisan, the Whigs did not 
molest him. From 1798 to 1804 he was President of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society. He was a man of great be- 
nevolence of character ; gave both money and professional 
services to the poor ; and whole families owed their support 
for years to his bounty. His manners were polished ; his life 
in the highest degree exemplary. He died in 1822, at the 
age of seventy-nine. He wrote and published essays on med- 
ical subjects. 

Randolph,, John. Of Virginia. Last Royal Attorney- 
General. He was preceded in that office by his father, John 
Randolph, and by his brother, Peyton Randolph. The lat- 
ter, when sent to England on public business, spoke his mind 
too freely, and was dismissed. John was born in 1728, and 
was considered the ablest lawyer in Virginia. Like Peyton, 
he was employed by the Assembly on several important mis- 
sions to the mother country. During the stormy debate in 
the House of Burgesses on the Stamp Act, when Patrick 
Henry " disdained submission," and exclaimed, — " Tarquin 
and Caesar had each his Brutus ; Charles the First his Crom- 
well ; — (and, interrupted by the cry of i treason ! treason ! ' 


added,) — and George the Third may profit by their exam- 
ple." Randolph, singly and alone, resisted the Whigs. Ten 
years later, he abandoned his native country. 

" Many people have made a stir about Mrs. Washington's 
continuing at Mount Vernon," wrote Lund, to the General, 
near the close of 1775, " but I cannot think there is any 
danger." » . . " Lord Dunmore will hardlv himself venture 
up the river ; nor do I believe he will send on that errand. 
Surely her old acquaintance, the Attorney, [Randolph,] who, 
with his family, is on board his ship, would prevent his doing 
an act of that kind." Mr. Randolph went immediately to 
England ; and in November, 1775, Mr. Jefferson addressed 
him at London, announcing the death of his brother Peyton, 
President of the Continental Congress. Bitterly enough did 
the subject of this notice lament his mistake in adhering to 
the Crown. It was said, indeed, that he died of a broken 
heart. His death occurred at London, January 31, 1784, at 
the age of fifty-six. In accordance with his dying request, his 
remains were conveyed to Virginia, and interred by the side 
of those of Peyton, beneath the floor of the Chapel of William 
and Mary College. His only son, Edmund, was Governor of 
Virginia, Attorney- General of the United States, and the suc- 
cessor of Jefferson as Secretary of State in the administration 
of Washington. 

Randolph, Thomas. Of New Jersey. Publicly proved 
an enemy to the Whigs ; stripped naked, tarred and feathered, 
and carted through the town. 

Randolph, Robert Fitz. He removed from New York 
to Nova Scotia, in 1783, and died in the county of Annapolis, 
in 1831, at the age of ninety-four. 

Rankin, Rev. Thomas. Minister of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. He was born in Scotland about the year 
1738. After several years labor in the ministry, under the 
auspices of Wesley, he came to America, in 1773, as a mis- 
sionary ; and, soon after his arrival, he called a Conference, 
which was the first of his denomination in America. Though 
he preached in New Jersey and Virginia, he seems to have 


been stationed at the cities of New York and Philadelphia. 
In 1776, while officiating at a Quarterly Meeting, he was told 
that he was to be seized by a party of militia, and was advised 
to depart ; but he decided to remain ; and on reaching the 
place where he was to preach, he saw officers and soldiers 
mingled with the congregation. He was not, however, mo- 
lested. He returned to England prior to June, 1778, and 
died at or near London in 1810. 

Rankin, James. Of York County, Pennsylvania. In 
1776 he confessed, in writing, that he had publicly misrepre- 
sented and personally insulted the Whig Committee of York 
County ; asked forgiveness ; and promised, " on the faith and 
honor of an honest man, to respect the Continental Congress, 
and behave as a good citizen." Attainted, and property con- 
fiscated. In 1781 he was Chairman of the Board of Refugees, 
at New York. In 1793 a small part of his estate was restored 
to a son and daughter ; but, as late as 1852, his heirs claimed 
of the Legislature of Pennsylvania the sum of $30,000, in 
restitution for the part retained by the State. A bill was in- 
troduced, discussed, and postponed. 

Rapalje, John. Of New York. In 1774 he was a mem- 
ber of the Committee of Correspondence, and in 1775 he had 
a seat in the House of Assembly, and was one of the fourteen 
who, during the recess that year, addressed General Gage, 
at Boston, on the subject of the unhappy contest. His prop- 
erty was coiffiscated, and he departed the country. During 
the war, he was in authority at Brooklyn, and it is supposed 
that he carried off the public records of that town, as they 
were never seen after his removal. His estate was large, and 
consisted, principally of land. He died in England, in 1802, 
in his seventy-fourth year. 

Rapelje, George. Of New York. Captain in the Loyal 
Militia. In 1776 he was at the head of a party of light- 
horse, in Newtown, who brandished their naked swords, and 
declared that they " were in pursuit of that damned rebel, Doc- 
tor Riker," to the great terror of the women. The object of 
their wrath had escaped in a boat. He subsequently served as 


Commissary of Fuel, and under his direction large quantities 
of wood were cut for the use of the Royal troops. At the 
peace, accompanied by his family of five, and seven servants, 
he went from New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where 
the Crown granted him fifty acres of land, one town, and one 
water lot. A person of this name was in Florida soon after 
the Revolution. 

Rapelje, Captain Jeromus. Of Newtown, New York. 
In 1776, among the proscribed ; he died that year, while the 
Whigs were in search of him. It is said that his family, 
apprehensive of violence to his remains, buried him in great 

Rapelje, Rem. Of New York. " We had some grand 
toory rides in this city this week," wrote Peter Elting, June 
13, 1776. Yesterday " several of them ware hondled verry 
roughly, being caried trugh the streets on rails, there cloaths 
tore from there becks, and there bodies pritty well mingled 
with the dust." Rapelje was one of the victims. " There 
is hardly a toory face to be seen this morning," said Elting, in 
continuation. In October, of the same year, Rapelje was an 
Addresser of Lord and Sir William Howe. 

Ratheu, Joseph. Of North Carolina. Went to England 
previous to July, 1779. 

Raymond, Stent. Of Connecticut. A grantee of St. 
John, New Brunswick, in 1783. Sarah, his widow, died at 
Hampton, in that Province, in 1847, aged eighty-six. 

Raymond, Silas. Of Norwalk, Connecticut. With his 
wife and four children, and widow Mary, of the same place, 
arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, in the ship Union, in 
the spring of 1783. Silas settled in King's County, and died 
there in 1824, aged seventy-six. 

Raymond, White. Of Norwalk, Connecticut. Went to 
New Brunswick at the peace. Deceased in 1835, at the age 
of seventy-six, and was buried at Hampton. 

Redwood, Abraham, Jr. Of Rhode Island. The son, 
I conclude, of Abraham Redwood, founder of the Redwood 
Library, who died at Newport, Rhode Island, in 1788, in the 

212 REED. — REINE. 

seventy-ninth year of his age. The subject of this brief note 
departed with the British Army at the evacuation of the State. 
He married Susannah, daughter of James Honey man, Judge 
of the Court of Vice-Admiralty. The estate bequeathed her 
by her father was confiscated ; but, on petition that the con- 
fiscation was after, the signing of the preliminaries of peace, it 
was restored by the General Assembly. 

Reed, James. An Episcopal clergyman of Newbern, 
North Carolina. The 20th of July, 1775, by recommenda- 
tion of the Continental Congress, was kept as a day of fasting, 
humiliation, and prayer. He was requested and entreated to 
perform divine service in his church, but refused ; and gave, 
in substance, as a reason, that " he should render himself ob- 
noxious to the ministry, and of course lose his parish." But 
he did not save it. Subsequently, the Whig Committee 
" earnestly requested the vestry of the parish to put an end to 
his ministerial functions, and that they immediately direct the 
churchwardens to stop the payment of his salary." Mr. Reed 
was suspended. It appears from the proceedings, that, on the 
day in question, the people assembled at the church, in the 
expectation of services suited to the occasion, and that Mr. 
Reed u deserted his congregation;" when a " very animated 
and spirited discourse was read by a member of the Commit- 
tee to a very crowded audience." 

Reed, James. Grantee of St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1783. Died at. that city, in 1820, aged sixty-three. 

Reeve, Richard. Of Boston. Secretary to the Commis- 
sioners of the Customs. Went South, in 1776, to join Sir 
Henry Clinton, and to act as his Secretary. Retired to Eng- 
land before December, 1777, and died there in 1789. 

Regan, Jeremiah. A magistrate. Died at Sussex Vale, 
New Brunswick, in 1815, aged seventy-four. 

Register, Daniel. Of Pennsylvania. Attainted of trea- 
son. Surrendered himself, and was discharged. At the peace, 
settled at Pennfield, New Brunswick, and was a grantee of 
land there. 

Reine, John and George. Of Lancaster County, Penn- 


sylvania. In 1781 the Rev. Peter Miller interposed in behalf 
of the former, and endeavored to make terms by which he 
could safely surrender himself and submit to trial. The cor- 
respondence with the President of the Council was, however, 
without results. Both were attainted, and lost their property 
bv confiscation. 

Remsen, John. Of Long Island, New York. Died at 
Clements, Nova Scotia, in 1827. 

Rennie, John. He was banished, and his estate confis- 
cated. In 1794 he and other Loyalists presented a memorial 
to the British Government on the subject of large debts due 
in America, which were unpaid, though the debtors were rich, 
and though the treaty of peace was supposed to afford means 
of recovering all sums of money that were lawfully due before 
the Revolution. 

Renshaw, Thomas and James. The first, a grantee of 
St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783. James died in that Prov- 
ince, in 1835, aged eighty. 

Reubell, John Caspar. A clergyman of the Dutch Re- 
formed Church, of Long Island, New York, and a " rotund, 
jolly-looking man." For a time, during the war, Colonels 
Atlee and Miles, of the Whig service, were his boarders. He 
prayed in his pulpit for " King George the Third, Queen 
Charlotte, the Princes and Princesses of the Royal family, 
and the upper and lower Houses of Parliament." He was 
deposed from the ministry in 1784. 

Rice, Jesse. Of New Hampshire. Physician. Born in 
1751. Graduated at Harvard University in 1772. In 1778, 
proscribed and banished. Settled in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia. 
Sir Thomas Aston Coffin, Bart., Governor William Eustis, 
and Levi Lincoln, Attorney-General of the United States, 
were classmates. 

Richards, John. Of New Jerse}'. The Provincial Con- 
gress, July 13, 1776, allowed him to live on his own farm, on 
parole, and under bond of .£1000 not to depart thence more 
than two miles without leave. The same, I suppose, who 
was killed by a robber named Brower, in January, 1778. 


Richardson, Frank. Of Pennsylvania. The son of 
Quaker parents, and "of great personal beauty and address." 
He mingled much with the British officers in Philadelphia, 
and thus acquired a love for their profession. He went to 
London, procured a commission, and became a Colonel in the 

Richardson, Ebenezer. Of Boston. An officer of the 
Customs, and an informer against smuggled goods. He was 
very obnoxious. Early in 1770 he was assailed by a mob, 
who drove him to his house, and threw stones through the 
windows. As some of the multitude were about to force their 
way into his dwelling he fired upon them, and killed a boy 
about twelve years of age. He was seized and dragged 
through the streets, and threatened with immediate death, 
but was finally taken before a magistrate, who committed 
him to prison. At the next term of the Court he was tried 
for the offence, which all the Judges were of the opinion was, 
at most, but manslaughter, while one or more of them consid- 
ered the homicide justifiable ; but the jury gave a verdict of 
murder. The Judges, however, suspended sentence, and 
certified to the Lieutenant-Governor that Richardson was a 
proper object of pardon, and upon representation to the Min- 
istry, an order was passed that his name " should be inserted 
in the next Newgate pardon," and in due time he was dis- 
charged, when he immediately absconded. 

Riddle, , and a son. Of North Carolina. Caught 

and huno;. 

Risteen, Joseph. Died in the county of Carlton, New 
Brunswick, in 1839, aged ninety. 

Ritzema, Rev. Johannes. Minister of the Dutch Church, 
Sleepy Hollow, West Chester County, New York. In the 
controversy which preceded the Revolution, he acted uni- 
formly with the Loyalists. At the beginning of the struggle 
his labors in his parish ceased. 

Ritzema, . Of New York, and son of Rev. Johan- 
nes Ritzema. Before the Revolution he kept a military 
school at Tarry town. He w T as an officer in the service of the 


Rivington, James. Of New York. Printer and book- 
seller. Born in England. The following advertisement will 
show something of an American bookstore in 1767 : — 

" A collection of Books, amongst which are, The annual register, or a 
view of the history, politics and literature for the year 1765, Smollet's 
travels through France and Italy, interspersed with a great many humour- 
ous and entertaining anecdotes, The fool of quality by Mr. Brooks, an 
amiable, ingenious and interesting performance ; Voltaire's works com- 
pleat, translated by T. Smollet, and others ; a translation of the genuine 
memoirs of the Marchioness of Pompadour ; the philosophy of history, by 
Voltaire ; the progress of vanity and virtue, or the history of two sisters ; 
the history of the late minority ; and a great variety of other articles, two 
prolix for an advertisement. 

" N. B. Any gentleman having a library of books to dispose of, may find 
purchasers in the said J. Rivington, and Company." 

Our Loyalist established a newspaper called " Rivington's 
Gazette," which, at the Revolutionary era was known among 
the Whigs as " Rivington's Lying Gazette." He became very 
obnoxious, and was denounced in every section of the coun- 
try. In Newport, Rhode Island, the Whigs resolved, March 
1, 1775, that, 

" Whereas, a certain James Rivington, a printer and sta- 
tioner in the city of New York, impelled by the love of sordid 
pelf, and a haughty domineering spirit, hath, for a long time, 
in the dirty 4 Gazette,' and in pamphlets, if possible still more 
dirty, uniformly persisted in publishing every falsehood which 
his own wicked imagination, or the imaginations of others of 
the same stamp, as ingenious perhaps in mischief as himself, 
could suggest and fabricate, that had a tendency to spread 
jealousies, fear, discord, and disunion through this country ; 
and by partial and false representations of facts hath endeav- 
ored to pervert truth, and to mislead the incautious into 
wrong conceptions of facts reported, and wrong sentiments 
respecting the measures now carrying on for the recovery and 
establishment of our rights," &c. " Therefore, it is the opin- 
ion," &c, "that no further dealings or correspondence ought 
to be had with the said James Rivington ; and we recommend 
it to every person who takes his paper to immediately drop 
the same," &c. 


On the 6th of the same month a similar resolution was 
passed in Freehold, New Jersey ; on the 8th, a paragraph 
published in his paper attracted the attention of the Committee 
of New York, who authorized Philip Livingston and Mr. Jay 
to wait on him, and ask for the authority on which he had 
made a false statement ; on the 14th, the freeholders of Ulster 
County, New York, voted to have no connection or inter- 
course with him ; and in May, Richard Henry Lee wrote to 
Gouverneur Morris that he was " sorry, for the honor of human 
nature, Rivington has so prostituted himself in support of a 
cause the most detestable that ever disgraced mankind." His 
press was finally destroyed by a mob from Connecticut, who 
also carried off a part of his types, and converted them into 
Whig bullets, and compelled him to suspend the publica- 
tion of his paper. His conduct was examined by the Pro- 
vincial Congress, who referred his case to the Continental 
Congress at Philadelphia, and while the latter were em- 
ployed in considering it, he addressed to them the following 
letter : — 

" Whereas the subscriber, by the freedom of his publica- 
tions during the present unhappy disputes between Great 
Britain and her Colonies, has brought upon himself much 
public displeasure and resentment, in consequence of which 
his life has been endangered, his property invaded, and a 
regard to. his personal safety requires him still to be absent 
from his family and business ; and whereas, it has been ordered 
by the Committee of Correspondence for the city of New 
York that a report of the state of his case should be made to 
the Continental Congress, that the manner of his future treat- 
ment may be submitted to their direction ; he thinks himself 
happy in having at last for his judges gentlemen of eminent 
rank and distinction in the Colonies, from whose enlarged and 
liberal sentiments he flatters himself that he can receive no 
other than an equitable sentence, unbiased by popular clamor 
and resentment. He humbly presumes that the very respect- 
able gentlemen of the Congress now sitting at Philadelphia 
will permit him to declare, and, as a man of honor and verac- 


ity, he can and does solemnly declare that however wrong 
and mistaken he may have been in his opinions, he has always 
meant honestly and openly to do his duty as a servant of the 
public. Accordingly his conduct, as a printer, has always 
been conformable to the ideas which he entertained of English 
liberty, warranted by the practice of all printers in Great Brit- 
ain and Ireland for a century past, under every administra- 
tion ; authorized, as he conceives, by the laws of England, 
and countenanced by the declaration of the late Congress. 
He declares that his press has been always open and free to 
all parties, and for the truth of this fact appeals to his publica- 
tions, among which are to be reckoned all the pamphlets, and 
many of the best pieces that have been written in this and the 
neighboring Colonies in favor of the American claims. How- 
ever, having found that the inhabitants of the Colonies were 
not satisfied with this plan of conduct, a few weeks ago he 
published in his paper a short apology, in which he assured the 
public that he would be cautious for the future of giving any 
further offence. To this declaration he resolves to adhere, 
and he cannot but hope for the patronage of the public, so 
long as his conduct shall be found to correspond with it. It 
is his wish and ambition to be an useful member of society. 
Although an Englishman by birth, he is an American by 
choice, and he is desirous of devoting his life, in the business 
of his profession, to the service of the country he has adopted 
for his own. He lately employed no less than sixteen work- 
men, at near one thousand pounds annually ; and his consump- 
tion of printing-paper, the manufacture of Pennsylvania, 
New York, Connecticut, and the Massachusetts Bay, has 
amounted to nearly that sum. His extensive foreign corre- 
spondence, his large acquaintance in Europe and America, and 
the manner of his education, are circumstances which, he con- 
ceives, have not improperly qualified him for the station in 
which he wishes to continue, and in which he will exert every 
endeavor to be useful. He therefore humbly submits his case 
to the honorable gentlemen now assembled in the Continental 
Congress, and begs that their determination may be such as 

VOL. II. 19 


will secure him, especially as it is the only thing that can 
effectually secure him in the safety of his person, the enjoy- 
ment of his property, and the uninterrupted prosecution of his 
business. James Rivington. 

" May 20, 1775." 

For a time he made his peace with the Whigs, and on the 
7th of June following, the Provincial Congress of New York 
resolved, that, " Whereas James Rivington, of this city, print- 
er, hath signed the General Association, and has lately pub- 
lished a hand-bill declaring his intention rigidly to adhere to 
the said Association ; and also asked the pardon of the pub- 
lic, who have been offended by his ill-judged publications ; 
therefore, he be permitted to return to his house and family ; 
and this Congress doth recommend it to the inhabitants of this 
Colony not to molest him in his person or property." 

But Rivington, like almost every other person who once 
incurred odium or suspicion, fell off. He went to England, 
where he furnished himself anew with materials for printing, 
and was appointed King's printer for New York. In 1777 
he returned, and resumed the publication of his paper, but 
changed its name to that of the " Royal Gazette." 

On the very day that Andre was taken prisoner, Rivington 
published his " Cow-Chase." I quote the last stanza : — 

" And now I 've closed my epic strain, 
I tremble as I show it, 
Lest this same Warrior, Drover, Wayne, 
Should ever catch the Poet ! " 

At the peace, Rivington attempted to conciliate the Whigs, 
and to keep up his " Gazette," but failing in this, his editorial 
labors ceased in 1783. He was possessed of fine talents, polite 
manners, and was well informed. It is apparent from the 
correspondence of several of the leaders on the popular side, 
as well as from what has been here said, that his tact and 
ability in conducting a newspaper were much feared, and that 
his press had more influence over the public mind than any 


other in the Royal interest in the country. He died in 1802, 
aged seventy-eight years. His son, John, a Lieutenant in the 
Eighty-third Regiment, died in England in 1809. 

Robbins, Joseph. A native of Plymouth, Massachusetts. 
He died at Chebogue, Nova Scotia, in 1839, aged eighty-two. 
His descendants at the time of his decease were two hundred 
and two ; namely, thirteen children, ninety grandchildren, 
and ninety-nine great-grandchildren. 

Roberts, John. Of the county of Philadelphia. He 
joined the Royal forces when Sir William Howe took pos- 
session of Philadelphia, and was tried for his life in 1778. 
Thomas McKean, a signer of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, and at that time Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, pre- 
sided at the trial. Roberts's offence was legally and satis- 
factorily proved, and he suffered as a traitor to his country. 
After sentence of death, several hundred citizens of Philadel- 
phia, and of other parts of the State, presented memorials to 
the Council, praying for pardon or respite ; but without effect. 
Some Whigs thought his execution was a judicial murder. 

Isaac Ogden, a Loyalist, in 1778 wrote to Galloway that 
" Roberts's wife, with ten children, went to Congress, threw 
themselves on their knees and supplicated mercy, but in 
vain. His behavior at the gallows did honor to human 
nature. He told his audience that his conscience acquitted 
him of guilt ; that he suffered for doing his duty to his Sov- 
ereign ; that his blood would one day be demanded at their 
hands ; and then turning to his children, charged and ex- 
horted them to remember his principles, for which he died, 
and to adhere to them while they had breath. This is the 
substance of his speech ; after which he suffered with the 
resolution of a Roman." The year after his death his estate 
was confiscated ; but in 1792 it was restored to Jane, his 

Roberts, Zachariah. Of New York. Died in Queen's 
County, New Brunswick, in 1833, aged seventy-seven. Eliz- 
abeth, his widow, died in the same Province, in 1848, aged 


Robertson, James. Was associated with his brother Alex- 
ander, who, like himself, was a Loyalist, and with John Trum- 
bull, who was a Whig, in the publication of the " Norwich 
Packet," at Norwich, Connecticut. This connection, which 
commenced in 1773, ceased soon after the British troops took 
possession of New York, in 1776, and the Robertsons went to 
that city, and printed the " Royal American Gazette " during 
the remainder of the war. After the peace, both James and 
Alexander published a paper at Shelburne, Nova Scotia ; but 
Alexander soon died. James removed to Scotland, where he 
was alive in 1810, and engaged in printing and bookselling at 

Robertson, Alexander, Jr. Of Pennsylvania. In the 
military service of the Crown. At the peace, accompanied by 
his family of four persons, and by six servants, he went from 
New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown 
granted him fifty acres of land, one town, and one water lot. 
His losses in consequence of his loyalty were estimated at 
<£2000. In 1834 he fell through the ice, at Shelburne, and 
continued in the water nearly an hour. Though he recovered, 
his speech and recollection, the shock was fatal. His age was 
seventy-nine. He was the last of sixteen Loyalist captains 
who were original grantees of that city. 

Robertson, James. Of Georgia. At the Revolutionary 
era a Solicitor in Chancery. In the effort to reestablish the 
Royal Government, in 1779, he was appointed Attorney- 
General, a member of the Council, a Commissioner of Claims, 
and of the Board to take possession of the negroes and other 
property of active Whigs. Attainted of treason, and estate 
confiscated. At the peace he left the country. He was Chief 
Justice of the Virgin Islands many years, and died at Tortola, 
in 1818, aged sixty-seven. 

Robertson, William. Of New York. Went to Shel- 
burne, Nova Scotia, and was a merchant there. Removed to 
Barrington, in the same Province. He possessed a wonder- 
ful memory, and was consulted the country round. His wife 
was Sarah, daughter of Gabriel Van Norden. His son Rob- 


ert is now (1861) a member of the House of Assembly of 
Nova Scotia. 

Robie, Thomas. A merchant of Marblehead, Massachu- 
setts. He went first to Halifax, and thence to England, but 
returned to the United States, and died at Salem. His son, 
Samuel Bradstreet Robie, of Halifax, was appointed Solicitor- 
General of Nova Scotia in 1815 ; Speaker of the House of 
Assembly in 1817, 1819, and 1820 ; member of the Council 
in 1824 ; and Master of the Rolls in 1825 ; and died at that 
city January, 1858, in his eighty-eighth year. 

Robinson, Beverley. Of New York. He was a son of 
the Hon. John Robinson, of Virginia, who was President of 
that Colonv on the retirement of Governor Gooch. He emi- 
grated to New York, and married Susanna, daughter of Fred- 
erick Phillips, who owned an immense landed estate on the 
Hudson River. By -this connection Mr. Robinson became 
rich. When the Revolutionary controversy commenced, he 
was living upon that portion of the Phillips estate which had 
been given to his wife, and there he desired to remain in the 
quiet enjoyment of country life, and in the management of his 
large domain. That such was his inclination, is asserted by 
the late President Dwight, and is fully confirmed by circum- 
stances, and by his descendants. He was opposed to the 
measures of the Ministry, gave up the use of imported mer- 
chandise, and clothed himself and his family in fabrics of domes- 
tic manufacture. But he was also opposed to the separation of 
the Colonies from the mother country. Still, he wished to 
take no part in the conflict of arms. The importunity of 
friends overruled his own judgment, and he entered the mili- 
tary service of the Crown. His standing entitled him to high 
rank. Of the Loyal American Regiment, raised principally 
in New York, by himself, he was accordingly commissioned 
the Colonel. He also commanded the corps called the Guides 
and Pioneers. Of the former, or the Loyal Americans, his 
son Beverley was Lieutenant-Colonel, and Thomas Barclay 
Major. Besides his active duty in the field, Colonel Robin- 
son was employed to conduct several matters of consequence ; 



and he figures conspicuously in cases of defection from the 
Whig cause. In the real or supposed plan of the Whig lead- 
ers of Vermont, to return to their allegiance, or to form some 
other and hardly less objectionable alliance with officers of the 
Crown, he was consulted, and opened a correspondence. In 
the treason of Arnold, his name and acts occur continually ; 
and it is supposed that he was acquainted with the traitor's 
purpose before it was known to Sir Henry Clinton, or any 
other person. And it appears certain that Arnold addressed 
him a letter on the subject of going over to the Royal side, 
before soliciting the command of West Point. As the plot 
matured, he accompanied Andre to Dobbs's Ferry to meet 
Arnold, according to a previous arrangement ; but an acci- 
dent prevented an interview, and both returned to New York. 
Subsequently he went up the Hudson in the Vulture, for the 
purpose of furthering the objects in view ; but failed in his 
most material designs. Arnold now sent Smith on board of 
the Vulture with a letter, which was delivered to Colonel Rob- 
inson, and on the faith of which Andre* went on shore. The 
treacherous Whig had been expected on board of the ship in 
person, and it has been said that Robinson was much opposed 
to Andre's trusting himself to the honor " of a man who was 
seeking to betray his country." But the zealous young officer 
would not listen to the prudent counsel, and determined to 
embark upon the duty from which he never returned. That 
unfortunate gentleman was captured on the 23d of September, 
1780, and on the 26th was conveyed a prisoner to Colonel 
Robinson's own house, which, with the lands adjacent, had 
been confiscated by the State, which Arnold had occupied as 
his head-quarters, and of which Washington was then a tempo- 
rary occupant. After Andre's trial and conviction, Sir Henry 
Clinton sent three Commissioners to the Whig camp, in the 
hope of producing a change in the determination of Washing- 
ton, and of showing Andrews innocence ; to this mission Rob- 
inson was attached in the character of a witness. He had 
previously addressed the Commander-in-Chief on the subject 
of Andrews release ; and, as he and Washington had been per- 


sonal friends until political events had produced a separation, 
he took occasion to speak of their former acquaintance in his 

Colonel Robinson, at the peace, with a part of his family, 
went to England. His name appears as a member of the first 
Council of New Brunswick, but he never took his seat at the 
Board. His wife is included in the Confiscation Act of New 
York, and the whole estate derived from her father passed 
from the family. The value of her interest may be estimated 
from the fact, that the British Government granted her hus- 
band the sum of £17,000 sterling, which, though equal to 
eighty thousand dollars, was considered only a partial compen- 
sation. After going to England, Colonel Robinson lived in re- 
tirement. He was unhappy ; and did not conceal the suffer- 
ings which preyed upon his spirits. He resided at Thornbury, 
near Bath, and there closed his days, in 1792, aged seventy. 
Susanna, his wife, died at the same place, in 1822, at the age 
of ninety-four. His eldest daughter, Susan Maria, died in 
England, in 1833, aged seventy-two. His daughter Joanna, 
widow of the Rev. H. Slade, Vicar of Thornbury, died at the 
house of her brother, Sir William Henry Robinson, Chelten- 
ham, in 1832. The Robinson House, which was his resi- 
dence on the Hudson, and which has become of historical 
interest, is still standing. It is situated within two or three 
miles of West Point, and on the opposite, or eastern, side of 
the river. It is (1847) the property of Richard D. Arden. 
The interior remains much as it was when its original posses- 
sors, and Washington, Arnold, and Andre were its permanent 
or temporary occupants. The rooms are low, the timbers are 
large, and many of them are uncovered ; and the fireplaces 
are ornamented with polished tiles. In the chamber which 
was used by Mrs. Arnold, nothing has been changed ; and 
over the mantel and in the wood-work are carved the words, 
"G. Wallis, Lieut. VI. Mass. Regt." 

Colonel Robinson's descendants in New Brunswick pos- 
sess some relics of the olden time, not destitute of interest. 
Among them is a silver tea-urn, of rich and massive work- 


manship, and of considerable value, which was the present ot 
an English gentleman, who was the Colonel's guest in New 
York before the Revolution. This urn, according to the 
family account, was the first article of the kind in use in 
America. Prince William Henry, who was afterwards King 
William the Fourth, enjoyed Colonel Robinson's hospitality 
in New York at a later day, and the circumstance may have 
contributed something to the advancement of the family. 
The Robinsons were unquestionably immediate sufferers 
from the events which drove them into exile. Towards the 
Loyalists, the British Government evinced much liberality, 
and, if viewed as a body, the compensation which they re- 
ceived, probably, fully covered their losses. The aggregate 
of the money grants, it cannot be mentioned too often, was 
but little short of sixteen millions of dollars ; while large 
tracts of lands, pensions, half-pay, and offices with handsome 
salaries, and held upon a life-tenure, were freely bestowed. 
Yet individuals who possessed estates of unfixed or prospec- 
tive value, or who were unable to exhibit sufficient proof of 
their claims, were losers. But, on the other hand, the Loyal- 
ists who owed as much as the property which they had in 
possession was worth, and yet claimed and received of the 
Government precisely as though they owed nothing, were 

The family of which we are speaking belonged to the class 
first mentioned. But in considering the present value of Mrs. 
Robinson's portion of the Phillips Manor, it ought not to be 
overlooked that no inconsiderable part of it arises from the 
success of the Whigs of the Revolution, and the turn of the 
very events which its original proprietors resisted. The Rebels 
of 1776 made New York an independent, — nay, more, — the 
Empire State. Had the "old families" continued their rule; 
had the thirteen Colonies continued dependent ; had the re- 
sources of the American continent been developed only as the 
mother country permitted ; had population, wealth, the facil- 
ities for transportation, manufactures, and commerce increased 
only as in Colonial possessions they ever have, and still do, — 


how much would three quarters of a century of mere time, of 
additional years of Colonial vassalage, have added to the value 
of the Manor ? The descendants of the Loyalists, then, in 
estimating the worth of the estates of their fathers, which 
passed under the Confiscation Acts, are to be precluded from 
every benefit derived from the glorious issue of the rebellion ; 
and they are to be confined in their computations to the act- 
ual value of wilderness lands at the time, adding the probable 
increase since, had the British Empire not been dismembered 
in 1783. It is admitted, however, that Colonel Robinson was 
not amply compensated in money by the Government for 
which he sacrificed fortune, home, and his native land. But 
from the account which follows, of the distinction attained by 
his children and grandchildren, it will be seen, that, though 
deprived of their inheritance, they have not been without other 
and substantial recompense. 

Robinson, Beverley. Son of the senior Beverley Robin- 
son, and Lieutenant-Colonel of the Loyal American Regiment 
commanded by his father. Was a graduate of Columbia Col- 
lege, New York, and at the beginning of the Revolutionary 
troubles was a student of law in the office of James Duane. 
His wife, Nancy, whom he married during the war, was 
the daughter of the Rev. Henry Barclay, Rector of Trinity 
Church, New York, and sister of Colonel Thomas Barclay, 
who is noticed in these pages. At the evacuation of New 
York, Lieutenant-Colonel Robinson was placed at the head 
of a large number of Loyalists who embarked for Shelburne, 
Nova Scotia, and who laid out that place in a very handsome 
and judicious manner, in the hope of its becoming a town of 
consequence and business. The harbor of Shelburne is reputed 
to be one of the best in North America, but though the popu- 
lation rapidly rose to about twelve thousand persons, the ex- 
pectations of the projectors of the enterprise were not realized, 
and many abandoned Shelburne for other parts of British 
America. Robinson went to New Brunswick, and resided 
principally at and near the city of St. John. His depriva- 
tions and sufferings, for a considerable time after leaving New 


York, were great ; these were finally relieved by the receipt of 
half-pay as an officer in the service of the Crown. In New 
Brunswick he was a member of the Council, and at the period 
of the French Revolution, and on the occurrence of war be- 
tween England and France, was entrusted with the command 
of the regiment raised in that Colony. 

He died in 1816, at New York, while on a visit to two of 
his sons who continued residents of that citv. His wife died 
at Bishop Burton, near Beverley, England, in 1814, aged 
seventy-nine. He possessed great energy, and his exertions 
and influence were sensibly felt in settling and advancing the 
commercial emporium of New Brunswick. In the Confisca- 
tion Act of New York, by which his estate was forfeited and 
he was attainted and banished, he is styled " Beverley Robin- 
son the younger." Colonel Robinson left six children : his 
son Beverley, of the city of New York ; Morris, also at New 
York, was Cashier of the Branch of the United States Bank, 
and President of the Life Insurance Company ; a daughter 
was wife of the late Alexander Slidell McKenzie, of the 
United States Navy ; Frederick Phillips is (1848) Auditor- 
General of New Brunswick, and lives at Fredericton ; John is 
(1848) a Lieutenant in the British Army, enjoys half-pay, 
and liyes near Fredericton ; William Henry, a retired Major 
in the British Army, and a member of the Legislative Coun- 
cil, died near Fredericton, in 1848, aged fifty-four; Susan, the 
remaining child, married George Lee, a half-pay officer of the 
British Army. 

Robinson, John. Of New York. Son of the senior 
Beverley Robinson. During the Revolution he was a Lieu- 
tenant in the Loyal American Regiment, commanded by his 
father, and when the corps was disbanded he settled in New 
Brunswick, and received half-pay. He embarked, and suc- 
cessfully, in commercial pursuits, and held distinguished public 
stations. He was Deputy Paymaster-General of his Majesty's 
forces in the Colony, a member of the Council, Treasurer of 
New Brunswick, Mayor of St. John, and President of the 
first bank chartered in that city and in the Colony. He died 


at St. John, in 1828, aged sixty-seven. Elizabeth, his wife, 
and daughter of the Hon. George D. Ludlow, Chief Justice 
of New Brunswick, died in the south of France, while there 
for the benefit of her health. His daughter, Frances Maria, 
wife of Colonel Joshua Wilson, of Roseville, near Wexford, 
Ireland, died at Bath, England, in 1837, at the age of forty- 
two. Five sons survive (1846) : William Henry is Deputy 
Commissary- General in the British Army ; Beverley is Treas- 
urer of New Brunswick ; George Duncan is Lieutenant-Col- 
onel of St. John City Light Infantry, and was lately a member 
of the House of Assembly ; Daniel Ludlow is a Barrister-at- 
law, and Registrar of the Court of Chancery ; and John Mor- 
ris is a Barrister-at-law, Registrar of the Court of Vice-Ad- 
miralty, and a Master in Chancery. 

Robinson, Sir Frederick Phillips, G. C. B. Of New 
York. Son of the senior Beverley Robinson. He entered 
the King's service September 11, 1778, and at the peace re- 
tired to England with his father. He was continued in the 
British Army, and became a Lieutenant-General, and received 
the honor of knighthood. He was with the Duke of Wel- 
lington, and saw much hard duty. At the storming of St. 
Sebastian he was dangerously wounded. He was in the battles 
of Vittoria, Nive, Authes, and Toulouse. During the war of 
1812 he came to America, and was employed in Canada. He 
commanded the British force in the attack on Plattsburgh, 
under Prevost, and protested against the order of his superior, 
when directed to retire, because, from the position of his 
troops, he was of the opinion that his loss of men would be 
greater in a retreat than in an advance upon the American 
works. After the conclusion of hostilities he embarked at 
New York for England. On his journey from Canada he 
stopped at the Highlands, to visit the place of his birth and the 
scenes of his youth. A nephew relates that " he wept like a 
child," as he saw and recollected the spots and objects once 
familiar to him. Sir Frederick's seat was at Brighton, Eng- 
land. He died in 1851, aged eighty-eight, and was the last 
of his father's children. His daughter, Maria Susanna, mar- 


ried Hamilton Charles James Hamilton, her Majesty's Minis- 
ter to Rio Janeiro. 

Robinson, Sir William Henry, K. C. H. Of New York. 
Son of the senior Beverley Robinson. He accompanied his 
father to England, and was appointed to a place in the Commis- 
sariat Department of the British Army, of which, at his de- 
cease, he was the head. For his long and faithful services he 
received the honor of knighthood. He was the youngest son. 
He died at Bath, England, in 1836, aged seventy. Lady 
Robinson, who was Catharine, daughter of Cortlandt Skinner, 
Attorney-General of New Jersey, died at Wisthorpe House, 
Marlow, England, in 1843, aged seventy-five. Sir William 
was named for his Majesty William the Fourth. Three 
children of Sir William survive (1847) : his son, William 
Henry, a Captain in the Seventy-second Regiment of the 
British Army ; Catharine Beverley, wife of Major-General 
Smelt, of the British Army ; Elizabeth, wife of William 
Henry Robinson (her cousin), Deputy Commissary-General 
in the British Army, and son of the Hon. John Robin- 

Robinson, Morris. Of New York. Son of the senior 
Beverley Robinson. He accepted a commission under the 
Crown, and was a Captain in the Queen's Rangers. When 
that corps was disbanded at the peace, most of the officers 
were dismissed from service, and many of them — as is seen 
in these volumes — settled in New Brunswick. But Captain 
Robinson, participating in the good fortune of his family, was 
continued in commission. At the time of his decease he was 
a Lieutenant-Colonel, and Assistant Barrack-master-General, 
in the British Army. He died at Gibraltar, in 1815, aged 
fifty-six. His wife was a sister of Captain Waring, of the 
British Navy. His daughter, Margaret Ann, wife of Rev. J. 
Cross, died at Thornbury, England, in 1837, at the age of 
forty-three. His son Beverley is (1847) a Captain in the Royal 
Artillery, and resides at Ross, Herefordshire. Frederick, a 
Captain in the British Army, died at Plymouth, England, in 
1847, aged forty-eight. John De Lancey, a Lieutenant in the 


Royal Navy, on half-pay. Oliver De Lancey, his remaining 
son, Major in the Queen's Regiment. His daughters, Susan 
and Joanna, reside (1847) in New Brunswick. The first 
married the Hon. Robert Parker, a Judge of the Supreme 
Court; and the latter, Robert F. Hazen, Esq., Barrister-at- 
law, Master in Chancery, and formerly Mayor of St. John, 
and died at that city, in 1853, aged forty-eight. 

Robinson, Christopher. Of Virginia. Kinsman of 
Beverley. Entered William and Mary College with his cous- 
in Robert ; escaped with him to New York, and received a 
commission in the Loyal American Regiment. Served at the 
South, and was wounded. At the peace he went to Nova 
Scotia, and received a grant of land at Wilmot. He soon 
removed to Canada, where Governor Simcoe gave him the 
appointment of Deputy Surveyor-General of Crown lands. 
His salary, half-pay, and an estate of two thousand acres 
placed him in circumstances of comfort. He was the father 
of several children, some of whom were educated in the 
mother-country. He died in Canada. His widow, Esther, 
daughter of Rev. John Sayre, of New Brunswick, deceased 
in 1827. His son, Beverley Robinson, who was born in 
1791, was appointed Attorney-General of Upper Canada in 
1818 ; Chief Justice in 1829 ; created a Baronet in 1854 ; 
and died in 1863. 

Robinson, Robert. Of Virginia. Kinsman of Beverley. 
Entered William and Mary College with the intention of be- 
coming a minister of the Episcopal Church. To avoid com- 
pulsory service in the Whig militia, he fled to a British frigate 
and was landed at New York, where his relative gave hirn a 
commission in the Loyal American Regiment. He served at 
the South, and received several wounds. In 1783 he retired 
to Nova Scotia, and lived at different periods at Wilmot, 
Granville, and Digby. He died at the latter place in 1814, 
aged sixty-four. His wife, who bore him nine children, was 
Deborah, daughter of Elisha Budd. One son, John Robin- 
son, of Digby, and three daughters, are now (1861) living. 

Robinson, John. Of Boston. Commissioner of the Cus- 

VOL. II. * 20 


toms. Collector of the Customs, Newport, Rhode Island, in 
1765. During the popular tumults there of that year, he 
feared for his life, closed his office, and fled to the Cygnet 
sloop-of-war. He addressed the Governor from that ship, 
demanding protection, and refusing to resume his duties until 
safety to his person was promised. In 1767 he was prosecuted 
in the Courts of Rhode Island, to the displeasure of the Brit- 
ish Ministry. He was transferred to Boston on the creation 
of the Board of Commissioners. [See notice of his father-in- 
law, James BoutineauJ] Mr. Robinson sailed for England, 
March 16, 1770, with an account of the affair of blood in 
King (now State) Street, eleven days previously ; and his 
statements to ministers and members of Parliament did much 
to increase the excitement against Boston. He returned ; but 
again went to England, and died there previous to November, 

Robinson, Matthew. Of South Kingston, Rhode Island. 
Only son of Robert Robinson, an officer of the Customs in 
Newport, was born in 1709. He studied law in Boston, and 
commenced practice about the year 1735 at Newport. In 
1750 he removed to Narragansett, and purchased a large 
estate. He was a good lawyer and a learned man. His 
library was large and select. Though opposed to the Revolu- 
tion, he remained quiet. After the peace, he paid respect to 
the new order of things, and became, indeed, " a warm friend 
of the Constitution." " His house was the seat of hospital- 
ity," and persons of culture " were always welcome guests." 
His wife was Barsheba Johnson, who died soon after the year 
1750. His own death occurred at South Kingston, in 1795, 
at the age of eighty-six. He was childless ; but his wife's son, 
Augustus Johnson, for whom he was a surety and by whom he 
was a pecuniary loser, was Attorney-General of Rhode Island. 
Robinson, John. Went from some part of New England 
to St. Andrew, New Brunswick, at the close of the war, and 
w T as one of the first settlers of that town. He died there in 
1807, aged fifty-three. Lydia, his widow, died at the same 
place in 1820, aged fifty-five. 


Robinson, John. A grantee of St. John, 1783 ; died at 
Portland, New Brunswick, 1839, aged ninety-one. 

Robinson, Thomas. Of Sussex on Delaware. In July, 
1775, the Sussex County Committee took him in hand for his 
acts and words, and unanimously declared that he was " an 
enemy to his country, and a contumacious opposer of liberty 
and the natural rights of mankind." His offences were va- 
rious. Peter Watson swore that " being at Robinson's store, 
he saw his clerk, John Gozlin, weigh and sell two small par- 
cels of bohea-tea, one of which he delivered to a girl, and the 
other to Leatherberry Barker's wife." Robert Butcher testi- 
fied that Robinson said to him, the Whig Committees " were 
a pack of fools for taking up arms against the King, that our 
charters were not annihilated, changed, or altered by the late 
Acts of Parliament," &c. Nathaniel Mitchell testified that 
Robinson had declared to him, " the present Congress were 
an unconstitutional body of men, and also, that the great men 
were pushing on the common people between them and all 
danger." After hearing this evidence, the Committee sum- 
moned Robinson to appear before them to answer ; but he re- 
turned word that " he desired his compliments to the gentle- 
men of the Committee, and to acquaint them that he did not, 
nor could not, think of coming before them, unless he could 
bring forty or fifty armed men with him." These " compli- 
ments " were voted " to be insulting and injurious," and a 
Resolution pronouncing his defection from the Whig cause 
followed. In 1778 he was ordered to surrender himself for 
trial, or stand attainted of treason. 

Rochford, Thomas. Innkeeper, of Jamaica, New York. 
In May, 1778, he informed " the gentlemen of the Army and 
Navy, and inhabitants of New York, that they can have break- 
fasts and dinners at the shortest notice," and that he " had 
laid in an assortment of liquors of the best quality." In July, 
1779, he advertised that he had removed to the Queen's Head, 
and was " grateful to the gentlemen of the Army and Navy ; " 
while in October of that year it was announced that tickets 
for the Accession Ball were to be had at his house. In 1781 

232 ROGERS. 

he removed a second time, and begged to inform " the ladies 
and gentlemen that at his new quarters he has an elegant 
garden, with arbors', bowers, alcoves, grottos, naiads, dryads, 
hamadryads." These trifling incidents show that, though a 
civil war was raging, men and women were not wholly inat- 
tentive to matters that gratified the appetite, the eye, and the 

Rogers, Rev. Daniel. Of Littleton, Massachusetts. Con- 
gregational Minister. Son of Daniel Rogers, physician, who 
perished on Hampton Beach in 1722, or early in the year fol- 
lowing. The subject of this brief notice graduated at Harvard 
University in 1725. In the Revolution he adhered to the 
Royal side, though with moderation and prudence — praying 
neither for the King nor the Congress. But his house, which 
is still (1847) standing, and occupied as the parsonage, was 
beset by the multitude, and holes made by bullets which were 
fired at it are yet to be seen. He died in 1782, aged seventy- 
five. His children w r ere Jeremiah Dummer; Daniel; a daugh- 
ter, who married Abel Willard, a Loyalist mentioned in this 
work ; a daughter, who married Samuel Parkman, a gentle- 
man of great wealth of Boston ; and a daughter, who was the 
wife of the Rev. Jonathan Newell, of Stow, Massachusetts. 

Rogers, Jeremiah Dummer. Son of Daniel Rogers. 
Graduated at Harvard University in. 1762, and after studying 
law, commenced practice in Littleton. In 1774 he was one 
of the barristers and attorneys who were Addressers of Hutch- 
inson. He took refuge in Boston, and, after the battle of 
Breed's Hill, was appointed commissary to the Royal troops 
that continued to occupy Charlestown, and lived in a house 
which stood on the site of the present Unitarian church in that 
city, where his grandson now ministers. At the evacuation 
of Boston in 1776, he accompanied the Royal Army to Hali- 
fax, and died in that city in 1784. 1 His wife was a sister of 

1 All persons indebted to the Estate of Jeremiah Dummer Rogers, 
Esq. ; late of Halifax, deceased, are requested to make immediate payment 
to the Administratrix, Bathsheba Rogers, and all who have demands on 
said estate are desired to bring in their claims to the said Administratrix. 
—Halifax, February 2, 1784. 

ROGERS. 233 

the Rev. Doctor Peter Thacher, minister of Brattle-Street 
Church, Boston. His children were three daughters and four 
sons. The daughters, and Samuel, one of the sons, were chil- 
dren at the time of his decease, and returned to Boston, where 
they were educated by his sisters, the ladies mentioned in the 
notice of his father. One daughter married the late David 
Ellis, Esq., of Boston, whose son, the Rev. George E. Ellis, 
D. D., of Charlestown, Massachusetts, is one of the ablest 
writers of the day ; another married the late Doctor William 
Spooner, of Boston ; and the third, the late Jonathan Chap- 
man, of Boston. His sons John and Daniel died young. 
His son Samuel, merchant in Boston, deceased in 1832. Jere- 
miah Dummer, the other son, went to England, where he was 
educated by an uncle. He became a classical tutor, and Lord 
Byron was among his pupils. He visited his relatives in 
Massachusetts in 1824, and was honored with a diploma from 
the University of which so many of his name and family were 
graduates. He had become so much of an Englishman as to 
feel strong prejudices against the civil and religious institutions 
of the land of his immediate ancestry. He returned to Eng- 
land, and died at Nottingham in 1832, where a monument 
has been erected to his memory. 

Rogers, Israel. Of Queen's County, New York. Charg- 
ed generally, and accused specially of abusing a Whig com- 
mittee-man, of seizing his bridle and saying that he had " a 
good mind to peal bark and hang him." Disarmed and de- 
clared by the Committee, a vile man, an enemy to his coun- 
try, and unworthy of the least protection. 

Rogers, Robert. Of New Hampshire. He was the son 
of James Rogers, an early settler of Dunbarton, New Hamp- 
shire ; and, disposed to military life, entered the service in the 
French war, and commanded Rogers's Rangers, a corps re- 
nowned for their exploits. After the peace he returned to his 
native Colony, and lived on half-pay. His subsequent career 
was one of doubtful integrity. In 1766 he was appointed 
Governor of Michilimackinac ; and, accused of a plot to 
plunder his own fort and join the French, was sent to Mon- 


234 ROGERS. 

treal in irons. In 1769 he went to England, and was presented 
to the King, but was soon imprisoned for debt. As the Rev- 
olutionary controversy darkened, it was supposed that he was 
ready to side with the Whigs, or with the adherents of the 
Crown, as chance or circumstances might direct. Towards 
the close of 1775, it was rumored that he had been in Canada, 
had accepted a commission under the King, and had been 
through one of the Whig encampments in the habit of an 
Indian ; his course was therefore closely watched. 

Doctor Wheelock, of Dartmouth College, wrote at this pe- 
riod, — " the famous Major Rogers came to my house, from a 
tavern in the neighborhood, where he called for refreshment. 
1 had never before seen him. He was in but an ordinary 
habit for one of his character. He treated me with great re- 
spect ; said he came from London in July, and had spent 
twenty days with the Congress in Philadelphia, and I forget 
how many at New York ; had been offered and urged to take 
a commission in favor of the Colonies ; but, as he was on half- 
pay from the Crown, he thought proper not to accept it ; that 
he had fought two battles in Algiers under the Dey ; that 
he was now on a design to take care of some large grants of 
land made to him ; that he was going to visit his sister at 
Moor's Town, and then to return by Merrimac River to visit 
his wife, whom he had not yet seen since his return from Eng- 
land ; that he had got a pass, or license to travel, from the 
Continental Congress," &c. 

Major Rogers's account of himself and his plans was prob- 
ably not accurate. He actually had a pass from Congress, 
but he had been the prisoner of that body, and had been re- 
leased on his parole, and on signing a certificate, wherein he 
" solemnly promised and engaged on the honor of a gentle- 
man and soldier, that he would not bear arms against the 
American United Colonies in any manner whatsoever, during 
the American contest with Great Britain." He wrote to 
Washington soon after leaving Doctor Wheelock, that, " I 
love America ; it is my native country, and that of my family, 
and I intend to spend the evening of my days in it." At this 

ROGERS. 235 

very moment it is possible that he was a spy. In January, 
1776, Washington said : " I am apt to believe the intelligence 
given to Doctor Wheelock respecting Major Rogers [having 
been in Canada] was not true ; but being much suspected of 
unfriendly views to this country, his conduct should be at- 
tended to with some degree of vigilance and circumspection." 
In June of that year the Commander-in-Chief wrote again : 
" Upon information that Major Rogers was travelling through 
the country under suspicious circumstances, I thought it nec- 
essary to have him secured. I therefore sent after him. He 
was taken at South Amboy, and brought to New York. Upon 
examination, he informed me that he came from New Hamp- 
shire, the country of his usual abode, where he had left his 
family ; and pretended he was destined to Philadelphia on 
business with Congress. 

" As by his own confession he had crossed Hudson's River 
at New Windsor, and was taken so far out of his proper and 
direct route to Philadelphia, this consideration, added to the 
length of time he had taken to perform his journey, his being 
found in so suspicious a place as Amboy, his unnecessary stay 
there on pretence of getting some baggage from New York, 
and an expectation of receiving money from a person here of 
bad character, and in no circumstances to furnish him out of 
his own stock, the Major's reputation, and his being a half- 
pay officer, have increased my jealousies about him. The 
business, which he informs me he has with Congress, is a 
secret offer of his services, to the end that, in case it should 
be rejected, he might have his way left open to an employment 
in the East Indies, to which he was assigned ; and in that case 
he flatters himself he will obtain leave of Congress to go to 
Great Britain." 

Washington's suspicions at this time were very strong, and 
he sent Rogers to Congress under the care of an officer ; and 
suggested to the President of that body, " whether it would 
not be dangerous to accept the offer of his services." If, after 
arriving at Philadelphia, he did as he told the Commander-in- 
Chief he intended to do, his overtures were declined ; since 

236 ROGERS. 

Congress directed that he should return to New Hampshire, 
and be disposed of as the Provincial Congress should deem 
proper and necessary. Every incident shows that either he 
waited a bid from the Whigs, that his sympathies were se- 
cretly with the ministerial party, or that from first to last he 
played a part. Whichever conjecture be the true one, he 
soon after openly joined the Royal side, and, notwithstanding 
his parole of honor, accepted the commission of Colonel, and 
raised a command called the Queen's Rangers, a corps cele- 
brated throughout the contest. To encourage enlistments, he 
promised recruits, in a printed circular, " their proportion of 
all Rebel-lands," &c, a pledge which he was never able to ful- 
fil, but one which may be indicative of his own motives of 
action. In the fall of 1776, while with his corps at an outpost 
near Marroneck, he narrowly escaped being taken prisoner by 
a party sent out by Lord Sterling. Soon after this he went 
to England, and Simcoe succeeded him as commander of the 
Queen's Rangers. 

In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. He was wild, 
improvident, and extravagant. His wife, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Rev. Arthur Browne, obtained a divorce. He died in 
England, a victim to his evil habits, about the beginning of the 
present century. Mrs. Rogers deceased at Concord, New 
Hampshire, about the year 1812. His son, Arthur, died at 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1841, leaving three children 
in San Domingo of respectable standing. 

Rogers, Nathan. Of Boston, and a merchant. His res- 
idence was in King (now State) Street. In 1769 he was 
denounced at a public meeting, as " one of those who auda- 
ciously continue to counteract the united sentiment of the 
body of merchants throughout North America by importing 
British goods contrary to the agreement." In 1770, while in 
New York, his effigy was suspended on a gallows and burnt. 
" He ordered his carriage and secretly left town at two o'clock 
next morning. He is described as a man about five feet eight 
inches high, pretty corpulent, round-shouldered, stoops a great 
deal, and generally appears in green and gold, or purple and 

ROME. 237 

gold." Of the affair in New York, Lieutenant-Governor 
Colden wrote the Earl of Hillsborough, May 16, 1770 : 
" The party in opposition to the present Administration join 
with the people in Boston in measures to prevent importation, 
and for that purpose stole late in the night last week a proces- 
sion of the mob to expose a Boston importer, who happened 
to come to this place. The magistrates knew nothing of the 
design till it was too late, otherwise I believe it would have 
been prevented," &c. 

Rome, George. Of Newport, Rhode Island. He was a 
merchant, and carried on a large business in the whale-fishery. 
A letter of his to Doctor Moffatt, in which he indulged in 
some severe remarks upon the political heresies of the time, 
and especially upon the manner of administering justice in the 
Colonies, found its way to England, and was thence trans- 
mitted by Franklin in 1772 to Massachusetts, with several 
letters of Hutchinson, Oliver, and others. I extract a single 

After saying that he had kept his head out of a halter, 
which his correspondent had had the honor to grace, and that 
his " constituents, from a moderate calculation, cannot lose 
less than £ 50,000 sterling by the baleful constitution of this 
Colony, and the corruption of their courts of judicature," he 
wrote — " We have had vessels made over to us for the satis- 
faction of debts, and after bills of sale were executed, carried 
off, in open violence or force, by Captain Snip Snap, of Mr. 
No Body's appointment ; and when we sued for damages re- 
covered a louse." This letter was published in the newspapers, 
and extensively circulated in Rhode Island, and Rome was 
denounced in terms of deep indignation. At last, he was 
brought to the bar of the Assembly to answer : the result was 
imprisonment in Kingston Jail. In November, 1775, lie was 
in confinement at Providence ; and the Whig Committee 
seized his personal estate. 

At a later time in the war, he was a contractor in the Royal 
service; but he went to England previous to July, 1779. In 
1780 his property was confiscated. At the peace he was still 

238 RONEY. — ROSS, 

abroad, and was appointed agent of the Rhode Island Loyalists 
who had suffered losses, to prosecute their claims to compensa- 
tion. In 1788, when the commissioners had completed their 
duties, and Parliament had passed an Act to remunerate the 
sufferers, he joined the other agents in an Address of thanks 
to the King. 

Roney, . Lieutenant in De Lancey's First Battal- 
ion. In 1780 on service in Georgia, and wounded in a 
spirited skirmish with a detachment from Pickens's corps. 
Killed in 1781, at the siege of Ninety-Six. 

Ronaldson, Rev. . Of Georgia. Pastor of a 

church in Monaghan. His flock were part Whigs, part 
Loyalists. In the course of the war his pastoral relations 
were violently dissolved, and himself made prisoner. 

Ropes, Nathaniel. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Was 
born in 1727, graduated at Harvard University in 1745, and 
died at Salem, March, 1774, aged forty-seven years. He was 
representative to the General Court ; a member of the Coun- 
cil ; Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and Judge of Pro- 
bate for the county of Essex ; and a Judge of Superior Court 
of Massachusetts. He was a firm Loyalist. The night before 
his death, his house was attacked by the multitude, and the 
windows and furniture were demolished. Aside from his 
politics, John Adams says that he was an amiable man, re- 
spectable, and virtuous. 

Rose, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Was born 
in England, and emigrated to South Carolina early in life. 
At the Revolutionary era, he was in possession of an ample 
fortune. An Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton, and a Peti- 
tioner to be armed on the side of the Crown ; he lost his estate 
by confiscation. When Charleston was evacuated by the 
Royal Army, he retired to Jamaica. After the peace, he re- 
turned to England. He died in London, in 1805, aged eighty- 
three, in consequence of a fall in the street, which broke his 
thigh. He was more than six feet high, and " much of the 
gentleman in his appearance." 

Ross, Alexander. Of Fort Pitt, Pennsylvania. In 1781 

ROSS. — ROUTH. 239 

Colonel Brodhead wrote the President of the Council thus : 
" I have the pleasure to enclose a list of bonds, notes, &c, late 
the property of a Tory, Ross, who was formerly an agent at this 
place to the King of Britain's Contractors, and deserted from 
his parole. I am informed that his estate is worth near ten 
thousand pounds in specie, and'that it will enure to the benefit 
of our State." Attainted of treason, and property confiscated. 

Ross, Thomas. Mariner, of Falmouth, Maine. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. He settled on the island of 
Grand Menan, Bay of Fundy, where he followed the sea, as 
master-mariner. He died in 1804, while on his passage home 
from the West Indies. The children who survived him were 
William, John, Margaret, Barbara, and Betsey; all of whom 
are now (1844,) deceased, excepting John, who resides at 
Grand Menan. 

Ross, Finley. Of New York. He was a follower of Sir 
John Johnson to Canada in 1776. After the Revolution, he 
served in Europe, and was at Minden and Jena. He settled 
at Charlotburgh, Upper Canada, where he died in 1830, aged 

Ross, . Major in the Queen's Rangers. Simcoe 

calls him a "valuable friend." He went to the West Indies 
under General Grant, as Brigade-Major, and was killed at St. 

Roupell, George. Of South Carolina. Deputy Post- 
master-General for the Southern Department of America. 
In 1775 he was confined to his house bv order of the Whiof 
leaders, for opening the mails on board of a ship-of-war. 
Went to England, and was at London in 1779. He returned, 
and died in 1794, aged sixty-seven. 

Routh, Richard. Collector of the Customs at Salem, 
Massachusetts. He was an Addresser of Gage, on his arri- 
val, in 1774. In 1776 he went to Halifax with the British 
Army. After quitting Massachusetts he was Collector of the 
Customs, and Chief Justice of Newfoundland. He died in 
1801. Abigail, his widow, died at London, in 1835, aged 
eighty-four. His son, Randolph Isham Routh, was a Coin- 


missary-General in the British Army ; his son, H. L. Routh, 
a merchant in New York. 

Rowland, John Hamilton. Of Pennsylvania. Episco- 
pal Missionary. Removed to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, and 
resumed his ministry. 

Royall, Isaac. Of Medford, Massachusetts. He was 
Representative to the General Court, and for twenty-two 
years a member of the Council. In 1774 he was appointed 
Councillor, under the writ of Mandamus ; but was one of 
the twenty-six who were not sworn into office. He went to 
England in 1776, and was proscribed and banished in 1778. 
J. B. Bright, Esq., of Waltham, Massachusetts, has allowed 
me to copy an original letter in his possession, written by 
Mr. Royall, at Kensington, May 29, 1779, addressed to the 
Rev. Mr. Cooke, which I use as freely as my limits will 
allow. He said : " I have not seen Lord North, or any of 
the Ministry ;"...." nor have I been able to go either 
to the House of Lords or Commons, to hear the debates, 
since I have been in England." .... Again : "Upon my 
first arrival in England, I thought it my duty to wait upon 
Lord Dartmouth, and accordingly did ; and likewise upon 
Lord North and Lord Germain;" .... "but the servant 
said they were gone out of town." .... Called a second time; 
"but was answered they were engaged ; so I never attempted 
to go afterwards." . . . . " Governor B , and Gov- 
ernor H came to see me soon after my arrival, and I 

returned their visit ; and soon after Governor H was 

so complaisant as to invite me to dine with him ; but I did 
not go, and so our acquaintance soon broke off." Finally, he 
expresses a wish to return to Medford, to marry again, and to 
be buried by the side of his wife, his father and mother, and 
the rest of his friends. It is pleasantly said, that " to carry 
on his farm, after his departure, was found to be sometimes 
difficult ; for the honest man's scythe refused to cut Tory 
grass, and his oxen would not plough Tory ground." He 
died in England, October, 1781. He bequeathed upwards of 
two thousand acres of land in Worcester County to found the 


first Law Professorship of Harvard University, and his be- 
quests for other purposes were numerous and liberal. 

Brooks, in his " History of Medford," relates that " he 
loved to give, and loved to speak of it, and loved the reputa- 
tion of it. Hospitality, too, was almost a passion with him. 
No house in the Colony was more open to friends ; no gen- 
tleman gave better dinners, or drank costlier wines. As a 
master, he was kind to his slaves ; charitable to the poor, and 
friendly to everybody. He kept a daily journal, minutely 
descriptive of every visitor, topic, and incident, and even de- 
scended to recording what slippers he wore, how much tar- 
water he drank, and when he went to bed ! ' 

Rooke, Henry. Deputy Inspector-General of the Loyal- 
ist forces. 

Roome, John Le Chevalier. Of New York. Lawyer. 
Confined in jail in 1776. In trouble, in 1778, because he 
had exacted fees for writing passes to vessels, and advertised 
that he would make restitution. Notary-Public in 1782. 
Petitioner for grant of lands in Nova Scotia, July, 1783. 
Sailed for England, October, the same year. In a Loyalist 
tract, published in London in 1784, his conduct during the 
war is severely criticized. 

Roorback, Barrent. Of New York. He was educated 
at a college, studied medicine, and at the beginning of the 
Revolution was in practice. But he abandoned his profession, 
entered the service, and was a Captain in De Lancey's First 
Battalion. During the war he gave proofs of valor, and con- 
tinued in commission until the peace. After the corps was 
disbanded he married, and established his residence in New 
York. In 1806, though he enjoyed half-pay, it is understood 
that his circumstances were needy ; and joining Miranda in 
the attempt to create a revolution in Caraccas, was an enthu- 
siast in the cause. His rank at first was that of Captain in 
the First Regiment of Riflemen, but he was soon appointed 
Major of Brigade, and finally a Lieutenant-Colonel. He ap- 
pears to have been one of the most popular officers engaged 
in the enterprise. 

VOL. II. 21 

242 . ROOSA. — RUGGLES. 

Roosa, . A Captain in a Loyalist corps. In 1777 

he was taken in arms, and hanged at Esopus, New York. 
His offence, as appeared at his trial, consisted in inducing 
persons of his own sentiments to enlist under the Royal 

Rugely, Henry. Of South Carolina. Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel of Loyal Militia. His plantation was called " Clermont." 
Colonel Washington assailed him while his force occupied a 
building on his own estate, which he had surrounded by aba- 
tis, in order to prevent an attack by cavalry. The Whig 
resorted to stratagem ; he shaped the trunk of a tree to imi- 
tate a field-piece, and bringing it up in military style, made a 
show of fight ; and to give solemnity to the device he sent 
a flag, warning Rugely of his impending destruction. The 
deceived Loyalist submitted at discretion. His conduct on 
this occasion drew from Lord Cornwallis the following letter 
to Colonel Tarleton : " Rugely will not be made a Brigadier. 
He surrendered, without firing a shot, himself and one hun- 
dred and three rank and file, to the cavalry only. A deserter 
of Morgan's assures us that the infantry never came within 
three miles of the house." "Sparks's Washington " contains 
a letter addressed to Rugely, by Lord Rawdon, of a character 
to cause an explanation on the part of his Lordship. In 1782 
the Colonel's estate was confiscated. 

Ruggles, Timothy. Of Massachusetts. He was the son 
of the Rev. Timothy Ruggles, of Rochester, was born at that 
place in 1711, and graduated at Harvard University in 1732. 
He appeared in public life, for the first time, in 1736, as the 
Representative from his native town. Removing to Sand- 
wich, he commenced the practice of law, though his father 
had intended that he should adopt his own profession. At 
Sandwich he married a widow, opened a tavern, and per- 
sonally attended the bar and stable, but continued his practice 
in the Courts, where he was generally opposed to Otis. He 
changed his abode a second time, and removed to Hardwick, 
in the county of Worcester. Possessing military talents and 
taste, he attained the rank of Brigadier-General, and led a 


body of troops to join Sir William Johnson, in the war of 
1755. He distinguished himself in the action with Baron 
de Dieskau, for which he was rewarded by the gift of a lucra- 
tive place. In 1757 he was appointed Associate Justice of 
the Common Pleas, and subsequently was placed at the head 
of the bench of that Court. To the Congress of nine Colo- 
nies, at New York, in 1765, he, Otis, and Patridge were the 
delegates from Massachusetts. Ruggles was made President 
of that body. His conduct gave great dissatisfaction to the 
Whigs of Massachusetts, and in addition to a vote of censure 
of the House of Representatives, he was reprimanded in his 
place from the Speaker's chair. He offered reasons for his 
course, which, at first, he had leave to insert upon the jour- 
nal, but after his statement was considered, the liberty to in- 
sert was revoked. He became, as the Revolutionary quarrel 
progressed, one of the most violent supporters of the measures 
of the Ministry, and he and Otis, as the leaders of the two 
opposing parties, were in constant collision in the discussions 
of the popular branch of the Government. In 1774 he was 
named a Mandamus Councillor, which increased his unpop- 
ularity to so great a degree that his house was attacked at 
night, and his cattle were maimed and poisoned. On the 22d 
of December of that year, he addressed the following note to 
the " Printers of the Boston Newspapers " : — 

" As Messrs. Edes and Gill, in their paper of Monday, the 
12th instant, were pleased to acquaint the public, c that the 
Association sent by Brigadier Ruggles, &c, to the town of 
Hardwick, &c, together with his son's certificate thereof, and 
the Resolves of the Provincial Congress therein, must be de- 
ferred till their next,' I am so credulous as to expect then to 
have seen their next paper adorned with the form of an Asso- 
ciation, which would have done honor to it, and, if attended 
to and complied with by the good people of the Province, 
might have put it in the power of any one very easily to have 
distinguished such loyal subjects to the King, as dare to assert 
their rights to freedom, in all respects consistent with the laws 
of the land, from such rebellious ones, as under the pretext of 


being friends to liberty, are frequently committing the most 
enormous outrages upon the persons and property of such of 
his Majesty's peaceable subjects, who, for want of knowing 
who to call upon (in these distracted times) for assistance, fall 
into the hands of a banditti, whose cruelties surpass those of 
savages. But finding my mistake, I now take the liberty to 
send copies to your several offices, to be published in your 
next papers, that so the public may be made more acquainted 
therewith than at present, and may be induced to associate 
for the above purpose. And as many of the people, for some 
time past, have been arming themselves, it may not be amiss 
to inform them that their numbers will not appear so large in 
the field as was imagined before it was known that indepen- 
dency was the object in contemplation ; since which many 
have associated, in different parts of the Province, to preserve 
their freedom and support Government ; and as it may be- 
come necessary, in a very short time, to give convincing proofs 
of our attachment to Government, we shall be much wanting 
to ourselves, if we longer trample upon that patience which 
has already endured to long-suffering, and may, if this op- 
portunity be neglected, have a tendency to ripen many for 
destruction who have not been guilty of an overt act of re- 
bellion, which would be an event diametrically opposite to 
the humane and benevolent intention of him whose abused 
patience cannot endure forever, and who hath already, by his 
prudent conduct, evinced the most tender regard for a deluded 

The "Association" consisted of a preamble and six arti- 
cles. The principal were the first and third, which provided : 
" That we will, upon all occasions, with our lives and for- 
tunes, stand by and assist each other in the defence of life, 
liberty, and property, whenever the same shall be attacked or 
endangered by any bodies of men, riotously assembled upon 
any pretence, or under any authority not warranted by the 
laws of the land." And, " That we will not acknowledge or 
submit to the pretended authority of any Congress, Commit- 
tees of Correspondence, or any other unconstitutional assem- 


blies of men ; but will, at the risk of our lives, if need be, 
oppose the forcible exercise of all such authority." 

General Ruggles's plan of combining against the Whigs 
seems to have been the model of similar Associations formed 
elsewhere. During his residence in Boston, (in which town 
he had taken refuge when the above communication to the 
Printers was sent to them,) he attempted to raise a corps of 
Loyalists, but did not succeed. At the evacuation, he accom- 
panied the Royal Army to Halifax, and from thence repaired 
to Long and Staten Islands, New York, where the attempt to 
embody a force for the King's service was renewed. He or- 
ganized a body of Loyal Militia, about three hundred in num- 
ber, but does not appear to have performed much active duty. 
He is named in the statute of Massachusetts of 1779, " to con- 
fiscate the estates of certain notorious conspirators against the 
government and liberties of" that State, and went into per- 
petual banishment. After many vicissitudes incident to his 
position in so troubled times, he established his residence in 
Nova Scotia. Of the beautiful site of Digby he was a pro- 
prietor. He died at Wilmot, in 1795, aged eighty-five. 

General Ruggles was a good scholar, and possessed powers 
of mind of a very high order. He was a wit and a misan- 
thrope ; and a man of rude manners and rude speech. Many 
anecdotes continue to be related of him in the town of his 
nativity, which show his shrewdness, his sagacity, his military 
hardihood and bravery. As a lawyer, he was an impressive 
pleader, and in Parliamentary debate, able and ingenious. 
That a person thus constituted should make enemies, other 
than those which men in prominent public stations usually ac- 
quire, is not strange, and he had a full share of personal foes. 
In Mrs. Warren's dramatic piece of "The Group," he figures 
in the character of Brigadier Hate-all. Numerous descend- 
ants are to be met with in Nova Scotia, and the avocation of 
inn-keeper, adopted by the General at Sandwich, is (1847) 
not yet unknown in the family. 

His daughter, Bathsheba, who married Joshua Spooner, of 
Brookfield, proved a mere wanton and a murderess. To re- 



move all obstacles to gratifying her desires for another, she 
hired William Brooks and James Buchannan of the " Con- 
vention troops," or Burgoyne's army, and Ezra Ross, to mur- 
der her husband. The four were tried at Worcester, April, 
1778, convicted, and executed at that place, in July of the 
same year. The evidence showed that she was depraved to 
the last degree. 

Ruggles, John. Of Hardwick, Massachusetts. Son of 
General Timothy Ruggles. In 1778 he was proscribed and 
banished. He settled in Nova Scotia, and died there. His 
widow, Hannah, only daughter of Dr. Thomas Sackett, of 
New York, died at Wilmot, Nova Scotia, in 1839, aged sev- 
enty-six. His only son, Captain Timothy Amherst Ruggles, 
of the Nova Scotia Fencibles, died at the same place in 1838, 
at the age of fifty-six. Three daughters were alive in 1839. 

Ruggles, Timothy. He was a member of the House of 
Assembly of Nova Scotia many years. He died at Gran- 
ville, Nova Scotia, in 1831. Sarah, his widow, died at that 
place, in 1842, aged ninety-two. 

Rulofson, Rulof. He was in the service of the Crown 
from the beginning to the close of the war. Soon after the 
peace he settled in Hampton, King's County, New Brunswick, 
where he was a magistrate. He died at Hampton, 1840, aged 
eighty-six, leaving a widow, six children, several grand and 

Rundle, Daniel. Of Philadelphia. Merchant. Accused 
of treason, he was required by a proclamation of the President 
and Council to appear before a certain day for trial, or, in 
default, to stand attainted and lose his estate by confiscation. 
Absent in Europe on private business, his friends interposed, 
and the time was extended. He surrendered himself, and was 

Russell, James. Of Charlestown, Massachusetts. His 
paternal ancestor was Richard Russell, who settled in that 
town in 1640, and was Treasurer of the Colony. His moth- 
er's family was also ancient, and highly respectable. His 
father was the Hon. Daniel Russell. He was born at Charles- 


town in 1715, and there, except during the Revolutionary 
period, he passed the whole of his life. He sustained many 
public offices, and was a Judge. In 1774 he was appointed a 
Mandamus Councillor, but did not take the official oath. He 
died in 1798, aged eighty-three. He was not solicitous to 
shine, but he was anxious to do good. As a son, a husband, 
brother, father, neighbor and friend, he was all that could be 
expected or desired. His understanding was sound and prac- 
tical ; and, possessed of great benevolence and public spirit, 
he was incessant in his endeavors to promote the happiness 
and advance the prosperity of the community in which he 
lived. A bridge from Charlestown to Boston was among the 
enterprises which he projected ; and he was the first person in 
Massachusetts, probably, who conceived that the plan of thus 
uniting the two towns was practicable. By his persevering 
efforts, the work was finally commenced and successfully ac- 
complished ; and the Charlestown Bridge was the first struc- 
ture of the kind ever built across a broad river in the United 
States. The Rev. Charles Lowell, D. D., the venerated Pas- 
tor of the West Church, Boston, who died January, 1861, 
was a grandson of the subject of this notice. 

Russell, James, Jr. Of Massachusetts. Son of the pre- 
ceding. Went to England. Was in London, February, 1776, 
and at Exeter in 1779. A year later, the lucky captures by 
a letter of marque ship had given him a competence ; and he 
was " bound in the matrimonial chain " to Mary, second 
daughter of Richard Lechmere, and intended to settle at Bris- 
tol as a merchant. In London, 1782. 

Russell, Charles. Son of James. Graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1757, and died at Antigua, where he was 
a physician, in 1780. His wife was the only child of Colonel 
Henry Vassall, of Cambridge. By the Banishment Act of 
1778, in which he is proscribed, it appears that his residence 
was at Lincoln, county of Middlesex. 

Russell, Ezekiel. Printer. Of Boston. Was born in 
that town, and served an apprenticeship with his brother, Jo- 
seph Russell. In November, 1771, he commenced a political 


publication, called " The Censor," which, during its short exist- 
ence, was supported by adherents of the Crown, and Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Oliver was said to have been a contributor. 
Loyalists of the first character gave "The Censor" both liter- 
ary and pecuniary aid ; but its circulation was confined to a few 
of their own party, and it was soon discontinued. In 1852 
the editor of " The Boston Daily Advertiser " was favored by a 
friend with a bound volume, small folio, from which he copied 
for that paper, an article that appeared in " The Censor," Feb- 
ruary 8, 1772, entitled " a recipe to make a modern patriot 
for the Colonies, especially for the Massachusetts," as follows : 

" Take of impudence, virulence, and groundless abuse, quantum sufficit ; 
atheism, deism, and libitinism, ad libitum; false reports, well adapted and 
plausible lies, with groundless alarms, one hundred wt avoirdupois ; a malig- 
nant abuse of magistracy, a pusilanimous and diabolical contempt of divine 
revelation and all its abettors, an equal quantity ; honor and integrity not 
quite an atom ; fraud, imposition, and hypocrisy, any proportion that may 
seem expedient ; infuse these in the credulity of the people, one thousand 
gallons as a menstrum, stir in the phrenzy of the times, and at the end of a 
year or two this judicious composition will probably bring forth a A* * * * 
and Y* * * * an O* * * and aM* ****** 

Probatum est T. N." 

Next, after " The Censor," Mr. Russell attempted to establish 
a newspaper at Salem, but without success. Again he re- 
moved to Danvers ; but finally returned to Boston, where he 
obtained support, principally by printing and selling ballads, 
and small pamphlets. His wife was an active and industrious 
woman, and not only assisted him in printing, but sometimes 
wrote ballads on recent tragical events, which were published, 
and had frequently a considerable run. Russell died, Septem- 
ber, 1796, aged fifty-two years. 

Russell, Joseph. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, 
1808, aged seventy-three. 

Rutherford, Thomas. Of North Carolina. He was a 
member of the Assembly from the county of Cumberland ; 
and for a while appears to have been with the Whigs. In 
1774 he was elected to the Provincial Congress, and in 1775 
was a member of the Whig Convention which Governor 


Martin denounced, and which sustained the proceedings of the 
Continental Congress ; and in the military organization of the 
State he was commissioned a Colonel. But in 1776, as he had 
joined the adherents of the Crown, Colonel Alexander Mc- 
Allister displaced him in the command of the Cumberland 
County Regiment. February 13 of the last mentioned year, 
he issued a stirring manifesto — " To the lovers of order and 
good government," in which he " commands, enjoins, beseeches 
and requires " all loyal subjects to repair to the King's stand- 
ard. In the battle of Cross Creek he was taken prisoner and 
confined in Halifax Jail. In 1781, Craig, the British com- 
mander, ordered the wife of William Hooper (a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence) to quit Wilmington within a 
certain time, under pain of the Provost. She was so much 
reduced by disease as to render her death probable before she 
could reach a place of refuge ; while her son was suffering 
with a high fever, and her daughter was too frail to bear ex- 
posure. Gentlemen who commiserated her condition, offered 
her conveyance by water, and attendants ; but the inhuman 
officer refused, and kept the afflicted party under a hot sun for 
hours, and until several of his inferiors declared that such 
cruelty would disgrace a savage. Permitted to embark finally 
in a boat, with a boy of ten years as an escort, she repaired, 
weak as she was, to Rutherford, who was twelve miles distant, 
and related her distress. The Loyalist promptly granted her 
petition for carriages to remove her family and friends ; and 
afforded her every assistance that could have been expected 
from the greatest humanity and the most refined politeness. 
But, unable to save more than her household linen, bedding, 
and the wearing apparel of herself and children, the British 
soldiers and Rutherford's men stripped the house, subsequent- 
ly, of nearly every article of furniture, and seriously injured 
Mr. Hooper's library. Rutherford was attainted of treason 
and estate confiscated. 

Rutherford, John. Of North Carolina. A member of 
the Council. On the 1st of March, 1775, he was present, and 
gave his advice to Governor Martin to issue his Proclamation 


to inhibit and forbid the meeting of the Whig Convention at 
Newbern, on the 3d of April following ; " the Board, con- 
ceiving the highest detestation of such illegal meetings, were 
unanimous in advising his Excellency." James. Of North 
Carolina. Property confiscated in 1777. 

Rutherford, Henry. Established his residence in Nova 
Scotia, and died at Digby, in that Province, in 1808, aged 

Ryan, John. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was a grantee of that city. He established a 
newspaper called " The St. John Gazette," which in 1797 was 
yet of small size. His office, the year named, was No. 58 
Prince William Street. He was King's printer for the Prov- 
ince. He removed to Newfoundland, where he was Queen's 
printer, and where he died in 1847. 

Ryan, William. Of Pennsylvania. Joined the Loyalists 
in 1777, and went with the Royal Army from Philadelphia to 
New York the year following. In 1779 he was officer of 
marines on board the British privateer Jenny, of New York ; 
was captured, and put in prison in Philadelphia to be tried for 

Ryerson, Joseph. Of New Jersey. One of the five 
hundred and fifty volunteers who went to Charleston, South 
Carolina. For his good conduct in bearing despatches one 
hundred and ninety-six miles into the interior, he was promoted 
to a Lieutenancy in the Prince of Wales's Volunteers. Sub- 
sequently he was engaged in six battles, and once wounded. 
At the peace he went to New Brunswick, thence to Canada, 
where he settled, and became a Colonel in the militia. In 
the war of 1812 he and his three sons were in arms against 
the United States. He died near Victoria, Upper Canada, in 
1854, aged ninety-four, one of the last of the " old United 
Empire Loyalists." 

Ryerson, Samuel. Of New Jersey. Brother of Joseph; 
joined the Royal standard, and raised a company of sixty men 
near Paterson, and received a commission as Captain in the 
Third Battalion of New Jersev Volunteers ; went to New 


Brunswick at the peace, thence to Canada, where he set- 

Ryerson, Francis. Of Long Island, New York, went to 
Nova Scotia, and settled at Annapolis. 

Sabin, Noah. Of Cumberland County, New Hampshire 
Grants. Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. Of the 
lineage of the author of this work. The name appears on 
the Records of Plymouth Colony, as Saben, Sabin, and as 
Sabine. The Judge was born at Rehoboth, Massachusetts — 
the town of our common ancestor — in 1714, and was de- 
signed by his father for the ministry. He removed to the 
" Grants " in 1768, and, at the first choice of officers in the 
new town of Putney, May, 1770, was elected town clerk. 
Two years later he was placed on the bench of the Common 
Pleas. For his connection with the affair in 1775, in which 
he opposed the Whigs in their attempt to* shut up his Court, 
[see Thomas Chandler, William Paterson, and Samuel Gale,~\ 
he was confined in the Court-House ; thence transferred to 
Northampton, and finally imprisoned in New York. Absent 
more than a year, and indebted, as is said, to the charity of 
Governor Try on, for clothing and money, he returned but 
to meet new difficulties at the hands of those who called him 
— "a Tory." The Committee of Putney and others went 
to his house armed with swords, and conducted him to West- 
minster Jail. The principal actor on this occasion, when on 
his death-bed, sent for him, confessed his offence in tears, and 
asked forgiveness. " Fearing that Judge Sabin might be in 
communication with the enemy, he was confined to his farm 
by an order of the Committee of Safety, in 1776, and per- 
mission was given to any one to shoot him, whenever he 
should be found beyond its limits." Such, indeed, was the 
hatred of his enemies, that one of his neighbors owned to 
watching " for him with a loaded rifle, in the woods," near 
his dwelling, prepared to slay him, if he passed the prescribed 
line. So, again, his request to be allowed to commune, oc- 
casionally, with the church to which he was attached, was 
refused. This was the state of things at the close of the 


year 1778. In 1781 he was elected Judge of Probate for 
Windham County, but was soon suspended on complaints of 
those " who believed him to be dangerous as a Loyalist." 
But, restored to office in a few months, he was allowed to 
hold it for many years. He died at Putney, in 1811, at the 
great age of ninety-six. He " was a man of uncommon 
powers of mind : cool and considerate in his purposes, and 
sound and discriminating in his judgment. His counsels were 
often sought, and were generally safely followed. For the 
period in which he lived, his education was superior." His 
son Noah, who was Register and Judge of Probate, member 
of the Legislature, and for nearly half a century a magistrate, 
died in 1827, aged seventy-seven. 

Sackett, . Of Vermont. Convicted of treason, 

for joining the armies of Great Britain, and estate confiscated. 
A suit, arising out of the Act of Confiscation, was determined 
in the Supreme Court of the United States. 

Salkin, John. Of Pennsylvania. Went to New Bruns- 
wick, and died at Mace's Bay, in that Province, in 1821, aged 

Saltonstall, Richard. Of Massachusetts. He was de- 
scended from a most respectable and ancient family, and was 
the eldest son of the Hon. Richard Saltonstall, Judge of the 
Superior Court of Massachusetts. Colonel Richard Saltonstall 
was born April 5, 1732, and graduated at Harvard University 
in 1751. In 1754 he was commissioned to command a regi- 
ment, and was in active service in the French war that imme- 
diately followed. Soon after the peace he was appointed 
sheriff of the county of Essex, and held that office at the 
beginning of the Revolution. He was much beloved by his 
neighbors, and, notwithstanding his well-known loyal prin- 
ciples, it was a long time before he lost his popularity. At 
length he was compelled to leave Haverhill, the place of his 
residence, and take refuge in Boston, to avoid the violence of 
mobs. He left the country in 1775, and remained in England 
throughout the war, until his death, October 1, 1785, at the 
age of fifty-two. He was never married. The King granted 
him a pension. 


Colonel Saltonstall was a good man, and is entitled to the 
respect of all. He refused to enter the service of the Crown, 
and feeling, on the other hand, that he could not conscien- 
tiously bear arms on the side of the Whigs, he went into exile. 
His military knowledge and skill were very considerable, and 
it was supposed that, had he embraced the popular cause, he 
might have had a high command in the Whig Army. In one 
of his last letters written to his American friends, he said : "I 
have no remorse of conscience for my past conduct. I have 
had more satisfaction in a private life here than I should have 
had in being next in command to General Washington, where 
I must have acted in conformity to the dictates of others, 
regardless of my own feelings." 

His integrity, frankness, and benevolence, his politeness, 
superior understanding, and knowledge of the world, won gen- 
eral praise and admiration. His remote family friends in 
England received him kindly, and after his decease erected a 
monument to his memory. His brother Nathaniel, a physi- 
cian of eminence, and a graduate of Harvard University in 
1766, was a firm Whig. His brother Leverett was a Loyalist. 
His sister Abigail married Colonel George Watson, of Plym- 
outh ; and his sister Mary was the wife of the Rev. Moses 
Badger, an Episcopal clergyman and a Loyalist. 

Saltonstall, Leverett. Of Massachusetts. He was the 
youngest son of Judge Saltonstall, and was born December 
25, 1754. Unlike his brother Richard, he bore arms against 
his native land. At the breaking out of hostilities, he had 
nearly completed his term of service with a merchant of Bos- 
ton. Becoming acquainted with the British officers, and fas- 
cinated with their profession, he accompanied the army to 
Halifax, and subsequently accepted of a commission, and was 
engaged in several battles. A Captain under Cornwallis, he 
fell a victim to the fatigues of a camp life, and died of con- 
sumption, at New York, December 20, 1782, at the age of 

Sampson, John. Of North Carolina. A member of the 
Council. He concurred with Governor Martin in his efforts 
vol. ii. 22 


to put a stop to the unlawful meetings and assemblies of the 

Sampson, John. Of Boston. An Addresser of Gage in 1775. 

Sandeman, Robert. He was the founder of the sect of 
Sandemanians, many of whom, like himself, were Loyalists, 
and are mentioned in these pages. His first society was estab- 
lished at Boston in 1764. The place of worship in Back 
Street was burned in 1773, when he occupied a wooden 
building: in Middle Street. Several other societies were 
formed in Connecticut, and elsewhere in New England. The 
Sandemanians gave the Whigs no little trouble. Mr. Sande- 
man died at Danbury, Connecticut, in 1771, aged fifty-three. 
He was born in Scotland, and was educated at St. Andrew's. 
Before coming to America he organized a church of his faith 
in London. 

Sanderson, Francis. Of Baltimore, Maryland. Was 
an early Whig, but in May, 1775, he had gone over to the 
Royal side. Being called to account, he recanted, and at a 
town meeting, 18th May, 1775, he confessed his errors, &c, 
and publicly resigned the justiceship which he had received 
from Lord Baltimore. In October, 1776, we find him again 
inclined to be loyal : and being arrested, was sent by the 
Council of Safety to the Provincial Congress, who repri- 
manded him at the bar, and bound him over in ,£1000. The 
President and Council of Pennsylvania instituted proceedings 
against a Loyalist of this name ; but he surrendered himself 
and was discharged — perhaps the same. 

Sands, Edward. Served the Crown as a military officer, 
and at the close of the war retired to New Brunswick, and 
received half-pay. He settled at St. John ; was a Major in 
the militia, an Alderman of the city, and Coroner for the city 
and county. He died at St. John, in 1803, at the age of 
forty-three. Ann Sands, executrix on his estate. 

Sappinfield, Matthias. Of North Carolina. Authorized 
by Governor Martin, January, 1776, to erect the King's 
standard, to enlist and array in arms the loyal subjects of 
Rowan County, and " to oppose all rebels and traitors." 
Estate confiscated in 1779. 


Sargent, Rev. Winwood. Of Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
Episcopal clergyman. Went to England. In 1780, a fellow- 
Loyalist wrote, — " Sargent is at Bath, half-dead and half- 
alive ; his wife is full of spirits." He died in exile before 
1783. His widow, a daughter of Rev. Arthur Browne, 
Rector of Queen's Chapel, Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
died at Bath, England, in 1808. 

Sargent, John. Merchant. Of Salem, Massachusetts. He 
was the second son of Colonel Epes Sargent, by his second 
wife, the widow Catharine Browne, and was born in Salem, 
December 24, 1749. His name stands first among the Salem 
Addressers of Gage on his arrival in 1774. He was pro- 
scribed under the Act of 1778. He went to Barrington, Nova 
Scotia, and died there January 24, 1824, leaving a numerous 
progeny. His wife was the widow Margaret Barnard. His 
mother was a Winthrop, and a descendant of Governor Win- 

" Sigma," of the " Boston Transcript," (Hon. Lucius M. 
Sargent,) June, 1858, relates : — I recollect an incident that 
occurred in the Old Brick, one Sabbath afternoon, which 
strongly illustrates the strength and permanency of political 
antipathy. My grandfather, Colonel Epes Sargent, by his 
second wife, had two sons, Paul Dudley and John. Colonel 
Paul was a zealous Whig, a patriot, and a soldier of the 
Revolution. John sided with the British. He was a Tory — 
a name which we have learned to treat, not only with forbear- 
ance, but with respect, when satisfied that the motives of the 
wearer, as was frequently the case, were as pure as those of 
our rebellious ancestors. John ..... occasionally, 
though rarely, made a visit to my father, his half-brother. 
Colonel Paul's visits were more frequent. He resided in 
Sullivan, at the head of Frenchman's Bay, in Maine. 

My father had always wished to reconcile these brothers, 
and he had no difficulty with John, whose temper was mild 
and genial. One Sabbath afternoon, when John, who was 
on a visit at our house, had accompanied us to church, and 
we were seated in our pew, Colonel Paul, who had just 


arrived at the wharf, in a sloop, from Sullivan, entered the 
meeting-house, as Doctor Clarke was commencing his sermon. 
My father was very much pleased, and thought the moment 
of reconciliation was at hand. The brothers had not met 
since 1778. Colonel Paul had just taken his seat, and bowed 
to my father and mother, when, looking earnestly over his 
spectacles, he recognized his brother John. In an instant, he 
grasped his cocked hat and hurried out of church. When 
my father and he next met, the following brief colloquy en- 
sued : " Brother Dudley, how could you act so ? " " Brother 
Daniel, I '11 never sit down, knowingly, with a Tory, in God's 
house nor in any other." 

Sargent, John. A Lieutenant in the King's American 

Saunders, John. Of Virginia. He was descended from 
an English family that adhered to the King in the civil war 
between Charles and the Roundheads. His grandfather emi- 
grated to Virginia, and acquired large landed estates. In 
July, 1774, the subject of this notice was present at a meeting 
in Princess Anne County, convened for the purpose of choos- 
ing delegates to attend a convention of Whigs at Williams- 
burgh, and was the only one who refused to sanction its 
proceedings. In August of that year the Whigs formed a 
Provincial Association, and held meetings in various parts of 
the country. He generally gave his attendance ; but steadily 
refused to bind himself to observe the votes and resolutions 
which were adopted. The Continental Association was 
formed before the close of 1774 ; but he continued a recusant. 
The Committee of the county, considering that he was a 
young man and that he might be better advised, appointed 
some of their number to wait upon him at his own house, and 
expostulate with him on his course of conduct ; but to no 
purpose. Some days after their visit, however, an intimate 
Whig friend went to him privately, and pressed upon him the 
expediency of signing the necessary agreement, which, finally, 
he apparently consented to do. His friend, on looking at his 
signature, found written after it, the word " No ! " in large 


characters. The Committee were indignant when informed of 
this, and summoned him to appear and answer ; he declined 
the notice, and was forthwith publicly denounced. His Whig 
friends regretted the result of their many overtures and per- 
suasions ; for " he had enjoyed the advantages of a liberal 
education, and for some time past had studied law," and was 
thought to possess much energy and determination. 

On Lord Dunmore's appeal to the loyalty of the Old Do- 
minion, Mr. Saunders raised a troop of horse at his own 
expense, and joined the Royal standard. He was afterwards 
attached to the Queen's Rangers, under Simcoe, and was a 
Captain of cavalry in that corps. In 1780 he commanded 
the garrison at Georgetown, South Carolina. He continued 
in service during the conflict, was often engaged in partisan 
strifes, and was twice wounded. When Colonel Simcoe re- 
tired from the command of the Rangers, Major Armstrong 
and Captain Saunders were deputed by the officers to present 
him with an Address. At the peace he went to England, be- 
came a member of the Middle Temple, and commenced the 
practice of the law. In 1790 he succeed Judge Putnam, as 
Judo-e of the Supreme Court of New Brunswick ; and was 
soon after appointed a member of the Council of that Colony. 
In 1822, on the decease of Judge Bliss, he was created Chief 
Justice. He died at Fredericton, in 1834, aged eighty ; hav- 
ing spent sixty years of his life in the civil and military 
service of the Crown. He possessed two estates in Virginia, 
both of which were confiscated. His widow, Ariana Mar- 
garetta Jerky], died at Fredericton, in 1845, in her seventy- 
eighth year. His daughter Eliza, wife of Adjutant Flood, of 
the Seventy-Fourth Regiment, British Army, died at the 
same place, in 1821, aged twenty-six. His only son — who 
bore the name of the commander of the Rangers — John Sim- 
coe, married Elizabeth Sophia, daughter of the Rev. George 
Henry Storie, of Springfield Lodge, England, and in New 
Brunswick held the offices of Advocate-General, Justice of a 
Court of Judicature, member of the Council, and, at his de- 
cease, was Secretary of the Province. 



Saunders, John. Of New Jersey. Went to New Bruns- 
wick in 1783, and died there. Elizabeth, his widow, a native 
of Elizabethtown, New Jersey, deceased at Hampton, New 
Brunswick, in 1838, aged eighty-six, leaving nine children, 
seventy-one grandchildren, and forty-five great-grandchildren. 

Savage, Arthur. Of Boston. An Auctioneer. In 1751 
his place of business was on the north side of the town dock. 
In 1755 he was appointed Comptroller of the Customs at Fal- 
mouth, and removed to that town. After the people began 
to resist the officers of tjie revenue, he was often absent, when 
he confided the duties of his station to Thomas Child, the 
only Whig officer of the Customs at Falmouth. In 1771 he 
was mobbed, and soon after returned to Boston. At the time 
of this outrage, the Collector was absent in England. Mr. 
Savage, as filling his place, had ordered the revenue cutter of 
the Crown to seize a vessel of Mr. Tyng's, for a violation of 
the revenue laws, which was probably the cause of the pro- 
ceeding. The Comptroller was proscribed and banished by 
the Act of 1778. He had abandoned the country two years 
previously, having accompanied the British Army at the evac- 
uation of Boston, and embarked at Halifax for England in the 
ship Aston JTall, July, 1776. 

In 1789, or the year after, he was in London, and gave to 
Rev. William Montague, who was then Rector of Christ 
Church, Boston, a leaden ball, with the following account of it: 
" On the morning of the 18th of June, 1775," said Mr. Savage, 
. ..." I, with a number of other Royalists and British officers, 
among whom was General Burgoyne, went over from Boston 
to Charlestown to view the battle-field. Among the fallen, 
we found the body of Dr. Joseph Warren, with whom I had 
been personally acquainted. When he fell, he fell across a 
rail. This ball I took from his body ; and as I never shall 
visit Boston again, I will give it to you to take to America, 
where it will be valuable as a relic of your Revolution." The 
ball is preserved in the Library of the New England Genea- 
logical and Historical Society. Mr. Savage died in England, 
of apoplexy, in 1801, at the age of seventy. 


Savage, William. Of Virginia. A man of property. 
Served in arms, on the side of the Crown, seven years. 
Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace. Died at 
Fredericton, the capital of that Province, in 1833, aged more 
than seventy years. His son William died at St. John, in 
1846, at the age of fifty-three. Four sons now (1847) sur- 
vive ; namely, George, who lives at Oldtown, Maine ; Eze- 
kiel, John, and Thomas, who reside at Fredericton. 

Savage. Of Massachusetts. John, went to England, 
and was there with his wife and son near the close of the war. 
Rowland, (also of Massachusetts, I suppose) ; his wife was 
in London, January 25, 1781, but he was at Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, and had just received some official employment. 
Abraham, tax-gatherer, of Boston, an Addresser of Hutch- 
inson, went to Halifax with the British Army, and was pro- 
scribed and banished. Edward, of South Carolina, a Judge 
of the Supreme Court ; permitted to leave the country. 
Jeremiah, an Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton ; banished, 
and estate confiscated. John, estate confiscated. 

Saville, Jesse. Officer of the Customs, Providence, 
Rhode Island. Tarred and feathered in 1769 ; the Commis- 
sioners at Boston offered a reward of <£50 for the discovery 
of the perpetrators, without success. 

Saxby, George. Of South Carolina. Receiver-General 
of his Majesty's Quit Rents, was in office many years. Estate 
confiscated in 1782. Went to England, and died there in 
1786. His widow died at London in 1798. 

Saxton, John. Of Pennsylvania. An Ensign in the 
Royal Garrison Battalion. At the peace, accompanied by his 
family of three persons, he went from New York to Shelburne, 
Nova Scotia. His losses in consequence of his loyalty were 
estimated at £400. 

Saxton, George. Of White Plains, New York. Lived 
within half a mile of Washington's head-quarters. At the 
peace, settled on Digby Neck, Nova Scotia. His son George 
died in 1860, very aged. 

Sayre, John. An Episcopal minister, at Fairfield, Con- 

260 SAYRE. 

necticut. He was employed and stationed at Fairfield, by 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts, several years before the Revolution. When Tryon, 
in 1779, appeared in force to burn that town, Mr. Sayre's 
well known attachment to the Crown, and the sacrifices 
which he had made in behalf of the Royal cause, gave him 
some influence with the incendiary Governor, which, at first, 
was exerted to prevent indiscriminate conflagration. But, 
before the dreadful deed was fully consummated, his conduct 
caused so much indignation among the people, that, with his 
family, he was compelled to quit the town and embark with 
Tryon. Mr. Sayre seems to have been involved in this 
calamity equally with the Whigs, and to have lost nearly .all 
his property at Fairfield. The church building in which he 
officiated was consumed. He fled to Flushing. In 1781 he 
was in the city of New York. He was still there in July, 
1783, when he was a petitioner for a grant of lands in Nova 
Scotia, and one of the fifty-five. [See Abijah Willard.] 

He arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, during the last- 
mentioned year, and was a grantee of that eity. He was ap- 
pointed by Lord Dorchester one of the agents of Government 
to locate the lands granted to the Loyalists who settled in 
New Brunswick. Mr. Sayre continued in the Province for 
the remainder of his life, and died at Maugerville, on the river 
St. John. The following letter, which was addressed to the 
society abovenamed, towards the close of the year 1779, is 
of interest. Some allowance, of course, is to be made for 
his excited state of feeling, as it will be seen that he had but 
just passed through the conflagration at Fairfield, and, as he 
states, had been "left with a family, consisting of a wife and 
eight children, destitute of food, house, and raiment." 

" The circumstances of the Fairfield mission, when I first 
went to it, are already known to the Society ; and since I 
wrote to them, the congregations have been so far from 
diminishing, that they have considerably increased, not only 
in numbers, but also in attachment to the Church ; notwith- 
standing the many oppositions to religion and loyalty which 

SAYRE. 261 

have happened since. And I have great reason to think, 
that many who did not actually join us, were prevented 
merely by their apprehensions of a participation in our per- 
secutions, for which, it seems, their minds were not yet suffi- 
ciently prepared. And I believe, that if it shall please the 
Lord to restore the Constitutional government to Connecticut, 
the Church will greatly increase in that Province. The peo- 
ple of the parish of North Fairfield erected galleries in their 
church shortly after they came under my care ; and even 
with that addition, it soon became incapable of accommo- 
dating the congregation. They intended to have finished it 
completely, but were discouraged by the many abuses which 
their church shared in common with the other churches in the 
mission. Shooting bullets through them, breaking the win- 
dows, stripping off the hangings, carrying off the leads, (even 
such as were essential to the preservation of the building,) and 
the most beastly defilements, make but a part of the insults 
which were offered to them. Add to this, that my people in 
general have been greatly oppressed, merely on account of 
their attachment to their Church and King. Their persons 
have been frequently abused, many of them have been impris- 
oned on the most frivolous pretences, and their imprisonment 
aggravated with many circumstances of cruelty. They have 
been heavily fined for refusing to rise in arms against their 
Sovereign and their legal Constitution ; and many, thinking 
their situation intolerable at home, have, by flight, sought re- 
lief in the King's protection, at the peril of their lives, suffer- 
ing all the pungent feelings and reflections which must attend 
a separation from their families under such circumstances ; 
and not a few, impatient of so miserable a servitude, and stim- 
ulated by repeated injuries, have entered into the service, that 
they might contribute their aid for the recovery of the King's 
rights and their own liberties. All these things they have 
endured, with a patience and fortitude indicative of the power 
of religion, and the steadfastness of their virtue in the face of 
an opposition very violent and formidable. 

" The loss of all my books and papers puts it out of my 

262 SAYRE. 

power to transmit an exact account of the marriages, funer- 
als, and baptisms, since the first year of my residence in Fair- 
field, but I think they have not greatly altered since that time. 
There has been, however, a considerable augmentation in the 
number of communicants. I think, on my first going to Fair- 
field they did not exceed forty. Some time ago they were 
considerably more than a hundred ; but lately, I believe, 
something less, owing to refugees, hinted at above. The 
present confusions commenced shortly after my removal from 
the mission of Newburgh to Fairfield ; and foreseeing the ca- 
lamities which have befallen my people, I freely relinquished 
the rates due to me from them by the laws of that Province, 
and informed them that I should expect only a bare subsist- 
ence for my family during the troubles, — towards which the 
Society's bounty and my medical employment also contrib- 
uted, — at the same time assuring them that I desired only 
whatsoever they were respectively able, and quite willing to 
give ; and (I will say it to their honor) my people did not 
forsake or neglect me in my most threatening situations, even 
when their very personal safety seemed to require a very dif- 
ferent kind of conduct. Nothing but an opinion that it would 
be expected of me, could have induced me to trouble the So- 
ciety with my personal concerns. I shall therefore take but 
little of their time with it. 

" For some time after I went to live at Fairfield I lived 
in tolerable quiet, owing to the indecisive measures of that 
period, though always known to disapprove the public con- 
duct, and strangely suspected of endeavoring to counteract it. 
But this repose was soon interrupted by a public order for dis- 
arming the Loyalists. Upon this occasion my house was beset 
by more than two hundred horsemen, whose design was to 
demand my arms ; but they were, for that time, diverted from 
their purpose by the violent agitation they saw the terror of 
their appearance had thrown my wife into ; and which, con- 
sidering her being sick, and in the latter stages of pregnancy, 
was indeed enough to awaken some degree of humanity even 
in their breasts. After this I was confined for some days to 

SAYRE. 263 

my house and garden, by order of the person who commanded 
the militia of the town ; for which time I was pointed out, by 
the leaders of the people, as an object of their hatred and de- 
testation, and very few of my neighbors (who were chiefly 
Dissenters) would hold any kind of society with me, or even 
with my family ; and my sons were frequently insulted and 
personally abused, for carrying provision to the jail from my 
house, when some of my parishioners were confined therein, 
as well as on other occasions. After this I was advertised as 
an enemy to my country, (by an order of the Committee,) 
for refusing to sign an Association which obliged its subscrib- 
ers to oppose the King with life and fortune, and to withdraw 
all offices, of even justice, humanity, and charity, from every 
recusant. In consequence of this advertisement, all persons 
were forbidden to hold any kind of correspondence, or to have 
any manner of dealing with me, on pain of bringing them- 
selves under the same predicament. This order was posted 
in every store, mill, mechanical shop, and public house in the 
county, and was repeatedly published in the newspapers ; but 
through the goodness of the Lord we wanted for nothing, — 
our people, under cover of the night, and, as it were, by stealth, 
supplying us with plenty of the comforts and necessaries of life. 
These measures proving insufficient to shake my attachment 
to his Majesty's person and Government, I was at length 
banished (upon the false and malicious pretence of my being 
an enemy to the good of my country) to a place called New 
Britain, in Farmington, about sixty or seventy miles from 
Fairfield, where I was entirely unknown, except to one poor 
man, the inhabitants differing from me both in religious and 
political principles ; however, the family in which I lived 
showed me such marks of kindness as they could, and I was 
treated with civility by the neighbors. 

" In this exile I remained about seven months, after which 
I was permitted to return home, to be confined to the parish 
of Fairfield, which is about four miles in diameter, my people 
having given in security large sums that I should not transgress 
that limitation, and in that situation I remained about eighteen 

264 SAYRE. 

months. After this, my bounds were made coextensive with 
those of Fairfield County, which was a great satisfaction to 
me, as it allowed me to visit the congregation of North Fair- 
field and Stratfield, who had been so long deprived of my 
ministry ; and so I remained (officiating two Sundays of four 
at Fairfield, dividing the other two equally between the two 
other parishes) until I came away. We did not use any part 
of the Liturgy lately, for I could not make it agreeable, either 
to my inclination or conscience, to mutilate it, especially in so 
material a part as that is, wherein our duties as subjects are 
recognized. We met at the usual hours every Sunday, read 
parts of the Old and New Testaments and some psalms. All 
these were selected in such a manner as to convey such in- 
structions and sentiments as were suited to our situation. 
We sung psalms with the same view. On the Sunday morn- 
ings I read the Homilies in their course, and on the afternoons 
I expounded either parts of the Catechism, or some other pas- 
sages of Holy Scripture, as seemed adapted to our case in 
particular, or to the public calamities in general. By this 
method we enjoyed one of the two general designs of public 
religious meetings — I mean public instruction ; the other, to 
wit, public worship, it is easy to believe was inadmissible in 
our circumstances, without taking such liberties with the Ser- 
vice as I confess I should blame even a superior in the Church 
for assuming. Resolved to adhere to those principles and pub- 
lic professions which, upon very mature deliberation and clear 
conviction, I had adopted and made, I yielded not a tittle to 
those who opposed them, and had determined to remain with 
my people to see the end, but was compelled to alter this reso- 
lution by that sudden vicissitude which I must now, with pain^ 
ful reflection, relate to the Society. On the seventh day of 
July last, Major-General Tryon landed at Fairfield with a body 
of his Majesty's troops, and took possession of the town and 
its environs, the greater part of the inhabitants having tackled 
their teams and removed what they could on his approach. 
This cut off all hope from the few Loyalists of saving any 
part of their effects if the town should be burnt, every car- 

SAYRE. 265 

riage being taken away. The General was so kind, however, 
as to order me a guard to protect my house and some others 
in its vicinity, when he had resolved to commit the rest of the 
town to the flames ; for, as I have already hinted, I had deter- 
mined to remain at home. But the ungovernable flames soon 
extended to them all, and in a few minutes left me with a 
family, consisting of my wife and eight children, destitute of 
food, house, and raiment. Thus reduced, I could not think 
of remaining in a place where it would have been impossible 
to have clothed and refurnished my family ; therefore, avail- 
ing myself of the protection offered by the present oppor- 
tunity, I retired with them within the King's lines. As it was 
impossible (through want of carriages) to save anything out 
of the house, the valuable little library given by the Society 
was burnt, together with my own ; and the plate belonging to 
Trinity Church, at Fairfield, was lost, as well as that of my 
family, and the handsome church itself was entirely consumed. 
The people of that mission have met with a heavy stroke in 
the loss of their church, parsonage-house, plate, books, &c, 
not to mention myself, their unworthy minister. My loss in- 
cludes my little all ; but what I most regret is my absence 
from my flock, to which my heart was, and still is, most ten- 
derly attached. I trust, however, that the Great Shepherd 
will keep them in his own tuition and care. I bless the Lord 
for that, through all my trials, I have endeavored to keep a 
conscience void of offence towards God and towards men ; 
continually striving to discharge my duties to my Master, my 
King, and my people ; and am bound to thank the Lord daily 
for that divine protection, that tranquillity of mind, and that 
peace of conscience, which, through His grace, I have all along 
enjoyed. Be assured, however, that I am nevertheless, Rev- 
erend Sir, your affectionate brother, John Sayre." 

Sayre, Rev. James. Episcopal minister. Brother of 
John. Educated to the law, and admitted to practice at New 
York in 1771. Abandoned his profession, and was Chaplain 
to one of De Lancey's Battalions. Resigned in 1777, " im- 
pelled by distress, severity of treatment, and by duty." Rec- 

VOL. II. 23 


tor of the Episcopal Church in Brooklyn, New York, from 
1778 to 1783. At St. John, New Brunswick, the last-men- 
tioned year, and a grantee of the city. Returned to the 
United States, and was Rector at Newport, Rhode Island, 
from 1786 to 1788. He died at Fairfield, Connecticut, in 
1798, aged fifty-three. 

Sayre, John, Jr. Son of John Sayre. Went to St. 
John at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. 
In 1801 he was a merchant and concerned in shipping. 

Sayward, Jonathan. Of Maine. Member of the House 
of Representatives of Massachusetts. One of the seventeen 
" Rescinders." 

Schenck, Martin. Of Long Island. His house was 
twice robbed during the war. The first time the robbers 
threatened to strangle him unless he gave up his money. The 
second time he received a blow with a musket which disabled 
one of his arms. 

Schenck, Nicholas. A Captain in the militia. The 
crews of two whale-boats, in 1781, carried away his plate and 
everything else they could stow, and wounded and took the 
money and plate of a lodger. The next year he was an 
Addresser of Commissary Scott. 

Schurman, Philip. Of New Rochelle, New York. Son 
of Frederick Schurman of that town. Settled in New Bruns- 
wick in 1783, and died at St. John, in 1822, aged sixty-nine. 
He has (1847) descendants in that city. 

Schuyler, Hon-Yost. A most singular being. He was 
coarse and ignorant, and was regarded as half an idiot, but 
yet possessed no small share of shrewdness. He partially at- 
tached himself to the Royal cause, but, like the " Cow-Boys," 
cared but little, it is supposed, which party he served or 
plundered. He was, however, captured by the Whigs, tried 
for his life, found guilty, and condemned to death. His 
mother, who, it is said, was a sort of gypsy, came to camp 
and pleaded with great eloquence and pathos that he might be 
spared. Denied at first, she became almost frantic with grief 
and passion. But it was at length agreed that if Hon-Yost 


would proceed to Fort Schuyler, and so alarm the British 
commander as to induce him to raise the siege of that post 
and fly, he — the convict-traitor — should not die. Before 
Hon-Yost departed, several shots were fired through his 
clothes, that it might appear how narrow had been his escape 
from the Rebel forces approaching to relieve their friends. 
Such was his address, that he fairly deceived the British 
officer, who fled with the utmost haste — the retreat, indeed, 
was disorderly to the last degree. Hon-Yost subsequently 
joined Sir John Johnson, and w^as known as an out-and-out 
Tory. After the war he returned to his old home in the 
valley of the Mohawk, where he continued to live for the re- 
mainder of his days. He died about the year 1818. It is 
said that General Herkimer, a distinguished Whig, was his 
uncle. Such is one story. In another account the name is 
Cuyler, and he is said to have been proprietor of a handsome 

Scophol, . Of South Carolina. Colonel in the 

Loyal Militia. "An illiterate, stupid, noisy blockhead." His 
band or party bore the name of " Scopholiles," and numbered 
at times three or four hundred. In June, 1778, he was en- 
camped on the river St. Mary's, and in December was de- 
tached to convey their booty beyond the St. John's. Stupid 
though he was, he gave the Whigs no inconsiderable trouble. 

Scott, Rev. John. Of Maryland. Episcopal minister. 
Concerned in a duel at the age of eighteen, he fled to Scot- 
land, and completed his education at King's College, Aber- 
deen. He was ordained by the Bishop of London. When 
Eden was appointed Governor of Maryland, he returned as 
his Chaplain, and to become Rector of the Parish of Ever- 
sham. In 1776 he was examined by the Maryland Conven- 
tion. The report of a Committee, that he should be com- 
mitted to the custody of the Sheriff of Frederick County, 
and that he should pay five hundred pounds in money, was 
rejected : but he was ordered to give bond to the Council of 
Safety in one thousand pounds, with good security, to confine 
himself within certain designated limits, and to behave dis- 

268 SCOTT. 

creetly, on the ground that he was " a disaffected person, and 
had a dangerous influence " in the section where he lived. 
Compelled thus to leave Maryland, he sold his property there 
for Continental money, and retired to Virginia, where he was 
Rector of the parish of Dettingen nearly two years. He in- 
tended to arrange his affairs, and embark for Scotland. His 
health, however, soon failed ; and in 1784 he resigned the 
care of his flock. Advised to try the waters of Bath, Berke- 
ley County, he died on his homeward journey, and was buried 
under the pulpit of the old Episcopal Church, Winchester. 
It is said that he was a man of very marked ability, an 
orator, " the handsomest man of his day," and gay and witty. 
His son, Robert Eden Scott, who was a Professor in King's 
College, Aberdeen, and married a daughter of Sir Robert 
Forbes, died young and childless. 

Scott, James. Of Try on, (now Montgomery, County,) 
New York. In 1775 he signed a Declaration of loyalty. 
James Scott, a Loyalist, died at St. John, New Brunswick, 
1804, aged fifty-six. 

Scott, Joseph. Of Boston. In May, 1774, he was an 
Addresser of Hutchinson, and having in September of that 
year sold some warlike stores to General Gage, he fell into 
the hands of the people. There was much disturbance, and 
one account states that the Selectmen and Committee of Cor- 
respondence of Boston told him that for the act " he de- 
served immediate death;" but the Committee, in their version 
of the affair, would not appear to convey this impression. 
They, however, aver that a guard was offered Mr. Scott by 
General Gage, but that " he was informed no military guard 
could save him, and would but stimulate the people to greater 
acts of violence." Mr. Scott was fortunate enough to escape 
personal harm, though his warehouse was injured. He seems 
to have remained at Boston, as in October, 1775, he was an 
Addresser of Gage. But at the evacuation in 1776 he 
accompanied the Royal Army to Halifax, and in 1778 was 
proscribed and banished. In 1779, Charles Sigourney was 
appointed agent of his estate. Scott went to England. I 


find his name for the last time, October 28, 1781, when he 
dined in London, in company with other Loyalists, at the table 
of Samuel Hirst Sparhawk. Freelove, his widow, died at 
Boston, Massachusetts, in 1817, aged eighty-five. 

Scovil, Ezra. Settled in New Brunswick, and was an 
Alderman of the city of St. John. He went to Nova Scotia, 
and died at Granville, in 1825, aged seventy-three. 

Scovil, Daniel. Settled in St. John, New Brunswick, 
and became a merchant. He died there in 1822. 

Scovill, Rev. James. Of Connecticut. Episcopal minis- 
ter. He was born in Waterbury, Connecticut ; and gradu- 
ated at Yale College in 1757. The Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, employed him as a 
missionary in his native town in 1759, and soon afterwards he 
extended his labors to New Cambridge and Northbury. 
During the Revolution, though his sympathies were on the 
side of the Crown, " he behaved with so much prudence and 
moderation that he escaped everything like personal indig- 
nity." At the peace, the Society above mentioned withdrew 
their support to their missionaries who remained in the United 
States, but offered to increase the salaries of those who would 
remove to the present British possessions and resume their 
duties. Mr. Scovill reluctantly left the people to whom he 
had long ministered, to gather a new flock in King's County, 
New Brunswick. He died in that county in 1809. His 
widow died in the same county, in 1832, aged ninety. His 
son, the Rev. Elias Scovill, Rector of Kingston, forty years 
in the service of the Society tor Propagating the Gospel, and 
one of its oldest missionaries, died at that place in 1841, at 
the age of seventy. 

Scribner. Of Connecticut. Five, of the name of Nor- 
walk, settled in New Brunswick in 1783, namely: Hezekiah, 
who, with his wife, Elias, who, with his wife and five chil- 
dren, and Thaddeus, arrived at St. John in the ship Union, 
one of the spring fleet ; Joseph, who was a grantee of St. 
John, and Thomas. The first died in that city, in 1820, aged 
sixty-one ; and the last in 1837, at the age of seventy-seven. 



Seabury, Samuel, D. D. The first Bishop of the Epis- 
copal Church in the United States. He was the son of the 
Rev. Samuel Seabury, who was a Congregational minister at 
Groton, and subsequently the first Episcopal minister of New 
London. He was born in 1728, and graduated at Yale Col- 
lege in 1751. Soon after completing his collegiate education 
he went to Scotland for the purpose of studying medicine, but 
changed his purpose and devoted his attention to theology. 
In 1753 he took orders in London, and returning to his na- 
tive country, was settled at New Brunswick, New Jersey. 
After the death of Mr. Colgan, Sir Charles Hardy, Governor 
of New York, introduced him as clergyman of the Episcopal 
Church at Jamaica, Long Island, where he remained from 
1756 to 1766. Near the close of the latter year he removed 
to Westchester, and continued there until the beginning of 

In April, 1775, a large number of Loyalists assembled at 
White Plains, and adopted the following Protest. Mr. Sea- 
bury's name is the third affixed to it ; that of the Rev. Luke 
Babcock, another Episcopalian minister, is the fourth : " We, 
the subscribers, freeholders, and inhabitants of the county of 
Westchester, having assembled at the White Plains in conse- 
quence of certain advertisements, do now declare that we met 
here to declare our honest abhorrence of all unlawful Con- 
gresses and Committees, and that we are determined, at the 
hazard of our lives and properties, to support the King and 
Constitution ; and that we acknowledge no Representatives 
but the General Assembly, to whose wisdom and integrity 
we submit the guardianship of our rights, liberties, and privi- 

In November of the last mentioned year he was seized in 
his own house, carried to New Haven, and put in jail. In 
1776 the New York Committee of Safety resolved that he 
"was notoriously disaffected to the American cause," and or- 
dered his removal to the house of Colonel John BrinckerhofF, 
and his confinement to that gentleman's farm. Later in the 
war, Mr. Seabury was Chaplain to the King's American Regi- 


merit, commanded by Colonel Fanning ; and while serving in 
that capacity delivered a sermon before the Loyalist troops in 
camp at King's Bridge, founded on the words, " Fear God ; 
honor the King ; " which was published by request of Gov- 
ernor Try on. 

At the peace Mr. Seabury settled at New London. In 
1784 he went to England to obtain consecration as a Bishop, 
but objections arising there, he was consecrated in Scotland, 
on the 14th of November of that year, by three non-juring 
Bishops. For the remainder of his life he presided over the 
Diocese of Connecticut and Rhode Island. His duties were 
discharged in an exemplary manner. He died February 25, 
1796, aged sixty-eight years. Two volumes of his sermons 
were published before his decease, and one volume in 1798. 

" Bishop Seabury was in person large, robust, and vigor- 
ous ; his appearance was dignified and commanding, and in 
the performance his official functions inspired universal rev- 
erence His mind was forcible and clear. His reading 

was extensive, and his memory a storehouse of knowledge. 

His style was compact, lucid, and easy The poor 

and ' men of low estate ' among his parishioners loved his 
memory." His son Charles was an Episcopal clergvman, 
and died in Suffolk County, New York, in 1844. His grand- 
son, Samuel, also an Episcopal clergyman, and Doctor of 
Divinity, now (1857) lives in the city of New York. 

Seabury, Daniel. A petitioner for lands in Nova Scotia, 
July, 1783. [See Abijah Willarcl.~\ He was in that Prov- 
ince in 1786, and a member of the House of Assembly for 

Seaman, Benjamin. Of New York. His property was 
confiscated. In 1774, this gentleman seems to have been 
moderate in his course, and perhaps favored the popular 
movements. Such inference I draw from a communication 
to the Committee of Correspondence of Connecticut, which 
bears his signature, and in which it is said, that, " at this 
alarming juncture, a general Congress of deputies from the 
several Colonies would be a very expedient and salutary 


measure," &c. In July, 1783, he announced his intention 
to remove to Nova Scotia, and was one of the fifty-five 
petitioners for grants of lands in that Colony. [See Abijah 
Willard.] In a Loyalist tract, published at London in 1784, 
I find it said that he sold his estate at a great price, before 
the evacuation of New York. 

Seaman, Uriah. Of Queen's County. Was in arms 
against the Whigs in 1780. Richard, settled in New Bruns- 
wick after the war ; was an Alderman of St. John, and Treas- 
urer of the Province. William and John, of Duchess 
County, were grantees of St. John in 1783. And Hicks, 
(residence unknown, but probably New York,) who went to 
New Brunswick at the peace, died at Sheffield, in that Prov- 
ince, 1841, aged eighty-four. 

Sears, Thatcher. Of Connecticut. He was descended 
from the Rev. Peter Thatcher, of Boston, and was the second 
son of Nathaniel Sears, of Norwalk, Connecticut. The noted 
Whig, "King Sears," as he was called, of New York, was his 
father's brother. In early life Mr. Sears was much employed 
in the Mohawk country, under the patronage of Sir John 
Johnson, in the purchase of furs. His pecuniary affairs were 
very considerably injured by the burning of Norwalk, and 
were otherwise deranged, in consequence of his adherence to 
the side of the Crown. He was finally forced to leave home, 
when he sought refuge with the Royal Army at New York. 
He had become poor, and was compelled to live in retirement. 
In 1783 he removed to St. John, New Brunswick, and re- 
ceived the grant of a city lot in King Street, which is now 
valuable, and owned (1847) by his descendants. Upon this 
lot he erected a dwelling. " With a sorrowful and heavy 
heart," he said, "I commenced the task of cutting down and 
hewing the timber for the building which was to shelter and 
be the abode of myself and family in our exile in the wilder- 
ness." He died at St. John, in 1819, aged sixty-seven. He 
w 7 as twice married. His first wife was a daughter of Henry 
Smith, of Huntington, Long Island, New York, and died in 
1803. His second child, Ann, who was born shortly after 


his arrival at St. John, was the first native of that city. He 
reared a large family of children ; but Edward, Robert, John, 
Elizabeth, and Sarah, are (1847) the only survivors. Mr. 
Sears was the only Loyalist of his family. His estate at Nor- 
walk is now owned by gentlemen of the name of Church. 

Seaton, William. Of New York. Andre made his will, 
June 7, 1777, at Staten Island ; there were no witnesses to 
it, and it could not be proved ; but, October 9, 1780, Mr. 
Seaton appeared before the Surrogate of New York, and de- 
clared that, well acquainted with Andrews writing, he believed 
the instrument to be genuine. In 1782 he was a Notary- 
Public, and Secretary to the Superintendent of Police in the 
city of New York. 

Secord, John. Of Pennsylvania. He was " a bold, bad 
man," and joined the enemy, after having acted as a spy upon 
the Whigs in the vicinity of Wyoming. 

Seely, Ebenezer. Of Connecticut. Went to New Bruns- 
wick in 1783. Died at Carleton, in that Province, in 1833, 
aged eighty-eight. He left three sons : namely, Josiah Gil- 
bert, Ebenezer, Caleb ; and one daughter. The surname is 
sometimes written Seelye. 

Seely, Stewart. Of Connecticut. Settled in New Bruns- 
wick at the peace. Died at St. George, in that Province, in 
1838, at an old age. 

Seely, Seth. Of Stamford, Connecticut. Went to St. 
John, New Brunswick, in 1783, in the first ship that arrived 
there with Loyalists. He died in that Province in 1823. His 
son Seth died in the same, in 1852, at the age of eighty-five, 
leaving a son, the Hon. Alexander McLeod Seely, who (1861) 
is a member of the Legislative Council. 

Seely. Of Connecticut. Abel, fled to Long Island in 
1776. Nehemiah, and Nehemiah, Jr., members of the 
Reading Loyalist Association. Obadiah, Jr., of Stamford. 
Published by the Committee of that town as an enemy to his 
country, and all persons recommended to break off all deal- 
ings and connection with him. Obadiah. In December, 
1783, warrant issued, on petition of the Selectmen of Stam- 


ford, ordering him and his family to depart that town forth- 
with, and never return. 

Segee, John. Died at New Maryland, New Brunswick, 
in 1835. 

Selby, John. Clerk of the Customs. Embarked at Bos- 
ton for Halifax with the British Army, in 1776. Grand 
Secretary to the Freemasons of Nova Scotia. Died at Hali- 
fax, in 1804, aged sixty-three. 

Seleck, Noah. An Ensign in De Lancey's Third Bat- 
talion. In December, 1783, warrant issued, on petition of 
the Selectmen of Stamford, Connecticut, ordering him and 
his family to depart that town forthwith, and never return. 

Semple, Robert and John. Of Boston. Merchants. 
Both Addressers of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 
1775. Both went to Halifax, (Robert, with a family of 
three,) in 1776 ; and in July of that year, both (and Robert's 
wife) captured on the passage from Nova Scotia to New 
York ; carried to Marblehead, thence to Boston, and com- 
mitted to jail. In 1778, both proscribed and banished. John 
died at Marlborough, Massachusetts, in 1793, aged eighty- 

Serjeant, Rev. Winwood. Of Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts. Episcopal minister. He was ordained in England in 
1756, and in 1759 became Assistant Rector of St. Philip's 
Church, Charleston, South Carolina. In 1767 he went to 
Cambridge, when the troubles of the Revolution drove him 
from his flock. In 1775 he was Chaplain to an armed vessel 
in Boston harbor. He went to England in 1778, and was in 
poverty. He died at Bristol, England, in 1780. He was 
twice married. His second wife, who died in 1808, at Bath, 
was Mary, daughter of Rev. Arthur Browne. She was 
allowed X100 per annum by the British Government. Two 
daughters, Mary and Elizabeth, survived him. 

Servanier, James. In 1782 he was Lieutenant in the 
Third Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. He settled in 
New Brunswick, and received half-pay. He died at St. John 
in 1803. 


Service, . Of New York. He lived in the vicin- 
ity of Scoharie, and his house was a place of resort for Indians 
and Tories, and a depot of supplies. His attachment to the 
King and his measures was well known ; and in 1778 a party 
of Whigs determined to seize him and carry him off. They 
took him prisoner, but on being informed that he must ac- 
company them, he seized an axe and attempted to cut down 
one of the Whig officers ; whereupon another officer shot him 
dead. This party, while on their way, had dispersed a com- 
pany of Tories who intended to reach the dwelling of Service 
and pass the night there. 

Sessions, Darius. Of Rhode Island. He graduated at 
Yale College in 1737. In 1769 he was elected Duputy-Gov- 
ernor of the Colony, and in April, 1775, in a written paper 
dated from the Upper House, entered his written dissent to a 
bill of the Assembly for raising an army of fifteen hundred 
men. In June of that year his official functions had ceased, 
and the post of Deputy-Governor was filled by the Hon. Nich- 
olas Cooke. Probably he was driven into retirement ; for the 
Protest of Wanton, Sessions, Potter, and Wickes, as appears 
by the Recantation of Potter, gave much uneasiness to the 
good people of Rhode Island. He died in 1809. 

Sewall, Jonathan. Attorney-General of Massachusetts. 
He graduated at Harvard University in 1748 ; taught school 
in Salem until 1756 ; then studied law with Judge Russell, 
and opened an office in Charlestown. While attending Court, 
he and John Adams lived together, frequently slept in the 
same chamber, and often in the same bed. He courted the 
maiden he married several years ; and it was his habit to go to 
her father's on Saturday and remain until Monday ; and Mr. 
Adams was generally invited to meet him on Sunday evening. 
And, besides, the two young men were in constant corre- 
spondence. About the year 1767 Mr. Sewall was appointed 
Attorney-General. The friend already mentioned remarks 
that, as a lawyer, his influence with judges and juries was as 
great as was consistent with an impartial administration of 
justice ; that he was a gentleman and a scholar ; that he pos- 

276 SEWALL. 

sessed a lively wit, a brilliant imagination, great subtlety of 
reasoning, and an insinuating eloquence. 

In 1774 he was an Addresser of Hutchinson, and in Sep- 
tember of that year his elegant house at Cambridge was at- 
tacked by a mob and much injured. He fled to Boston for 
refuge. His name appears among the proscribed and ban- 
ished, and among those whose estates were confiscated. He 
attempted to dissuade Mr. Adams from attending the first 
Continental Congress ; and it was in reply to his arguments, 
and as they walked on the Great Hill at Portland, that Adams 
used the memorable words : " The die is now cast ; I have 
now passed the Rubicon ; swim or sink, live or die, survive or 
perish with my country is my unalterable determination." 
They parted, and met no more until 1788. The one, the 
high-souled, lion-hearted Adams, had a country, and a free 
country ; the eloquent and gifted Sewall lived and died a 
Colonist. It is thought that Sewall originally sympathized 
with the Whigs, and that he was won over to the other side 
by the address of Hutchinson, after some dissatisfaction with 
the Otises relative to the estate of his uncle, a deceased Chief 
Justice of Massachusetts. He is said to have adhered to the 
Crown at last, as did thousands of others, from a conviction 
that armed opposition would end in certain defeat, and utter 
ruin to the Colonies. 

In 1775 Mr. Sewall went to England, and was in London 
previous to July 20th of that year. Early in 1776 we hear 
of him, in company with several other exiles, " bound to the 
theatre to see the Jubilee " ; next as a member of the Loyal- 
ist J31ub, for a weekly conversation and a dinner ; and later, 
as having a home in Brompton Row. In 1777 we find him 
at Bristol, and on terms with the celebrated political divine, 
Dean Tucker, who considered the Colonies a burden to Eng- 
land, and had the courage to advise the Ministry to cast them 
off. The next year he was at Sidmouth ; but again at Bris- 
tol in 1779 and the year after. While in England he wrote 
to his fellow-exile, Curwen, " The situation of American 
Loyalists, I confess, is enough to have provoked Job's wife, if 

SEWALL. 277 

not Job himself; but still we must be men, philosophers, and 
Christians ; bearing up with patience, resignation, and forti- 
tude, against unavoidable suffering." 

The friendship between Jonathan and John was never in- 
terrupted while both lived. In 1788 Mr. Sewall went to Lon- 
don to embark for Halifax, and they met at once, — the Whig 
laving aside all etiquette to make him a visit. " I ordered 
my servant to announce John Adams, was instantly admitted, 
and both of us, forgetting that we had ever been enemies, 
embraced each other as cordially as ever. I had two hours' 
conversation with him in a most delightful freedom, upon a 
multitude of subjects." In the course of this interview, Mr. 
Sewall remarked that he had existed for the sake of his two 
children ; that he had spared no pains or expense in their 
education ; and that he was going to Nova Scotia in hope of 
making some provision for them. He did not long survive ; 
" evidently broken down by his anxieties," adds Mr. Adams, 
" and probably dying of a broken heart." 

At this time Mr. Sewall had been appointed Judge of Ad- 
miralty for Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and soon after 
entered upon his duties. In "McFingal" it is asked, — 

" Who made that wit of water-gruel 
A Judge of Admiralty, Sewall ? " 

He died at St. John, in the latter Province, in 1796, aged 
sixty-eight. I have often passed the house in which he 
breathed his last, and could but muse upon his fate. Esther, 
his widow, fourth daughter of Edmund Quincy, a lady dis- 
tinguished for her beauty, vivacity, and spirit, and sister of the 
wife of John Hancock, died at Montreal, January 21, 1810. 
His son Jonathan Sewall, L.L. D., of the Executive Coun- 
cil, and many years its President, Speaker of the Legislative 
Council, and Chief Justice of Lower Canada, died at Quebec, 
in 1840, aged seventy-three. His son Stephen was Solicitor- 
General of the same Province, and died at Montreal in 1832. 
Sewall, Samuel. Great-grandson of Chief Justice Sam- 
uel Sewall, and son of Henry Sewall, of Brookline, Massa- 
chusetts. Was born December 31, 1745, graduated at Har- 

VOL. II. 24 


vard University in 1761. He studied law, and settled in 
Boston. His name occurs among the barristers and attorneys 
who were Addressers of Hutchinson in 1774 ; and in the 
Banishment and Proscription Act in 1778. He went to 
England, and in 1776 was a member of the Loyalist Club, 
London. Two years later he was at Sidmouth, a " bathing 
town of mud-walls and thatched roofs." In 1780 he seems to 
have lived in Bristol ; and on the 19th of June amused him- 
self by loyally celebrating Clinton's success at Charleston, in 
the discharge of a two-pounder in a private garden ; and, 
three days after, was shot at by a footpad and narrowly escaped 
with his life. Early in 1782 he was at Taunton, and at Sid- 
mouth. He died at London, after one day's confinement to 
his room, May 6, 1811, aged fifty-six years. His estate in 
Brookline, Massachusetts, was confiscated. 

Shadford, Rev. George. Minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. He was born in England in 1739. He 
arrived at Philadelphia in 1773, with an appointment from 
Wesley, and preached some time in New Jersey, in the city 
of New York and Philadelphia. He was transferred to 
Virginia in 1776, and the year following to Maryland. Re- 
fusing to renounce his allegiance, and continuing to pray for 
the King, " he began to find that his loyalty could not be 
maintained without subjecting himself to the most serious 
annoyance," he resolved to return to his native land. He 
accordingly procured a pass to go to the camp of General 
Small wood, who, by Mr. Shadford's account, was not remark- 
ably courteous towards him, but who finally consented to 
give him protection to the British lines, on condition that he 
would take an oath to go directly to Philadelphia and there 
embark for Great Britain. He complied, and as soon as he 
could procure a passage, sailed for Ireland. After a ministry 
of twenty-three years, he was placed on the list of " super- 
numaries." He died in 1816. 

Shakspeare, David and Stephen. Went from New 
York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, in 1783, and received grants 
of land. Each had a family, and the latter twenty servants, 

SHANK. — SHAW. 279 

who, I conclude, were persons of color. David was of Phil- 
adelphia, and a merchant. 

Shank, David. Of Virginia. Lieutenant-General in 
the British Army. He served under Lord Dunmore in 
Virginia, early in 1776, and in August of the same year was 
a volunteer in the battle of Long Island. In 1777 he was 
appointed a Lieutenant, and in 1778 a Captain in the Queen's 
Rangers, and from August 1779 to the close of the war he 
was in command of a Troop of Dragoons. He was in the 
battle of Brandywine, in which fourteen of the twenty-one 
officers of the Rangers were killed or wounded. He was also 
engaged in the actions of Germantown and Monmouth, in 
the siege of Charleston, and in the expedition to Virginia. 
In 1783 he retired on half-pay, with the confidence of his 
commander, Colonel Simcoe, who, in 1791, when appointed 
Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, gave him the com- 
mission of senior officer of the new " Queen's Rangers," — 
a corps of four hundred men, raised in England, for service 
in that Colony. Captain Shank returned to Europe in 1799. 
He received the rank of Colonel, in 1808 ; of Major- General, 
in 1811 ; and of Lieutenant-General, in 1821. He died at 
Glasgow, October, 1831. 

Shannon, . Of Pennsylvania. Physician. In 

1777, charged with conducting the enemy through Philadel- 
phia County ; an order of the Council to seize him, and send 
him under guard to that body. 

Shannon, John. Of Pennsylvania. Deserted from the 
State galleys, and joined the British at Philadelphia. Cap- 
tured at sea. In 1779 in prison, to be tried for treason. 

Shaw, John. In 1780, lumber was much wanted by the 
Royal Army in New York, and boards sold there as high as 
£30 specie per thousand feet. Shaw commanded a vessel in 
the trade, but was finally captured and put in prison. At the 
peace, accompanied by his family, he went from New York to 
Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted him one 
town lot. 

Shaw, . Captain in the Loyalist Light Infantry. 

Mortally wounded in the battle of Eutaw Springs, 1781. 

280 SHAW. — SHE AFFE. 

Shaw, Colin. Ensign in the North Carolina Royalists. 
Wounded in the battle of Camden, 1780. Property confis- 

Shaw, ^Eneas. An officer of Infantry in the Queen's 
Rangers. He married Nancy Goslin, of Newtown, Long 
Island, in 1783. 

Sheaffe, William. Of Boston. Deputy Collector of 
the Customs. Of this gentleman little seems to have been 
preserved. Of his official life I glean simply that, in the 
reign of George II., he frequently acted as Collector in the 
absence of Sir Henry Frankland, who held that office ; 
that, in 1759, w r hen the Baronet was removed for inattention 
to his duties, he was appointed to fill the vacant place, and 
issued the celebrated " Writs of Assistance," to search for 
smuggled goods ; that Roger Hale succeeded as Collector in 
1762, when Sheaffe was again Deputy, and that he con- 
tinued in office under Joseph Harrison, who was the last 
Royal Collector of the port. 

In December, 1767, his wife wrote her brother, Thomas 
Child, the only Whig Officer of the Customs at Falmouth, 
Maine : " I am in a fair way of being very sociable with the 
Commissioners [of the Customs], which, I think, will be no 
disadvantage to Mr. Sheaffe or you. There is nothing like 
being acquainted. People are more disposed to do for those 
they know, and as Mr. Sheaffe is of so backward a disposi- 
tion, I am bound to exert myself more than I otherwise 
should do. I know there are persons who think we might 
live more obscure, but we shall not be governed by their 
opinions, as we owe them nothing, nor should we be the better 
for them, if we wanted their assistance." 

Mr. Sheaffe died in 1771, leaving a large family in poverty. 
So poor, indeed, was his widow, that the officers of the 
revenue in Boston proposed a subscription for her immediate 
relief; and, as she possessed a capacity for business, other 
friends suggested the opening a shop as a means of permanent 
support. There is ample evidence to show that the Sheaffes 
were a loving, happy family, and that Mrs. Sheaffe herself 


was an intelligent, excellent woman, and bore many trials 
with pious resignation. She died, I conclude, from a remark 
in a letter of her son Roger, in the year 1811. 

Of the sons, I glean something of four ; Nathaniel, Thomas 
Child, Roger Hale — of whom presently — and William. 
The latter was in Boston in 1784, and, probably, two or three 
years later. He went to England, and in 1788 his brother- 
in-law, Captain Moles worth, procured a place for him in the 
Revenue Service. He probably remained abroad. His son 
William, as we shall see, was the heir of his brother, Sir 

Susanna, Mr. Sheaffe's oldest daughter, who died in 1884, 
married Captain Ponsonby Molesworth, a nephew of Lord 
Ponsonby. The family account is, that, on the day of the 
landing of a Regiment of British troops in Boston, a halt was 
made in Queen (Court) Street, opposite Mr. Sheaffe's house ; 
that Susanna, attracted by the music and the red-coats, ac- 
companied by her younger sisters, went upon the balcony • 
that Molesworth soon saw her, was struck with her great 
beauty, gazed upon her intently, and at last, said to a brother 
officer, who, like himself, was leaning against a fence : " That 
girl seals my fate." The story further is, that an introduc- 
tion, and visit after visit, followed, and that the maiden's 
heart was rapidly won. But then came sorrow, for Susanna 
was barely fifteen, and parental consent to her marriage was 
refused. Her governess, to whom she entrusted her grief, 
espoused her cause, and favored immediate union ; and the 
result accordingly was, the flight of the three to Rhode Island, 
where the loving pair pronounced their nuptial vows. Moles- 
worth sold his commission in 1776, and in December of that 
year was in England with his wife. Their married life 
proved uncommonly happy ; and they lived to see their chil- 
dren's children. The papers which I use for these notices 
contain several letters from both, which are alike honorable to 
head and heart. Two extracts from the Captain's to Mrs. 
Sheaffe, in Boston, are all that my limits will here allow. He 

said, in 1784 : " My recommendations from the Marquis of 



Lothian to the Duke of Rutland (now Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland) are so strong that he can't avoid showing me great 
notice and regard, which will be certainly followed by prefer- 
ment whenever that sort of place which would suit me be- 
comes vacant. . . Were my matters arranged to my sat- 
isfaction, you may be assured that a trip across the Atlantic 
would be our next object, provided I could procure leave to 
be absent," &c. Two years later he wrote : " I have taken 
a house in the pleasantest and most healthy situation in or 
about Dublin, which I have furnished, and am otherwise en- 
abled, thank God, to offer a most hearty invitation to you and 
our sister Helen, who I conceive to be the only one unprovided 
for in your family. I have a genteel employment, with very 
little to do, under Government, which enables me to live com- 
fortably, with the prospect of a still better, with a certain as- 
surance of £100 a year for life, in a very little time, to be 
settled as a pension on my wife." 

The child of the Molesworths best known to their friends 
in Massachusetts was a daughter who married a Bagot, and 
who, in 1806, gave her uncle, Sir Roger, the following account 
of her family. " My eldest, Elizabeth, grandmamma's dar- 
ling and constant companion, is not quite nine years of age, 
but uncommonly sensible for her years. You would love her 
if you were to see the pains she takes to divert my mother, 
whenever a melancholy fit comes over her. . . She will 
dance for her (which she does elegantly), and with a thousand 
little antic tricks contrives to make her laugh before she stops ; 
but with all her wildness, her little heart is the seat of sensi- 
bility ; and when alone with me, she will weep and talk of 
her grandpapa by the hour. I have also three boys left. The 
two eldest, Robert and Hale, go to school, and though Robert 
has three years advantage over the other, yet your little god- 
son beats him at everything : he is also much handsomer, and 
an arch, waggish dog. My next in years is Harriet, a beau- 
tiful, sensible girl of four, but a very vixen, which costs me a 
great deal in birch-rods. The youngest, Daniel, not three 
months old — a very delicate boy, and I very much fear will 


soon be taken away to join my four other cherubs in the 
realms of bliss." 

Margaret, another daughter of Mr. Sheaffe, was the wife 
of John R. Livingston, merchant of Boston, and died in that 
town, in 1785, aged twenty-four. This lady " was adored 
by her connections, and beloved by all who knew her." She 
was remarkable for beauty ; so handsome, according to tradi- 
tion and accounts in my possession, that " no one could take 
her picture." A lady of her lineage informs me that, previous 
to her marriage, La Fayette, who admired her, and often visited 
her mother, once said to her lover, — " Were I not a married 
man, I 'd try to cut you out ; " and that, after his return to 
France, the Marquis sent her a satin cardinal lined with 
ermine, and an elegant silk garment to wear under it, which 
were long preserved in the family. 

In 1785 it was said of Helen, another daughter of the 
subject of this notice, " She is like a rosebud just opening 
to view ; everything around her will be pleasing, and wherever 
she is, her placid countenance will show the serenity of her 
good disposition. When a real lover, a man of merit, and 
formed to make her happy, appears, may she accept him with 
pleasure, and requite his tenderness with such charms of per- 
son and conduct as will make his life as happy as hers ought 
to be." Helen married James Lovell, who, a Whig in the 
Revolution, was subsequently Naval Officer of Boston. Their 
daughter Mary is the wife of Henry Loring, and now (1863) 
lives in Brookline, Massachusetts. Two other daughters sur- 
vive, namely : Ann, wife of Rev. Mr. Carr, and Margaret, 
of Newton, Massachusetts, who is unmarried. There is, too, 
a grandson — Mansfield Lovell — who, educated at his coun- 
try's expense for his country's service, is a General in the 
Rebel Army, and was in command at the capture of New 
Orleans, in 1862. 

Nancy, (who married Mr. Erving,) and Sally, two other 
daughters of Mr. Sheaffe, are mentioned in the letters of their 
brother, Sir Roger. Of the former, her brother-in-law, Liv- 
ingston, remarked, in 1785, that, "the man she loves must be 


supremely blest ; may she make such a wife as her sister was, 
and if her husband is not then happy, he will deserve misery 
supreme." Mary, the last daughter of whom I have any 
knowledge, died in Boston, in 1814, aged seventy-five. 

Sheaffe, Sir Roger Hale, Baronet. Of Boston. Lieu- 
tenant-General of the British Army. Son of the preceding. 
Born in Boston, in 1763. His mother, after the death of his 
father, removed to the wooden house on the corner of Colum- 
bia and Essex Streets, which was owned by her father, and 
which, though much altered in front, is still (1863) standing. 
Lord Percy, — afterward the Duke of Northumberland, — 
hired quarters there, soon became attached to Roger, and 
assumed the care of him. It would seem that the original 
intention of his Lordship was to provide for the boy in the 
Navy ; since, Mrs. Sheaffe wrote, in December, 1776, she 
was told " Earl Percy had taken my son Roger from the 
Admiral's ship, given him a commission in the army, (which 
I must not say I am sorry for,) and sent him to England, to 
an academy, for education under his patronage." This was 
correct. In 1778 Roger was dangerously ill ; and, on becom- 
ing convalescent, passed two months in Devonshire, with his 
sister, Mrs. Molesworth. In a letter to his mother, dated 
at the Academy, Little Chelsea, early in 1779, he said : " I 
have heard from Tom several times. Lord Percy is as good 
as ever. He has given me a commission in his own regiment, 
the Fifth, now in the West Indies. I shall not join it for a 

year My kind love to my dear sisters and brothers. 

Remember me kindly to all my friends in Boston. You may 

be sure that I shall follow your advice strictly That I 

may be all that you wish, shall be the endeavor of your most 
dutiful and affectionate son." 

I lose sight of Roger until May, 1782, when he was in 
Ireland, and when he wrote his mother thus : " I send this 
enclosed to my brother Tom, through whose hands I hope it 
will arrive safe to you. May you have that satisfaction, in 
the midst of your afflictions, to bear with fortitude, my dear 
Mother, your present misfortunes. The time will come when 


you will experience happier days among your friends 

My Mother must be sensible that a subaltern's pay is seldom 
adequate to his necessary expenses ; otherwise I might be able 
to assist her. What I had, when in England, I gave to Tom. 
I, by my imprudence, incurred Lord Percy's displeasure in 
England ; but since we came to Ireland he has generously 
forgiven me, and made me a present of X100, to pay my 
debts, that the long marches and my own folly led me into ; 
that hardly paid them, and provided me with some clothes I 
much wanted. I am in hopes, by my good conduct, to regain 
his esteem ; which would, perhaps, enable me to assist my 
Mother. If you would write a few lines to Lord Percy, 
thanking him for the favors he has shown your child, it would 

be pleasing to his Lordship Let me know what you 

mean to do with Billy. Inform me where Peggy is 

My best love to my brothers and sisters." 

In 1786 Captain Molesworth said, in a letter to his mother- 
in-law, Mrs. Sheaffe : "I am sorry to acquaint you that it is 
impossible to see you in Boston ; nor do I think that Roger 
can give himself that pleasure without great injury to his in- 
terest. The Duke of Northumberland has lodged money to 
buy him a Company ; which, when he is in possession of, he 
will have it in his power more fully to manifest his affection 
for so good a mother. He is now with us, and heartily joins 
us in wishing you here ; as application could be made to Gov- 
ernment in your behalf, and I have secured the assistance and 
interest of my friend and relation, the Earl of Bellamont, who 
will be happy to bear your Memorial, and with it his best ser- 
vices Consider that this matter cannot be done unless 

you are here ; that you will have your daughter with you ; as 
also that you will find in this part of the world your son Hale, 
my wife, self, and daughter, in a pleasant, cheap country ; so 
that, you see, by leaving Boston you do not separate yourself 
from your whole family. Consult the opinions of your real 
friends, and no others." Some months after, he mentioned 
the subject of this notice thus : " I have not heard from my 
dear Roger since a little time before he left you for Canada ; 


I hope to God that he is well ; a better young fellow does not 

Roger's sister, Mrs. Molesworth, at the same period, wrote 
her mother : " He is as good a young man as ever lived ; 
Lord Percy continues his kindness to him ; he improves very 
much, and is a great favorite with all his masters." Again : 
" Roger behaves remarkably well ; is much liked in the Regi- 
ment ; he is tall, well made, and reckoned handsome ; very 
lively, yet prudent and steady in matters of consequence ; he 
wishes, as much as we do, to go to Boston." Still again : 
" We often build castles in the air, and go to Boston with a 
large fortune. How happy we should be could our wishes, 
in that respect, be gratified, and how happy would we make 
many others. I think, then, fat Sally and I would have the 
pot of porter together with a hearty laugh." 

The next "date is 1791, when Lieutenant Sheaffe was at 
Detroit ; which post, the reader will remember, was still held 
by England, in consequence of the disagreements which arose 
as to the construction to be given to some of the provisions of 
the treaty of peace. " I leave to my dear Mother," he said, 
" to guess at the happiness I feel in having something to com- 
municate to her that will give her pleasure. Three days since 
I received two letters from the Duke, [his patron, Lord Percy, 
at this time was Duke of Northumberland,] written as if you 
had dictated their contents ; four others, which he was so good 
as to write, have miscarried. In his Grace's first, which is a 
long letter on different subjects, he expresses his surprise and 
disappointment at not being called on for the purchase-money 
of a Company, and tells me he does not think it an object for 

me to accept one in the new corps In the second letter 

the Duke asked, 4 But how come you not to be a Captain ?' 
And added : ' The money is ready whenever you let me hear 
of a purchase. You may be assured I shall watch your inter- 
est, and endeavor to act for the best. You are to have a Gov- 
ernor at Detroit, to whom I shall not fail to recommend you.' 
Again, wrote his Grace : 4 Before you receive this, I shall 
lodge <£50 in your Agent's hands, which you draw for as you 


want,' " &c. In addition to this present, the Duke wished to 
supply Lieutenant Sheaffe with some articles of necessity. A 
case of drawing instruments, a few military books, and a sash 
were accepted. And these " I should not have prevailed upon 
myself to request," continues Roger, to his mother, "if I could 
have furnished myself with them in this country Be- 
sides the above-mentioned plea in behalf of my acceptance, I 
thought something was due to his Grace's delicacy as well as 
my own ; and he might have been offended with a total rejec- 
tion of his proffered kindness. I own that the decision was not 

made without some struggle Twenty pounds sterling 

of his Grace's timely donation you may draw on Mr. E. for ; 
.... one fourth of which you will be so good as to present 
to my dear sister Sally, to purchase some memento of my 
affection with I received, with the Duke's, two let- 
ters from the warm-hearted Molesworth and your grandchild. 
Sukey wrote to you at the same time. When I got them, 
I rather expected to hear from Boston than any other place. 
.... If you can share it at present, let my beloved Nancy 
have something for the purpose mentioned, under the article 
— Sally. As for Helen, she must be content with a love that 

knows no bounds Eliza Molesworth [subsequently 

Mrs. Bagot, whose account of her children appears in this 
notice] expresses in so pretty a manner of commencing a cor- 
respondence with Helen, and the pleasure it would give her, 
that I cannot avoid taxing my sweet Helen with the task of 
beginning it. Her affection for me will, I trust, cause her to 

In 1794, and before the surrender of the " Western Posts," 
as they were called, we hear of Lieutenant Sheaffe again. 
The letters which follow were addressed to Captain William- 
son : " Sir, — If, after the information upon which my letter 
of the 20th of May, 1794, was founded, any considerable doubt 
had remained of Governor Simcoe's invasion, your long silence 
without a refutation of it, and our more recent intelligence, 
forbid us to question its truth. It is supported by the respect- 
able opinions which have been since transmitted to the Exec- 


utive, that, in the late attack on Fort Recovery, British officers 
and British soldiers were on the very ground, aiding our In- 
dian enemies. 

" But, Sir, as if the Governor of Upper Canada Avas resolved 
to destroy every possibility of disbelieving his hostile views, 
he has sent to the Great Sodus, a settlement begun on a bay 
of the same name, on Lake Ontario, a command to Captain 
Williamson, who derives a title from the State of New York, 
to desist from his enterprise. This mandate was borne by a 
Lieutenant Sheaffe, under a military escort ; and in its tone 
corresponds with the form of its delivery, being unequivocally 
of a military and hostile nature. 

" I am commanded to declare that during the inexecution 
of the treaty of peace between Great Britain and the United 
States, and until the existing differences respecting it shall 
be mutually and finally adjusted, the taking possession of any 
part of the Indian territory, either for the purposes of war or 
sovereignty, is held to be a direct violation of his Britannic 
Majesty's rights, as they unquestionably existed before the 
treaty, and has an immediate tendency to interrupt, and in its 
progress to destroy, that good understanding which has hith- 
erto subsisted between his Britannic Majesty and the United 
States of America. I therefore require you to desist from 
any such aggression. R. H. Sheaffe, Lieut. 5th Regt., 
and Qr. M'r. Gen. Dept. of his Britannic Majesty's service. 
G. Sodus." Again, on the same day : " Sir ; Having a 
special commission, and instructions for that purpose, from 
the Lieut. Governor of his Britannic Majesty's Province of 
Upper Canada, I have come here to demand by what author- 
ity an establishment has been ordered at this place, and to 
require that such a design be immediately relinquished, for 
the reasons stated in the written declaration accompanying 
this letter ; for the receipt of which protest I have taken the 
acknowledgment of your agent, Mr. Little. I regret exceed- 
ingly, in my private as well as public character, that I have 
not the satisfaction of seeing you here ; but I hope on my re- 
turn, which will be about a week hence, to be more fortunate. 


I am, Sir, your most obedt. servt., R. H. Sheaffe, Lieut. 5tli 
Regt., Q. M. G. D." 

In 1801 he was in service in the attack on Copenhagen, 
under Nelson ; and though poor, just one half of the prize- 
money to which he was entitled was sent to his relatives in 
Bx>ston. The papers in my possession are so fragmentary 
that I lose sight of our Lieutenant until 1809, when, in a let- 
ter dated at Montreal, he wrote : " Be it known to you, my 
dear Mother, by these presents, that I, your unworthy and 
beloved son, am in a state that does not justify the maternal 
apprehensions which appear to have taken possession of your 
heart and understanding." . ..." I hope the weather is not 
too warm for you, and that Sally dear is better for a milder 
season. My love to her, to dear Helen, and the rest. Kind- 
est remembrance to all our friends ; Lovells, Cutlers, Parkers, 
Masons, — of Middle, West, South, and North Boston, &c." 

At the capture of Little York, (now Toronto, from the 
French Fort Tarento,) in 1813, the subject of this notice had 
attained the rank of Major-General, and commanded the Brit- 
ish troops in person. He lost his baggage and papers ; which, 
General Dearborn informed the Secretary of War, " were a 
valuable acquisition." The American General, in his de- 
spatch of April 28th, charges, that, when the head of his 
" columns was within sixty rods of the enemy, a tremendous 
explosion occurred, from a large magazine prepared for the 
purpose, which discharged such immense quantities of stone 
as to produce a most unfortunate effect upon our troops." 
He then estimates, or fears, that the loss by this alleged 
murderous arrangement must exceed one hundred ; and that 
among the slain he has to lament General Pike, " who re- 
ceived such a contusion from a large stone as terminated his 
valuable life in a few hours." British officers deny the accu- 
sation here made, and aver that the explosion was accidental ; 
and they prove the statement by the fact, that sixty or sev- 
enty of their own men perished with the Americans. 

At this period, Lieutenant-General Scott was a Colonel and 
a prisoner ; and General Sheaffe related to him some of the 

VOL. II. 25 


circumstances of his military life: in substance, that in 1775 
he was living in Boston with his widowed mother, with whom 
Earl Percy had his quarters ; that his Lordship was very fond 
of him, and took him away with a view of providing for him, 
which he did, by giving him a military education, and by 
purchasing commissions and promotion to as high rank as is 
allowed by the rules of the service ; and that the war then 
existing found him stationed in Canada. He stated, more- 
over, that, reluctant to serve against his own countrymen, he 
had solicited to be employed elsewhere ; but at that time has 
request had not been granted. 

In April, 1813, within a week of the fall of Little York, 
we have a letter from his wife's mother to her niece, Miss 
Child, dated at Quebec. " It is possible," she remarked, 
" you may not have heard that your cousin, Sir Roger Sheaffe, 
has had the title of Baronet of Great Britain conferred on 
him, by our Prince Regent: — a handsome compliment, which 
I trust will be followed by something substantial to support 
it." Sir Roger " is so pressed by public business as to allow 
him scarcely time to attend to his private concerns." .... 
" My dear Margaret is still in Quebec with her lovely little 
Julia, as Upper Canada, at present, is the seat of war. . . . 
Her elevation of rank has not in the least deprived her of 
her native humility and meekness. The manner it was an- 
nounced to her was rather singular. She was met by a 
gentleman in the street, as she was going to church, who 
hardly passed her, before he turned about and accosted her by 
the title of ' Lady Sheaffe ; ' and put a letter in her hand 
from the Duke of Northumberland, addressed to ' Lady 
Sheaffe,' which she received with her usual equanimity." 

Parts of several letters from Sir Roger to his cousin, Miss 
Susan Child, of Boston, which I use here, will give the 
reader information of interest. The first was written in 
Canada, in September, 1811, and prior to the events just 
recorded. " My heart," he said, " acknowledges with the 
utmost warmth all the kind and affectionate attentions be- 
stowed on my dear departed Mother, which must have con- 


tributed so essentially to her aid and comfort." Again: " I 
have relinquished the command of the 49th Regiment, and 
with it, at least half my income. The expectation of my 
friends here that I should be placed on the Staff (that is, be 
employed as a Major-General,) has not been realized ; for, to 
their surprise and my mortification, a younger officer at 
home has been appointed." In November of the same year, 
he wrote at Quebec: " I cannot but approve of the distribu- 
tion of my Mother's effects The watch may be 

sent to me by the first convenient opportunity ; the picture of 
myself, I transfer to sister Sally ; the others, I request that 
Mr. Lovell will take into safe keeping." In the same letter 
he speaks of his pecuniary affairs thus: " In the present re- 
duced state of my income, I am compelled to draw the whole 
of it for my own use, but I have hopes that in a short time I 
shall be enabled to send a remittance to Boston, to discharge 
my debt to T. C. Amory, and to gratify my desire to furnish 
to sister Sally dear a solid proof of my affection." In 1825 
his home was in Edinburgh, and, disappointed in not seeing a 
" little party from our town " [Boston] who called, but found 
Lady Sheaffe and her three children sick, he consoled himself 
with the thought of meeting " Mr. Palfrey [Hon. John G. 
Palfrey, of Boston,] at dinner to-morrow at Mr. Constable's, 
who has a house near us in the country." 

Again, at Edinburgh, in 1829 : " My friends in general 
seem to have expected that the Duke of Northumberland's 
recent appointment would be productive of benefit to me ; but 
it unfortunately happens that he has nothing in his gift suitable 
to a military man of my rank : he has asked for a Regiment 
or Government for me, and it is probable, with my admitted 
claims, that I shall get one or the other, if I do not give them 
the slip too soon ; my health has not been very good of late 
years," &c, &c. In 1841 : " You refer to past melancholy 
events, on which I do not wish to dwell. The year 1834 
was indeed a sad one : in it we lost the last of our children ; 
and in the same year died my sister Molesworth ; a brother 
of Lady Sheaffe'sj my late brother William's eldest son, 


named after me, a Captain in the Army ; and also Lord 
Craigie, the brother of your cousin, Mrs. Craigie's husband, 
and the chief stay of her numerous family — an income of 
£2000 a year having died with him." His own health at 
this period had improved, for — "I retain a good share of 
activity, as well as of erect military carriage ; my sight is 
good ; my teeth in a state to create envy in a majority of 
American misses ; my appetite never fails ; and I sleep well." 
In January, 1842, he spoke of William, eldest surviving son 
of his brother William, thus : " He is my natural heir ; and 
having adopted him when he was ten years of age ; and, it 
having pleased God to take all my children from me, I regard 
him as a son. He has a dear little wife, worthy of him." 

Of the nine remaining years of Sir Roger's life I know 
nothing. He died at Edinburgh, in 1851, aged eighty-eight. 
He visited Boston, his native town, four times ; namely, in 
1788, in 1792-3, in 1803, and in 1806. The incidents which 
are preserved of these reunions with his kindred show that 
he was respected and loved to a very remarkable degree. 
One of his kinswomen, who saw him first on his second visit, 
and who still survives (1864), thus speaks of him : " He was, 
indeed, the idol of family and friends. His heart was as 
tender and affectionate as a woman's, joined to the noblest 
principles of honor and generosity. His disposition was 
cheerful, and his manner often playful. He was of middling 
stature, and his person was well formed. His face was fine, 
his eyes of the deepest blue, full and prominent ; and his 
teeth were of the purest white, regular and even, and were 
retained to a late period, if not to the close of his life. 

Lady SheafFe was Margaret, daughter of John Coffin, and 
a cousin of Lieutenant-General John, and of Admiral Sir 
Isaac Coffin. She was the mother of four children, who, as 
we have just seen, died before her husband. The remains of 
Sir Roger's father and mother, of his brother Thomas Child, 
of his sisters Helen, Sally, Nancy, and Margaret, and of others 
of his lineage, were deposited in the Child Tomb, Trinity 
Church, Boston. 


To Miss Isabella Child, of Cambridge, to my excellent 
and nearest neighbor, Thomas Hale Child, of Roxbury, and 
to Miss Mary P. Hale, of Boston, who are relatives of the 
Baronet, I am indebted for the several papers used in the 
notices of the Sheaffes. As once mentioned, these papers are 
fragmentary ; but they are still valuable. I have not felt at 
liberty to quote from some of the most interesting of the 
letters, because of the private nature of the contents, but my 
selections are sufficient, and of a character, I trust, to show 
that the members of this Lovalist familv were good and affec- 
donate. The absence of bitter words against the Whigs, and 
of undue lamentations in misfortune or suffering, is very 
marked throughout. 

Sheaffe, Nathaniel. Of Boston. Oldest brother of 
Sir Roger. He was a clerk in the Custom-House for some 
time ; but, at the death of his father, in 1771, he probably 
left, in order to better provide for his mother and sisters, of 
whom he had the care. In December, 1776, Mrs. Sheaffe 
said : " Nat was well in Jamaica, last October, doing busi- 
ness, and where I am told he intends to stay till the times 
will permit him to come here ; am only uneasy about his 
health, though he has been a good deal in the West Indies, 
and never was better." 

On the 29th of January, following, Mrs. Fitch, who had 
been in Boston, but belonged to Jamaica, announced to 
Mrs. Sheaffe, that " her truly amiable and worthy, son Na- 
thaniel, died on the 25th inst., on his passage to Hispaniola, 
and was buried in the churchyard at Morant Bay, in this 

Sheaffe, Thomas Child. Of Boston. Brother of Sir 
Roger. In 1779 he was in New York, and, as his mother was 
informed, was " about setting up business there." In July, 
1783, she wrote her brother, for whom this son was named: 
" We have just received a letter from Tom, dated June 13th, 
Cape Francois. He left Charleston soon after they heard of 
peace, with a cargo for the West Indies, and to bring rum to 
some port on his way home ; but he now writes he shall 



return to Charleston to settle some matters and then come 
home." Mr. Sheaffe died in Boston previous to the year 1793. 

Sheck, Christopher. Served in the contest ; at the 
peace retired to New Brunswick, and died at Sussex Vale, 
1.841, aged eighty-six. 

Shedden, Robert. Of Portsmouth, Virginia. Mer- 
chant. He acted so far with the Whigs, at first, as to sign 
the Continental Association. . But he violated his pledge pre- 
vious to January, 1776, at which time a Committee of the 
Virginia Convention reported that he had ordered his agent 
at Glasgow to ship him large quantities of goods, and that 
certain of his property had therefore become justly forfeited to 
the Colony. Mr. Shedden, with his wife and two young 
children, took immediate refuge on board of a sloop in the 
harbor of Norfolk which belonged to the fleet under Lord 

He was tried in Norfolk County, April, 1776, on the charge 
of " being inimical to the rights and liberties of America," 
and acquitted ; but in June of that year the Virginia Con- 
vention ordered that he " be confined to such parts of the 
county of Dinwiddie as shall be ten miles distant from Ap- 
pamattox River " ; that he remove in fifteen days ; and that 
he give his parole not to injure the Whig cause in any man- 
ner whatever. Later the same year he was a Refugee at 
Bermuda. He returned to the United States, and, while the 
Ro}'al Army occupied New York, lived in that city. At the 
evacuation, he went to England, and established a commer- 
cial house in London of the first respectability. His property 
in Virginia was confiscated. He died in 1826, aged eighty- 
five. Agatha Wells, his widow, and daughter of John Good- 
rich, of Nansemond Plantation, Virginia, died at Stal woods, 
Isle of Wight, in 1838, aged eighty-six. There is a monu- 
ment to his memory, with a long and highly commendatory 
inscription in Paulerspuny Church. I find mention of four 
sons, as follows : George, successor to his estate ; Robert, 
Deputy Lieutenant and Sheriff of Southampton County, Eng- 
land ; Robert, Colonel in the British Army, married a daugh- 


ter of Matthew Lewis, Under Secretary of War ; and William, 
merchant in London, married a daughter of Captain Miller, 
Royal Navy. 

Shelton, Isaac W. Of Bristol, Connecticut. He joined 
the British on Long Island, and conducted the party that 
burned Danbury. Guilty of other treasonable conduct, he 
was arrested and convicted, and ordered to confine himself 
to the county of Hartford. He finally settled in Bristol, and 
acquired a valuable property. He died in 1831, aged seventy- 
five. He was the father of four children. 

Shelton, Jeremiah. Served during the contest as an 
officer in a Loyalist corps, and at its close settled in New 
Brunswick. He died at Portland, in that Colony, in 1819, 
aged sixty-four. He received half-pay. 

Shepard, John. Of New Hampshire. " Called the in- 
famous John Shepard ' by the Committee of Safety. In 
October, 1776, he deserted from the Whig Army, and went 
to New York. Soon after, he was apprehended with orders 
sewed in his breeches to enlist men for Sir William Howe, 
and committed to jail in Connecticut. He escaped, but was 
again seized and sent to prison in Exeter ; and though with 
irons on his hands and feet and chained to the floor, he escaped 
a second time. / 

Sheppard, Nathan. Of Montgomery County, Pennsyl- 
vania. Abandoned the country, and was reduced from in- 
dependence to utter poverty. He returned to Maryland. 
His son Moses, a man distinguished for benevolence, and the 
founder of the 41 Sheppard Asylum " for the insane, died at 
Baltimore, in 1857, aged eighty-three. 

Sherbrooke, Miles. Of New York. Merchant, and an 
original member of the Chamber of Commerce. Like Low, 
and several others spoken of in this work, he seems to have 
been at first inclined to the popular side, since he was a mem- 
ber of the Committee of Fifty raised in that city, to correspond 
with our sister Colonies. Associated with him were the illus- 
trious Jay, and the renowned Isaac, or King Sears. 

In 1776 he removed from the city to Long Island, where, 


by order of Washington, he was arrested and sent to Fish- 
kill. In December of that year he applied to the Committee 
of Safety for release, and was allowed to live at Middletown, 
Connecticut, on parole. 

A party went to the house in which he lodged in 1778, and 
in the alarm he fled to the attic, where he was found shivering 
with cold ; seized and allowed to put on his clothes, he was 
borne off prisoner. He died in West Chester County, in 
1805, aged seventy-one. 

Sheridan, Henry F. Major of the New York Volun- 
teers, or Third American Regiment. He was in the battle of 
Eutaw Springs, 1781, and was commended even by Whig 
officers for his good conduct ; he took possession of a brick 
house, and with swivels and muskets " poured his fire in every 
direction without cessation." A British account follows : — 

" The flank battalion, whose post had been passed undis- 
covered by the main body of the enemy, wheeled round, and 
coming in the rear of the enemy, threw them into confusion, 
which being increased by the fire from the New York Volun- 
teers, under the command of Major Sheridan, who had taken 
post in a stone-house on the open ground upon the right of 
the road, decided the action. Incessant peals of musquetry 
from the windows poured destruction upon the enemy, and 
effectually stopped their further progress. Although severely 
checked, the Americans were not discouraged ; and brought up 
four six-pounders to batter the house, but the fire of Sheridan 
was so well supported that the American artillery soon became 
useless, and most of the officers and men attached to it were 
either killed or wounded." 

Sherlock, John. Of Accomac County, Virginia. The 
Whig Committee denounced him in 1775, for his defection 
from the popular cause. Several witnesses testified, in sub- 
stance, that in different conversations Sherlock had said, all 
who opposed " the ministerial measures with America were 
Rebels ; that he should be employed hereafter in hanging them ; 
and that, if no hemp could be got, he had plenty of flax grow- 
ing." The Whigs, subsequently, carried him to the Liberty- 


pole, where he made a written recantation, which was pub- 
lished with the proceedings against him. 

Sherman, Ambrose. In 1782 he was a Lieutenant in the 
Royal Fencible Americans, and Surgeon's Mate of that corps. 
He settled in New Brunswick, and received half-pay. His 
wife was a Miss McLane, of Boston. He was drowned at 

Sherwin, Richard. Of Boston. Was proscribed and 
banished in 1778. He died at New York in 1783. 

Sherwood, Abijah, Jonathan, and Justus, were gran- 
tees of St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783. The latter died 
in King's County, 1836, at the age of eighty-four. 

Shewell, Joseph and Stephen. Of Philadelphia. Mer- 
chants. In 1776 they were accused of violating certain reg- 
ulations adopted by the Whigs relative to the sale and price 
of merchandise ; and, by order of the Pennsylvania Conven- 
tion, guards were placed over their stores, and they were pub- 
lished as enemies to their country. Stephen was at Philadel- 
phia, January, 1783. 

Shieve, Thomas. An Ensign in De Lancey's Second Bat- 
talion. At the peace, settled in Nova Scotia. 

Shipman, William. Of New York. Merchant. At 
the peace, accompanied by his family and two servants, he 
went from New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where he 
held an office under the Crown. He returned to the United 

Shippen, Edward, LL. D. Chief Justice of Pennsyl- 
vania. Born at Philadelphia in 1729. Completed his legal 
studies in the Temple, London. The following extracts from 
his letters will afford the reader interesting incidents of his 
own life, and of his time. At London, in 1749, he wrote his 
father, Edward Shippen : " I am sorry that I have to inform 
you that I am disappointed in my expectations of being called 
to the Bar at this term ; the occasion of it, I could not pos- 
sibly prevent. Every student, before he comes to the Bar, is 
obliged to perform six vacation exercises, three candlelight 
exercises, and two new-inn exercises ; which he is not allowed 


to do alone, but must be joined with another student. I had 
calculated matters so as to have performed them all before the 
end of this term ; but, unluckily for me, the gentleman who 
was my companion in the exercises, having some engagements 
in the country, could not attend at the time appointed for the 
performance of one of the vacation exercises, which obliged 
me to defer that duty until next vacation. So that it will be 
Easter Term before I can be possibly called, unless I consent 
to compound for vacation exercises, which would cost me near 
twenty pounds. I believe I must stay and see it out, and 
depend on your goodness to send me about <£30 upon my 
coming away. According to my calculation, that amount, 
together with the money you have already favored me with, 
and the £20 you order Storke to let me have, will suffice, 
with frugality, to maintain me till my departure, and defray 
the expenses of my being called to the Bar. All that I shall 
then want further will be some <£30 or <£40 for my gown 
and tie-wig, a suit of clothes, my sea-stores, and passage." 
Again, at Philadelphia, in 1755 : " Tommy Willing has 
still some of the old wine, but no doubt the best pipes have 
been culled out." Still again, in 1756 : " For my part I am 
not anxious to be in the House. A seat there would mve me 
much trouble, take a great deal of my time, and yield no 
advantage to my family, whose good I am bound first to con- 
sult. And really, in these times, it is no easy matter to pro- 
vide as one would wish for an increasing family. However, 
as our friends thought it was necessary I should stand for 
Lancaster, I gave my consent, and am still willing to stand if 
there is any chance of succeeding." In 1759 he wrote : " I 
enclose you a party paper for your amusement ; the authors 
are said to be Wm. Franklin, Jos. Galloway, and George 
Bryan, but I know not with what justice. The introduc- 
tion, and the letter from Montreal, are said to be wrote by an 
older hand. The difference between them and the other 
parts of the paper is very apparent. If a superlative degree 
of scurrility is wit, I think the piece has merit. Read and 
judge." A year later : " I have got a Turkey carpet, which 


comes very high, but there is no more for sale, so that if 
you have a mind for a handsome Scotch carpet, please to send 
me an account of the size you would have it, and I will buy 
one and send it up. Those are the sorts most used here." In 
1777 : " The complexion of the times is still bad. I know not 
when there will be any alteration for the better. Philadel- 
phia will be as a place besieged by the American Army, and 
the country will be laid waste by the two contending parties. 
In this dreadful situation of affairs, I am at a loss to know 
how to dispose of my family. Advantages and disadvantages 
present themselves by turns, whether I determine to remain 
in Philadelphia or remove to a distance. We must make the 
best of it. I presume your office will get into other hands. I 
understand Peter Hoofnaole intends to stand candidate for it : 
you can certainly not expect it unless you give up the old 
Government, and swear allegiance to the new one, together 
with the oath of abjuration of King George the Third. In 
these times I shall consider a private station as a post of 
honor, and if I cannot raise my fortune as high as my desires, 
I can bring down my desires to my fortune : ' the wants of 
our nature are easily supplied, and the rest is but folly and 
care.' ' In December, 1778 : " The common articles of life, 
such as are absolutely necessary for a family, are not much 
higher here than at Lancaster ; but the style of life my fashion- 
able daughters have introduced into my family, and their 
dress, will, I fear, before long, oblige me to change the scene. 
The expense of supporting my family here will not fall short 
of four or five thousand pounds per annum, — an expense 
insupportable without business." Again, in the same letter : 
" I gave my daughter Betsy to Neddy Burd last Thursday 
evening, and all is jollity and mirth. My youngest daughter 
is much solicited by a certain General [Arnold] on the 
same subject ; whether this will take place or not depends 
upon circumstances," &c. 

These letters were all addressed to his father, and the first 
excepted, dated at Philadelphia. Edward Shippen, senior, 
wrote to Colonel Burd, January 2, 1779 : " We understand 


that General Arnold, a fine gentleman, lays close siege to 
Peggy ; and if so, there will soon be another match in the 
family." The father of Peggy never thought her suitor a 
" fine gentleman," and the marriage was in opposition to his 
judgment. [See Margaret Arnold.] 

The family of the subject of this notice, at the period of 
the Revolution, was of the highest respectability, as the de- 
scendants still are. Mr. Shippen remained in Philadelphia, 
after its evacuation by the Royal Army. While it was held 
by the British troops, he maintained close intimacy with the 
officers, and his daughter, the future wife of Arnold, was by 
them highly admired and flattered. The judicial career of 
the Chief Justice was brief; he was appointed in 1799, and 
resigned in 1806. He died the last mentioned year, aged 
seventy-seven. He was a man of learning and integrity, of 
gentle and refined manners, of benevolent and humane disposi- 
tion. His wife was Margaret, daughter of Tench Francis, 
Attorney-General of Pennsylvania, and of the lineage of Sir 
Philip Francis, K. G. C. B., one of the supposed authors of 
" Junius." Judge Shippen's children were nine : namely, 
Elizabeth, who married Edward Burd, a Major in the Con- 
tinental Army ; Sarah, who married Thomas Lea ; Edward, 
who married Elizabeth Footman ; Mary, who married Doctor 
William Mcllvaine ; James ; Margaret, second wife of Bene- 
dict Arnold ; Rachael Francis, who married first, John Relfe, 
and second, Matthew Pearce ; Turbutt Francis, who was a 
Colonel in the British Army, and whose wife was Rebecca, 
only daughter of Samuel Mifflin ; and Philip, who married 
Miss Goldsborough, a cousin. Philip Francis Thomas, late 
Governor of Maryland, is a descendant of the last mentioned 

Shoals, John. Of Newtown, New York. In 1776 
arrested and sent to the Continental Congress. Ordered back, 
and placed under guard by the Convention of New York. 
Petitioned for release, and finally discharged on parole, on 
payment of expenses. In 1779 his name appears at the head 
of the Addressers of Lieutenant-Colonel Sterling;. 


Shockey, Valentine. Of Maryland. He was at the 
head of a banditti in York County, Pennsylvania, that debased 
the Continental currency by counterfeits. Able and daring, 
the authorities had not been able to arrest him as late as June, 
1780. One person, however, whom he seduced to aid him, 
confessed his crime on promise of " being made an approver," 
and was convicted ; but to be pardoned on condition that he 
appeared against Shockey whenever he should be appre- 

Shoemaker, Joseph. Of Philadelphia. Brother of Sam- 
uel. He acted with the Whigs, and held a commission in 
their service, until the Declaration of Independence. After 
joining their opponents he made trading trips from Philadel- 
phia to Virginia for a time ; but was finally captured by a 
British vessel-of-war and carried to New York, when he ac- 
cepted the command of a privateer, and commenced depreda- 
tions on the property of his former political friends. In 1780 
his vessel was taken by John Walker, and arrived safely in 
Baltimore. When examined, he confessed the facts here stat- 
ed, and said his course was justifiable. Proceedings against 
him for treason ; surrendered himself, and was discharged. 

Shoemaker, Samuel. Of Philadelphia. An Alderman 
of the city. Distinguished for his zeal on the side of the 
Crown. Attainted of treason and estate confiscated. Em- 
barked at Philadelphia, June, 1778. In 1783 Ezekiel Robins, 
at New York, wrote the President of Pennsylvania that Mr. 
Shoemaker had exerted himself for the relief of Whig prison- 
ers ; and that, by his intercessions with the Admiral, numbers 
had been liberated and sent home. When about to sail for 
England, (August, 1783,) his son informed William Moore, 
Vice-President of the Council of Pennsylvania, that the papers 
in his possession which related to the city would be cheerfully 
surrendered to any person authorized to receive them. While 
in London he was much consulted by the Commissioners ap- 
pointed to pass upon the claims of Loyalists for losses, and was 
admitted to a private interview with the King. The British 
Government made him a liberal compensation for his losses. 

VOL. II. 26 


He ventured to return to Philadelphia in 1789, and " was 
thought to be in much danger " ; but was treated with civility, 
even by the most violent. 

Shoemaker, Rudolph. A magistrate, of Tryon, (now 
Montgomery,) County, New York. In 1775 he signed a Dec- 
laration of devotion to the Crown, and expressed his abhor- 
rence of Whig measures. It was at his house, I suppose, that 
Walter N. Butler and his party were captured in 1777, by a 
detachment of Whigs sent out by Colonel Weston. 

Shottowe, Thomas. Of South Carolina. Was a mem- 
ber of the Council, and Secretary of the Colony. 

Silcox, . Ensign in the Florida Rangers. Killed 

in 1780, in the attack on Augusta, Georgia. 

Silsby, Daniel. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutchin- 
son in 1774. In 1776 he was in England. In 1778 he was 
proscribed and banished. He died in Flanders in 1791. 

Silvester, Richard. Of Massachusetts. The last Royal 
officer of the Customs at Cape Ann, or Gloucester. Arrested, 
and held as a prisoner at large, without any allowance ; and, 
destitute of employment and of money, he applied to the Coun- 
cil for leave to depart the State. His request was granted in 
October, 1776. 

Simmonds, William. In 1776 he embarked at Boston 
with the British Army, for Halifax. He may have settled 
in New Brunswick. The son of a Loyalist of Massachusetts 
remembers that a fellow-exile of his father's, of this name, 
died on the river St. John about the year 1790. 

Simmons, Morris. Of Duchess County, New York. 
Refugee in Suffolk County, and lived alone. Occupied the 
house of one Strong, "a Rebel." Had notice to quit. As- 
sailed, wounded in the knee, stabbed in several places, and 
brains beaten out, in 1779. 

Simpson, James. Last Royal Attorney-General of South 
Carolina. Went to England. At the peace he was appointed 
by the Loyalists of South Carolina who had suffered losses, 
agent to prosecute their claims to compensation. He died in 
Chancery Lane, London, in 1815, aged seventy-seven. 


Simpson, Jonathan and John. Of Boston. Jonathan 
graduated at Harvard University in 1772 ; was an Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774; was proscribed and banished in 1778 ; 
and was a Commissary of Provisions in the British Army. 
He returned to Boston, and died there, in 1834, aged eighty- 

Of John, four incidents are to be recorded. He was at 
Providence, Rhode Island, on business, just before the con- 
troversy came to blows ; and finding one morning that his 
doors and window-shutters had been tarred and feathered, he 
hastened back to Boston. In 1776 he embarked with the 
British Army for Halifax, accompanied by his family. Later 
in the war, I suppose, he was in South Carolina, since it is 
certain that John Gray, of Boston, purchased a plantation 
there of which he was half-owner. The fourth item, as will 
be seen, relates to Jonathan as well as to him : — 

" Resolve, granting $3000 to Joseph Barrell, June 21, 1797. 
Whereas Samuel Henshaw and Samuel Barrett, Esq'rs, did, 
in June, 1782, on behalf of said Commonwealth, and as their 
agents for the sale of absentees' estates, convey, by deed, to 
Joseph Barrell, two thirds of a certain store, and the land un- 
der and adjoining the same, as the estate of John and Jona- 
than Simpson, late of Boston, and absentees ; and whereas 
the said Barrell has been ejected from part of the same by a 
judgment of the Supreme Judicial Court, as set forth in said 
Barrell's petition ; therefore, 

"Resolved, That there be allowed and paid out of the 
Treasury of the said Commonwealth, three thousand dollars 
to the said Joseph Barrell, in full for the damages he has sus- 
tained by reason of his having been ejected from a part there- 
of, as aforesaid. Which sum, when paid, shall be in full of 
all claims and demands of said Barrell on the Commonwealth 
relating to the premises." 

Simpson, John. Of Sabine Fields, Georgia. Member of 
House of Assembly, in 1766, and Speaker the following year. 
Attainted of treason, and estates in Georgia and in South 
Carolina confiscated. 


Simpson, William B. Of Rhode Island. Went to En£- 
land, and subsisted on a small pittance from the Government. 
Originally an actor ; studied law, and practised in Rhode 
Island. He died in banishment. 

Simpson, James. Of South Carolina. After the fall of 
Charleston appointed Intendent of the Board of Police. He 
framed a table, in which the depreciation of the paper cur- 
rency, at different periods, was ascertained, and by which the 
Loyalists, who had sustained losses by payments in that cur- 
rency, were induced to hope for compensation. The plan 
seemed to promise well ; but when tried, caused much mis- 
chief ; many suits were commenced, and several persons were 
utterly ruined. In 1781 he and the commandant of the gar- 
rison assured the ill-fated Hayne, when he subscribed the oath 
of allegiance, that he would not be required to bear arms in 
support of the Royal Government. 

Simpson, . A Captain in the Georgia Loyalists. 

Killed at the siege of Savannah, 1779. 

Simpson, William. Of Cumberland County, Pennsyl- 
vania. Attainted, and estate confiscated. William. Of 
Boston. A merchant, proscribed and banished. A person 
named William Simpson, who served under Lord Corn wal lis 
as an officer of Artillery, went to England, was a paper man- 
ufacturer, and died in Wales, in 1807. 

Simson, William B. Of Rhode Island. Went to Eng- 
land. In 1779 he was in London, 

Singleton, . A Lieutenant in the " Royal Greens," 

was wounded in 1777, during the investment of Fort Stanwix. 

Skene, Philip. Of New York. At the beginning of the 
struggle he held the posts of Lieutenant-Governor of Crown 
Point and Ticonderoga, and of Surveyor of his Majesty's 
woods bordering on Lake Champlain ; and had command of 
a corps of militia. Previously he had seen much military ser- 
vice, having been at Carthagena, Porto Bello, and Flanders, 
and with Amherst in Canada, and at the conquest of Mar- 
tinique and Havana. He had been often wounded. His 
residence was at the southern extremity of Lake Champlain, 


where he owned lands. In 1775 he was empowered to raise 
a regiment. In June of that year, while at Philadelphia, he 
was arrested, and his papers were examined by order of Con- 
gress. Mr. James Lovell, a distinguished Whig of Massa- 
chusetts, having fallen into the enemy's hands at Boston, an 
exchange was proposed early in 1776. Some delay occurred 
in completing the arrangement, but in October, Colonel Skene, 
who was then a prisoner at Hartford, was conveyed to a 
British ship-of-war in the Hudson, though it was oiot known 
that Mr. Lovell had arrived from Halifax, or was at liberty. 
Colonel Skene was attainted, and his estate was confiscated. 
He died in England in 1810. 

Skene, Andrew Philip. Of New York. Son of Philip 
Skene. His property was confiscated by an Act of that State. 
Early in the contest he was taken prisoner on Lake Cham- 
plain, and sent to Connecticut, where he was confined. He 
went to England, and died there, in 1826, aged seventy- 

Skinner, Cortlandt. Of New Jersey. Last Royal 
Attorney-General. In 1772 he addressed a memorial to the 
Ministry, praying for a salary adequate to his services, and to 
the importance of his official station. In the performance of 
his duties he evinced both integrity and ability. May, 1775, 
as Speaker of the Assembly, he was directed to deliver to 
Governor Franklin an Address of that body, " which," he 
said to his Excellency, " being different from my sentiments, I 
think it necessary thus publicly to declare it ; a step I should 
not have taken had I been permitted to enter my dissent on 
the Minutes of the House." In September of the same year, 
he addressed a memorial to the New York Committee, for 
leave to land some trunks and^ bedding, the property of Miss 
Johnson, Miss Kemble, and Mrs. Lee ; the request was 
granted, but a sub-committee was appointed to examine the 
goods. March, 1776, Isaac Decker sent him on board an 
armed ship, [see Daniel Horsemanden,~\ and Governor Frank- 
lin wrote to Lord George Germain that he had left a wife 
and thirteen children depending on him for support ; and 



asked that the hardship of his case be considered by the 
King. A few months later his furniture was removed from 
Amboy to New York. 

He accepted service under the Crown, and was authorized 
to raise a corps of Loyalists, to consist of two thousand five 
hundred men. He was allowed to nominate his own officers. 
Three battalions were organized and officered, and called the 
New Jersey Volunteers. But the enlistments of common sol- 
diers were slow. After several months of active exertions, 
the whole number of men who had rallied under his standard 
was but one thousand one hundred and one. Skinner con- 
tinued in command of the corps, with the rank of Brigadier- 
General. His lady and family embarked for England in the 
summer of 1783, in the Le Solitaire, and were forced into 
Halifax by stress of weather. He himself followed after the 
evacuation of New York. His claim to compensation for his 
losses as a Loyalist was difficult to adjust, and caused the 
Commissioners much labor ; but an allowance was finally 
made ; and he also received the half-pay of a Brigadier-Gen- 
eral during his life. He died at Bristol, England, in 1799, 
aged seventv-one. 

His mother and the mother of the senior Oliver De Lan- 
cey were sisters, and the daughters of Stephen Van Cort- 
landt. General Skinner's widow died at Belvoir Park, near 
Belfast, Ireland, in 1810. Notice of three sons follow. Of 
three daughters, I glean that Catharine was married to Sir 
William Henry Robinson ; Gertrude, to Captain Meredith, 
of the Seventieth Regiment ; Maria, the seventh daughter, 
to General Sir George Nugent, Bart. The latter died at 
Westhorpe-House, Bucks, England, in 1834, leaving three 
children ; a daughter married Sir T. F. Freemantle, Bart. 

Skinner, Cortlandt, Jr. Of New Jersey. Son of 
Cortlandt Skinner. In 1782 he held a commission in the 
British Army, as distinguished from the Provincial or Loyal- 
ist corps. 

Skinner, Philip Kearney. Of Amboy, New Jersey. 
Lieutenant-General in the British Army. Son of Cortlandt 


Skinner, Senior. He entered the service of the Crown as an 
Ensign in the First Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. In 
1782 he was transferred to the Twenty-Third Regiment of 
Foot, as a Second Lieutenant. He was a Captain in 1793, 
a Major in 1795, and a Lieutenant-Colonel in 1799. In the 
expedition to Ostend he was taken prisoner. He served in 
Ireland, the East and West Indies, in Spain, and elsewhere. 
While a Major- General, and about the year 1819, he came to 
the United States to seek his relatives and old friends. He 
found but one, — Dr. John Lawrence, — at whose house he 
remained a week. The meeting is described as deeply inter- 
esting. In 1825 our Loyalist attained the rank of Lieutenant- 
General. He died in Regent Street, London, April 9, 1826. 

Skinner, John. Of New Jersey. Brother of Cortlandt 
Skinner, Jr. During the Revolution he was a Midshipman in 
the British Navy, and in an affair with some Whig batteries on 
the Hudson River lost an arm. In the latter part of his life he 
was a retired Lieutenant in the Royal Navy, and commanded 
a steam-packet between Holyhead and Dublin. Consenting, 
while engaged in this service, to put to sea in a violent gale, 
to gratify others, and much against his own judgment, per- 
ished October 31, 1832. His mate was drowned in the effort 
to save him. He had been in service fifty-seven years. 

Skinner, Stephen. Brother of Cortlandt, Senior. Treas- 
urer of Eastern New Jersey, and a member of the Council. 
Appointed to the first office in 1762, and to the other, seven 
years afterwards. In 1768 he reported that the iron chest, in 
which he kept the public money, had been robbed of £6000. 
All attempts to discover the robbers were in vain. The sub- 
ject engaged the attention of the Legislature, and was warmly 
discussed at several sessions, without arriving at any conclu- 
sion as to the guilty parties. At length a resolution was passed 
by the Assembly, declaring that the robbery happened through 
the negligence of the Treasurer. Nor was this the end. A 
committee subsequently reported that Skinner himself was the 
robber, in which the House concurred ; " and a long and an- 
gry correspondence ensued between Governor Franklin and 


the Assembly, as to the proper course to be pursued to bring 
the Treasurer to trial." The end of the dispute was that 
Skinner resigned ; and " his successor authorized to bring a 
suit to recover the lost money." The Governor, however, 
sustained Skinner to the last, against the opinion of a large 
majority of the people, and appointed him a member of his 

The case was never decided. In 1775 (February 8) he 
sent the following letter to the House of Assembly : " Mr. 
Speaker : The message of the House, ordering the late 
Treasurer to attend this day at ten o'clock, to inquire of him 
the deficiency of the Treasury, I have received ; but as I 
have the honor to be one of his Majesty's Council, I can't 
possibly attend till such time as I have laid the order before 
the Council, which I shall immediately do upon their meet- 
ing. As the order is to inquire concerning the deficiency of 
the Treasury, I can assure the House, had I been apprised of 
their wanting the public money, I should have taken care that 
the whole should have been in the Treasury for their inspec- 
tion ; but as I have amply secured the Treasurer, I shall take 
care that he shall have the whole amount of the bond I have 
given him within the time appointed for cancelling the public 

In July, 1776, Mr. Skinner was apprehended by order of 
Washington, and was directed by the Provincial Congress to 
remain at Trenton on parole. Leave was granted, subse- 
quently, to remove to Morristown. In 1783 he went to Nova 
Scotia, and remained there the rest of his life. Gertrude, his 
daughter, died at Shelburne, in that Province, in 1796. 

Skinner, William. Of New Jersey. Lieutenant-Colonel 
in the British Army. Brother of Cortlandt, Senior. Married 
Susanna, daughter of Admiral Sir Peter Warren. 

Skinner, Elisha. Brother of the senior Cortlandt. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel in the New Jersey Volunteers. 

Skinner, John. Of New Jersey. Lieutenant-General 
in the British Army. He entered the service as an Ensign 
in the Sixteenth Regiment of Foot. In the campaigns of 


1779, 1780, and 1781, he was in the action of Beaufort, Stone 
Ferry ; in the sieges of Savannah and Charleston ; and com- 
manded a troop in Tarleton's Legion in the battles of Black 
Stocks, Cowpens, and Guilford. In 1795, in reducing the 
revolting Maroons to submission, he saved Jamaica from the 
fate of St. Domino-o. In 1804 he commanded the Sixteenth 
Regiment in the expedition against Surinam ; and afterwards, 
while Major-General, acted as Governor, in succession, of St. 
Martin's, Santa Cruz, and Guadaloupe. He died in England, 
October 10, 1827. 

Three of his sons spent their lives in the military service : 
namely, Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Skinner, C.B., who died 
in 1843 ; Ensign John Skinner, who fell a victim to the yel- 
low fever, in Jamaica, in 1821 ; and Captain James Skinner, 
of the Sixty-First Bengal Native Infantry, who was mortally 
wounded in India, in 1842, by the hand of an assassin. Two 
other children survived in 1845 : namely, a daughter, who 
married Captain Sir Henry Vere Huntley, R. N., Lieutenant- 
Governor of Prince Edward's Island ; and Allan Strachan 
Skinner, Barrister-at-law, of the Oxford Circuit. At the same 
date, his widow was in possession of apartments assigned to 
her in Hampton Court Palace. 

Skinner, B. G. In 1781 Colonel of the First Battalion of 
New Jersey Volunteers. 

Skipworth, Sir Peyton, Baronet. Of Virginia. His 
family, formerly of Prestwould, England, settled in that 
Colony soon after the death of Charles the First, " to avoid 
the usurper, Cromwell." He died at his seat, Prestwould, 
Virginia, in 1805. 

Slayter, John. He settled in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and 
was an officer of the Customs there quite fifty years. He died 
there in 1824, aged seventy-seven. 

Slingsby, . Of North Carolina. Colonel of a 

Loyalist corps. At the head of three hundred men, in 1781, 
he took post at Elizabeth town, North Carolina, and was at- 
tacked in the darkness of night by a party of Whigs. The 
Loyalist officer was a gallant man, and made a desperate 

310 SLIP. — SMITH. 

effort to produce order, to form his lines, and maintain his 
position. But he was mortally wounded, and his force was 
totally routed. He was a man of fine talents, and left an 
amiable and helpless family. Even foes lamented his fall. 

Slip, John. Settled in New Brunswick, in 1783, and died 
on Long Island, Queen's County, in that Province, in 1836, 
leaving numerous descendants. 

Sloat, Abraham. Went to New Brunswick in 1783. 
Died in that Province in 1852, leaving a widow, seventeen 
children, one hundred and seven grandchildren, and twenty- 
seven great-grandchildren. 

Smart, John and Thomas. Of New York. Went, each 
with a family, to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, in 1783, and re- 
ceived grants of land. Thomas was with General Wolfe at 
Quebec ; at Shelburne he was a merchant. 

Smiler, Samuel. A member of the Loyal Artillery. 
Died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 1820. 

Smith, Henry. Of Boston. Merchant. Son of Wil- 
liam Henry and Margaret Lloyd Smith, and born in 1735. 
Connected in business with his uncle, Henry Lloyd, and with 
the contractors for supplying the Royal Army in Boston, he 
went to Halifax with his family, at the evacuation in 1776, 
where he lived unemployed for nine years. He returned in 
1785, and was " gladly received by the Governor and other 
authorities." He died in Boston, in 1801, in his sixty-sixth 
year. His wife was a widow, of the name of Elizabeth Draver, 
who deceased in 1797. His son, Henry Lloyd, died in 1802 
four days after his marriage to Mary Susannah Morris. His 
daughter Catherina was the wife of Joseph Whitney, of Bos- 
ton, and died in 1809 ; and Rebecca, another daughter, mar- 
ried Nathaniel McCarty, son of a minister of Worcester. His 
other children were Anna, who married Rev. Charles Wel- 
lington, D. D., of Templeton, Massachusetts ; two Elizabeths, 
two Margarets, and William. Three of the nine were born 
in Halifax. Not one is now living. The second Elizabeth, 
who survived all the others, died unmarried, in Boston, in 
1855, aged eighty-two. His brother Oliver, an apothecary 

SMITH. 311 

and druggist, who removed to Boston, at the instance of his 
uncle, Dr. James Lloyd, and who died in that city, in 1797, 
deserves mention here, for his exertions (in connection with 
the Rev. Dr. Still man) to found a Medical Dispensary, and 
for his services in planting trees on the Common. 

Smith, Isaac. Graduated at Harvard University in 1767, 
and was subsequently connected with that institution as a tutor. 
He went to England. Early in 1776 he was a member of 
the Loyalist Club, London, for a dinner weekly, sometimes 
called the " Brompton-Row Tory Club." He seems to have 
gone first to Exeter, but before August of the year just men- 
tioned, was in charge of a congregation at Sidmouth, a famous 
watering-place of the time. In 1778 he communicated to some 
fellow-Loyalists the provisions of the Massachusetts Exclusion 
Bill, " whereby all who left New England after April 19, 
1775, are forever banished, and their estates forfeited " ; and 
June 24th of that year he was ordained at Sidmouth. He 
held that every man has an absolute right to unlimited tolera- 
tion, be his principles what they may. In 1780 we find him 
at Bath and Bristol ; and in 1784, engaged to pass an evening 
with the " Dr. Franklin Club," at London Tavern. He re- 
turned to Massachusetts, and in 1787 the Legislature admitted 
him to citizenship. At a later time he was Preceptor of Dum- 
mer Academy, at Byfield. He died in 1829. 

Smith, Titus. A native of Hadley, Massachusetts. He 
embraced the views of Robert Sandeman, and became an Elder 
in the Sandemanian Church. He went to Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, and died there in 1807. Lydia, his widow, died at the 
same place in 1818. 

Smith, Rev. Jedediah. Of Granville, Massachusetts. 
Congregational Minister. He graduated at Yale College in 
1750, and was ordained at Granville in 1756. Opposed to 
the Revolution, and entertaining some religious views which 
excited opposition, " he had a stormy time for years, but was 
not dismissed until April 16, 1776." With " his numerous 
family, one son excepted," he embarked for Louisiana. " In 
going up the Mississippi, he was attacked with a fever, and in a 

312 SMITH. 

delirium leaped overboard. He was rescued, but died in Sep- 
tember, 1776, aged fifty years ; and " was buried on the bank 
of the river, at a point which was subsequently swept away." 

Smith, Capt. . Of Plymouth, Massachusetts. 

Pilot of the armed ship North. Perished, with one hundred 
and sixty-four others, near Halifax, Nova Scotia, December, 
1779. Five persons only were saved. Smith's wife and 
eight children were at Plymouth. 

Smith, Bowen. Of Massachusetts. Son of Hon. Josiah 
Smith, of Pembroke. Died at Shediac, Nova Scotia, in 1836. 

Smith, William. Of New York. He was Chief Justice, 
and a member of the Council of the Colony, and considered 
to be in office in 1782. His father, the Hon. William Smith, 
an eminent lawyer, and Judge of the Supreme Court, died in 
1769. William Smith, the subject of this notice, graduated 
at Yale College in 1745. It appears that he was at a loss as 
to the side which he should espouse in the controversy which 
preceded the Revolution, and that he made no choice until 
late in the war. Governor Tryon wrote Lord George Ger- 
main, September 24, 1776, that Smith had withdrawn to his 
plantation up the North River, and had not been heard of 
these five months. It seems, also, that a number of other 
gentlemen of wealth and influence, who had wavered, like him- 
self, joined the Royal cause about the same time, in 1778. It 
is believed that, at first, he opposed the claims of the Ministry. 
However this may be, his final decision excited the remark of 
both the Whigs and the Loyalists; the former indulging their 
wit in verse, and calling him the " weathercock," that " could 
hardly tell which way to turn ; " and the latter noticing his 
adhesion in their correspondence. He settled in Canada, after 
the war, and was Chief Justice of that Colony. He pub- 
lished a history of New York, which was continued by his son 
William. The celebrated Dr. Mitchell, of New York, is said 
to have related the following anecdote : — 

" This eloquent man," alluding to Judge Smith, " having 
been an adherent to the Royal cause during the Revolution, 
left the city of New York in 1783, with the British troops, 

SMITH. 313 

and was afterwards rewarded by his Sovereign with a high 
judiciary office at Quebec. Judge Smith, although thus re- 
moved from the place of his origin, always contemplated the 
politics of his native country with peculiar solicitude. One 
evening, in the year 1789, when Dr. Mitchell was in Quebec, 
and passing the evening at the Chief Justice's house, the 
leading subject of conversation was the new Federal Consti- 
tution, then under the consideration of the States, on the rec- 
ommendation of the Convention which sat at Philadelphia, 
in 1787. Mr. Smith, who had been somewhat indisposed for 
several days, retired to his chamber with Mr. Grant, one of 
the members of the Legislative Council, at an early hour. In 
a short time, Mr. Grant came forth, and invited Dr. Mitchell, 
in Mr. Smith's name, to walk from the parlor into Mr. Smith's 
study, and sit with them. Mr. Mitchell was conducted to a 
sofa, and seated beside the Chief Justice, before whom stood 
a table, supporting a large bundle of papers. Mr. Smith re- 
sumed the subject of American politics, and untied his papers. 
After searching among them awhile, he unfolded a certain 
one, which he said was written about the time the Colonial 
commotions grew violent, in 1775, and contained a plan, or 
system of government, sketched out by himself then, and 
which nearly resembled the Constitution afterwards proposed 
by the Federal Convention of the United States. He then 
read the contents. The piece was long and elaborate, and 
written with much beauty and spirit. c This, sir,' added he, 
after finishing it, ' is a copy of a letter which I sent to a 
member of Congress in 1775, who was an intimate friend of 
General Washington. You may trace to this source the 
sentiments in favor of a more energetic government for your 
country, contained in the Commander-in-Chief's circular let- 
ters, and from this, there can be no doubt, that the citizens of 
all the States derived their leading hints for your new form 
of government.' Judge Smith died in 1793. 

Smith, Joshua H. Of New York. In Arnold's treason, 
in 1780, he figured prominently, either as a tool or an accom- 
plice ; and the truth perhaps is, that he was at first the traitor's 

vol. ii. 27 

314 SMITH. 

dupe, and, before the affair was at an end, his willing asso- 
ciate. Smith brought Andre on shore, and he and Arnold 
had their first interview at his house, — the White House, — 
near Stony Point. When the plot was complete, and Andre 
was ready to return, Smith, for some reason never explained, 
refused to carry him on board of the Vulture, but agreed to 
accompany him on the way to New York by land, and he did 
so, to a point of supposed safety. Before they started, Andre 
divested himself of his military coat, and leaving it behind, 
received one of Smith's in exchange. Smith was tried by a 
military court for his connection with this affair, but acquitted. 
He was however taken into custody by the civil authority of 
the State, and committed to jail. After some months' im- 
prisonment, he made his escape, and, sometimes disguised in a 
woman's dress, made his way through the country to New 
York, where he was among friends. At the close of the war 
he went to England. In 1808 he published in London " An 
Authentic Narrative of the Causes which led to the death of 
Major Andre." The book is regarded with no favor by histo- 
rians. It is believed that he was a brother of Chief Justice 
William Smith. He returned to the United States, and died 
in New York in 1818. 

Smith, Claudius. Of New York, probably of Orange 
County. Leader of a band of merciless marauders, and " a 
terror to the country." He was finally made prisoner on 
Long Island, taken to Goshen, chained to the jail floor, and, 
January 2, 1779, hung. His son Richard, in revenge for his 
death, committed several murders ; " and for awhile the Whigs 
suffered more from the desperate 4 Cow-Boys ' than before 
the execution of their great leader." Smith was a man of fine 
personal appearance. 

Smith, Richard. Of New York. Son of Claudius 
Smith. After the execution of his father, and the death of 
his brother, who was shot in an affray, he led a band, who, it 
is averred, committed every possible enormity. On one oc- 
casion, having killed John Clark, the following Warning to 
the Rebels was pinned to Clark's coat : — " You are hereby 

SMITH. 315 

warned, at your peril, to desist from hanging any more friends 
to Government, as you did Claudius Smith. You are warned, 
likewise, to use James Smith, James Fluelling, and William 
Cole, well, and ease them of their irons, for we are determined 
to hang six for one, for the blood of the innocent cries aloud 
for vengeance. Your noted friend, Captain Williams, and his 
crew of robbers and murderers, we have got in our power, 
and the blood of Claudius Smith shall be repaid. There are 
particular companies of us that belong to Colonel Butler's 
army, Indians as well as white men, and particularly numbers 
from New York, that are resolved to be avenged on you for 
your cruelty and murder. We are to remind you that you 
are the beginners and aggressors, for by your cruel oppressions 
and bloody actions you drive us to it. This is the first, and 
we are determined to pursue it on your heads and leaders to 
the last — till the whole of you are murdered." Such are the 
horrors of civil war ! 

Smith, Jacob. Of New York. A captain in De Lancey's 
First Battalion. The Whigs accused him, in 1776, of receiv- 
ing a commission for himself, of enlisting men, of pressing 
teams and drivers for them, and the seizing of fat cattle for 
the Royal Army. He was in garrison at Ninety-Six when 
besieged by General Greene, and was wounded. In 1783, 
when the corps was disbanded, he settled in New Brunswick, 
and received half-pay. He died on the river St. John, in 
1837, aged eighty-eight. His wife, whom he married in 1777, 
was Martha Birdsell. 

Smith, George. A physician. Of Albany, New York. 
In 1781, he was actively engaged in fomenting disaffection 
among the people of Vermont, and was believed to have had 
a special commission for the purpose. I suppose that Chief 
Justice Smith was a brother. There is much mystery hanging 
over the conduct of some Whigs of Vermont at this period ; 
but sufficient appears to have become known to warrant the 
impression that their intentions were hardly to be excused. 

Smith, Rufus. Of New York. Went to New Bruns- 
wick, a year after the first emigration, in 1784. He studied 

316 SMITH. 

medicine, established himself as a physician in the county of 
Westmoreland, and was several times elected a member of the 
House of Assembly. He died in Westmoreland in 1844. 
He was in the practice of physic upwards of fifty years. 

Smith, . The captain of a Tory band. In 1778 

he enlisted a company of Tories in the neighborhood of Cat- 
skill, New York, and while on his way to join Sir John John- 
son, at Niagara, was assailed by a Whig force, who shot him 
dead, and put his men to flight. 

Smith, John. Of Maryland. A physician. Left the 
State in 1775, for political reasons, intending to go to the 
Mississippi ; but finding the journey impracticable, went to 
Norfolk, and was induced, by the promises of Lord Dunmore, 
to accept a place in Connelly's corps ; taken prisoner and put 
in jail. 

Smith, Rev. William, D.D. First Provost of the Col- 
lege in Philadelphia. Born in Scotland. Graduated at the 
University of Aberdeen in 1747, and came to America soon 
after. He was tutor for a time in the family of Mr. Martin, 
on Long Island, New York. In 1753 he went to England 
for ordination in the Episcopal Church, and on his return was 
placed at the head of the infant college above mentioned. 
John Adams was told, in 1774, that Dr. Smith was looking 
for an American episcopate and a pair of lawn sleeves ; and 
records his own opinion thus : " Soft, polite, adulating, sensi- 
ble, learned, industrious, indefatigable, he has had art enough 
and refinement of art, to make impression even upon Mr. 
Dickinson and Mr. Reed." Mr. Adams wrote his wife, 
February 11, 1776 : " To-morrow Dr. Smith is to deliver 
an oration in honor of the brave Montgomery. I will send 
it, as soon as it is out, to you." On the 28th of April, he 
said : " The oration was an insolent performance. A motion 
was made to thank the orator, and ask a copy ; but opposed 
with great spirit and vivacity, .... and at last withdrawn, 
lest it should be rejected, as it certainly would have been, 
with indignation. The orator then printed it himself, leav- 
ing out, or altering, some offensive passages. This is one of 

SMITH. 317 

the many irregular and extravagant characters of the age. I 
never heard one single person speak well of anything about 
him, but his abilities, which are generally allowed to be 
good." A month later Colonel Roger Enos addressed him 
thus : " Now let Dr. Smith, of Philadelphia, display the ma- 
lignity of his heart in another funeral oration, in attempting 
to stab my reputation, and render me infamous in the view 
of the world. However, I will venture to assert that if ill- 
nature, and a fondness to raise his reputation on the ruin of 
his fellow-men, are as discernible in his other political writ- 
ings as in this oration, so far as it respects my character, he is 
one of the most dangerous writers, and, perhaps, the most con- 
summate villain, that walks on the face of God's earth," &c. 

In " The American Book of Common Prayer," proposed, 
but not published, as at first compiled, he prepared a service 
for the Fourth of July ; although Bishop White remarks, "he 
had written and acted against the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, and was unfavorably looked upon by the supporters of 
it during the whole of the Revolutionary War." Dr. Smith 
published several sermons and orations. He died at Philadel- 
phia, in 1803, aged seventy-six. His wife, — an accomplished 
lady, — who died in 1793, was Rebecca, daughter of William 
Moore, of Pennsylvania, and a descendant of Sir John Moore, 
of England. He left five children ; one of whom — Wilhel- 
mina Elizabeth — married Governor' Charles Goldsborough, 
of Maryland, and (1857) is still living. In person, Dr. Smith 
" was tall and dignified, — not fleshy or corpulent, but six feet 
in height, — in youth said to have been of much intellectual 
beauty of countenance, and truly so if his full-length portrait, 
by Benjamin West, yet in possession of the family, be a cor- 
rect likeness. 

Smith, John and Thomas. Of New Hampshire. Pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. John settled in New Bruns- 
wick at the peace ; removed to Upper Canada, and died at 

Smith, Nathan. A physician, of Rhode Island. He en- 
tered the King's service, and was surgeon of one of the Loyal- 

27 * 

318 SMITH. 

ist regiments. In 1783 he settled at St. John, New Bruns- 
wick ; received half-pay. He died in that city, in 1818, aged 
eighty-one. His son, William Howe Smith, who was born 
in Rhode Island, in 1777, died at St. John, in 1822, leaving 
four sons and two daughters, of whom one son (1846) sur- 

Smith, John and Robert. Of Pennsylvania. Brothers. 
Robbed and murdered Mr. Boyd, collector of taxes of Chester 
County. Reward of $20,000, Continental money, offered for 
their apprehension. Arrested in Monmouth County, New 
Jersey, May, 1780, on their way to the Royal Army. Car- 
ried to Pennsylvania, tried, and executed. 

Smith, Thomas. Of Ridgefield, Connecticut. In 1776 
the Committee proclaimed that he was an enemy to his coun- 
try. Subsequently he was an officer of the privateer Adven- 
ture. He was captured, and sent to Simsbury mines, Connec- 
ticut, whence he made his escape, and published an account 
of the treatment which he received from the Whigs while in 
their power. Ebenezer Hathaway, of whom there is a notice 
in these pages, was his companion in prison, and joined in his 
statement. Smith, in an affray, lost a part of his nose. In 
December, 1783, a warrant was issued, on petition of the 
Selectmen of Stamford, Connecticut, ordering him and his 
family to depart that town forthwith, and never return. He 
settled in New Brunswick ; survived Hathaway ; was an at- 
tendant in his last moments, and evinced much feeling in 
parting with his old associate. 

Smith, John. Of the First Connecticut Battalion. Early 
in 1779 he was convicted, by a general court-martial, of de- 
sertion, with the intention to join the Royal Army, and sen- 
tenced to be shot. He was executed February 16th, in pres- 
ence of the troops, after listening to a sermon by one of the 

Smith, Daniel. Of Connecticut. Arrived at St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1783, in the ship Union, and was the 
grantee of a city lot. He died in that Province, in 1834, 
aged seventy. 

SMITH. — SMYTH. 319 

Smith, James. A captain. After the Revolution he set- 
tled on the island of Grand Menan, New Brunswick, where 
he died, July, 1836, aged eighty-seven. 

Smith, Ichabod. Was Captain-Lieutenant of De Lan- 
cey's Second Battalion. He went to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1783, and was a grantee of that city ; subsequently 
he was a captain in the militia, and a magistrate. He died in 
Maugerville, in that Province, in 1823, aged sixty-seven. He 
received half-pay. 

Smith, Charles. Of New York. In 1778 his messen- 
ger was detected with a letter for Brant, when Smith himself 
was pursued by a party of Whigs and slain. His scalp was 
taken and sent to General Stark. 

Smith. Record of deaths in the Province of New Bruns- 
wick. Robert, a magistrate, died at Fredericton, in 1820, 
aged sixty-nine. Robert, a magistrate in Queen's County, 
in 1829, aged seventy-seven ; Elijah, a magistrate in Queen's 
County, in 1833, aged seventy-three ; William, of New York, 
at Fredericton, in 1834, aged eighty-three ; John, in King's 
County, in 1834, aged eighty-four ; and Michael, " a staunch 
Loyalist," at Woodstock, in 1842, aged eighty-five. 

Smyth, Frederick. Last Royal Chief Justice of New 
Jersey. He was appointed in 1764 ; and Governor Franklin 
obtained for him £50 per annum more than the emoluments 
of his predecessors on the Bench. He had a seat in the 
Council ; and was accused of desiring the office of Stamp- 
Master, which he denied on his honor. In 1768 he com- 
plained to the Ministry that his salary was inadequate, and 
asked that the bounty of the Crown might be extended to 
him as some reward for his past services. In 1773 he was 
one of the Commissioners to examine into the burning of the 
King's ship Gaspee, by a party of Rhode Island Whigs, the 
previous year, and, on his return, he wrote the Home Govern- 
ment that he feared those concerned in the affair would escape 
punishment. And so indeed it turned out. In 1774, in 
delivering a charge to the Grand Jury of Essex County, he 
spoke of the troubles of the time, and said that the " imagi- 


nary tyranny, three thousand miles distant," was less to be 
guarded against than the " real tyranny at our own doors." 
The Jury excepted to this course of remark, and made a 
spirited and a Whig reply. The Chief Justice was beset with 
difficulties on every hand, for, in addition to the political 
troubles of the time, " the most serious complaints were made 
against the lawyers of New Jersey, followed, in some in- 
stances, by tumults and riots of a disgraceful character." In 
1776, when the Whigs assumed the direction of the Govern- 
ment, he retired to Philadelphia. In 1779 he was informed, 
by direction of Lord George Germain, that it was impossible 
for the Ministry to compensate Loyalists to the extent of their 
losses, but yet, that an allowance of X400 would be con- 
tinued to him. He died at Philadelphia, in 1815, aged 

Smyth, James. Of South Carolina. Was in commission 
of the Crown after the capitulation of Charleston in 1780. 
Estate confiscated. 

Smyth, John. Of Charleston. An Addresser of Sir 
Henry Clinton in 1780, and a Petitioner to be armed on the 
side of the Crown. He was banished in 1782, and his prop- 
erty confiscated. Early in the controversy he may have been 
a Whig, as in 1774 he was a member of the Committee of 

Smyth, Alexander. Residence unknown. Adjutant of 
the King's Rangers. He was at the Island of St. John, Gulf 
of St. Lawrence, before the close of 1782, where he had 
settled, or thought of settling, and where he invited his 
countrymen and fellow-sufferers to follow him. 

Snelling, Jonathan. Of Boston. Colonel and Com- 
mander of the Governor's Guard. His father, Jonathan 
Snelling, was Captain of the Ccesar of twenty guns, in the first 
(1745) expedition against Louisbourg. The subject of this 
notice was himself a commission-merchant of extensive busi- 
ness, and owned and occupied a warehouse on the corner of 
King (now State) and Exchange Streets, — the present site of 
the Mercantile Marine Insurance Office, — and lived opposite 


Doctor Eliot's (late Doctor Parkman's) Church, Hanover 
Street. In 1774 he was an Addresser of Hutchinson, and, in 
a letter to a commercial correspondent, said : " For my part, I 
never interested myself in political affairs, nor concerned my- 
self in any of our public disputes, but hearing from undoubted 
authority that our late Governor was in great esteem with 
his Majesty and the Court of Great Britain, and would be 
the likeliest man to get our difficulties removed, and seeing 
what distressing times were coming upon us, and so many 
gentlemen whom I esteem worthy judges having signed before 
me, I signed, with the sincere motive of doing good to my 
native country." 

A year later he was an Addresser of Gage. In 1776 he 
went to Halifax, with his family of five persons ; and in 1778 
he was proscribed and banished. He died at Halifax in 1782. 
His widow, and his son Samuel, a youth of seventeen, re- 
turned to Boston, to find the whole of the family property 
confiscated. Jonathan, the eldest son, who married a daugh- 
ter of Judge Foster Hutchinson, (brother of the Governor,) 
and whose son, William H. Snelling, was Deputy Commis- 
sary-General in the British Army, remained at Halifax, and 
died there, in 1809, aged fifty-one. Samuel died in Boston 
in 1836 ; his widow Elizabeth, daughter of Deacon Moses 
Grant, born in Boston, May, 1769, deceased in her native 
city, in 1859. 

Snow, Elisha. A minister, of Thomaston, Maine. He 
was professedly a friend, but really a traitor, to General Peleg 
Wadsworth, (the father of Captain Alexander S. Wadsworth, 
of the United States Navy,) who commanded the eastern dis- 
trict in 1780. When, in that year, another adherent of the 
Crown betrayed the condition of the General to the British 
commander at Castine, the party dispatched from that place 
to make him prisoner were concealed at Snow's house until a 
late hour of the night, and departed thence to complete their 
enterprise, in which they were successful. 

Snow, Benjamin. Educated at Dartmouth College. 
Driven from the country on account of his loyalty, and es- 


caped to Nova Scotia. In 1782 he was a teacher at An- 
napolis, Nova Scotia, with a salary of £10. In 1785 he was 
at St. John, New Brunswick, as was said, " in very narrow 

Snowden, Leonard. Of Philadelphia. Among the let- 
ters which, in 1775, were written to England abusive of the 
Whigs and their cause, and which were concealed in a pocket, 
sewed to the lower part of the inner garment of the woman 
to whom they were entrusted, — there was one from Snowden, 
and he was accordingly arrested and imprisoned. The Com- 
mittee of Safety of Pennsylvania resolved that he was an 
enemy to the liberties of America. 

Snyder, Elias. Of New Jersey. Convicted of treason 
and sentenced to death, in 1777. Pardoned by Governor 
Livingston, on condition that he would enlist in the Conti- 
nental Service, and pay the costs of the prosecution against 
him. As relates to the latter, I have the receipt of the 
Sheriff, dated at Morris County Jail, December 25th of that 
year, for ,£18 3s. lOd. 

Sower, Christopher, Jr. Received a good education, 
and was ordained minister over a society of German Bap- 
tists ; but, having also been taught the art of printing, suc- 
ceeded to his father's business as a printer and bookseller, at 
German town, Pennsylvania, about the year 1744. For a con- 
siderable period his was the most extensive concern for print- 
ing and binding books in America. The Revolution broke up 
his establishment ; and the part he took in it caused the con- 
fiscation of his estate. When the British entered Philadel- 
phia he joined them, and remained in the city while they pos- 
sessed it. Among his property which was forfeited, was a 
part of an edition of the Bible, unbound and in sheets, of which 
some copies were made into cartridges, and thus used for the 
destruction of men's bodies rather than for the salvation of 
their souls. Sower was esteemed a man of integrity and 
merit. His losses, by the battle of Germantown and other- 
wise, were estimated at thirty thousand dollars. He died 
near Philadelphia, quite aged, in August, 1784. 


Sower, Christopher, 3d. Was a printer, of German- 
town, Pennsylvania, and for a short time was connected with 
his father. He sought Royal protection, and retired from the 
United States with the British troops. After the conclusion 
of the war, he settled in New Brunswick, and published the 
" Royal Gazette," at the city of St. John. In 1792 he was 
Deputy Postmaster-General of the Province. His health 
becoming impaired, he left New Brunswick in 1799, and 
died at Baltimore in July of that year. 

Sparhawk, Samuel Hirst. Of Kittery, Maine. He 
graduated at Harvard University in 1771. He was in Bos- 
ton in 1774 and 1775, and was an Addresser of both Hutch- 
inson and Gage. Subsequently he went to England with his 
family, of four persons. In 1780 he attended a ladies' debat- 
ing club, London, and heard the question discussed : " Was 
Adam or Eve most culpable in Paradise ?" He died in 1789. 
The second Sir William Pepperell was his brother. 

Sparhawk, Nathaniel. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1765. He was appointed to 
the Council in 1773, but declined. He died in 1814. 

Speakman, Townsend. Of Philadelphia. In 1776 held 
up to the world as an enemy to his country, by the Commit- 
tee of Inspection and Observation of that city, for refusing to 
receive Continental money. He admitted the offence, and 
plead scruples of conscience, as the bills were emitted for pur- 
poses of war ; he acknowledged, too, that he took the paper 
currency of Pennsylvania, which was issued for objects quite 
as objectionable, in the opinion of the Committee, as the 

Spexce, William. Went to New Brunswick, in 1783, 
in circumstances of great poverty and destitution ; but accu- 
mulated a large estate. He died at Hampton, in that Prov- 
ince, in 1821, at the age of seventy-four. 

Spencer, Zack. Of North Carolina. Caught asleep, 
tried, and condemned to death. Begged for his life, and 
promised to turn Whig. Sworn on an old almanac, for 
want of a Bible, and released. Spencer's Mountain, Gaston 
County, North Carolina, derives its name from Zack. 


Spiers, John. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and was a grantee of that city. He died there in 
1820, aged seventy-three. There was a Loyalist of this name 
in Georgia who was attainted, and whose estate was confis- 

Spink, N. Of Rhode Island. He left the State during 
the war, and joined the enemy ; but returning, was, by Act 
of May, 1783, ordered to quit it. 

Spragg, Thomas. A captain. Went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. He 
died at Springfield, King's County, in 1812, aged eighty-two. 

Spring, Marshall. Of Watertown, Massachusetts. 
Physician. He graduated at Harvard University in 1762. 
A relative bequeathed him a large estate, which he retained 
and increased. At the Revolution he was in full practice, 
and mostly in Whig families. But he expressed his opposi- 
tion to the popular movement without fear or disguise. He 
was often summoned before the " Committee," and always 
obeyed; for, as he said, in irony, "they now stand in the 
place of my King, and it was a fundamental principle that 
the King can do no wrong." Such, indeed, was his notori- 
ous Toryism that he would have been sent out of the country, 
probably, " but for the exigencies of the ladies." In the party 
divisions of a later period, he was a Democrat. Charged with 
his inconsistency, he replied, "that his Majesty reigned by 
the grace of God, and the Whigs had taught him that vox 
populi was vox Dei" He was a great wit, and the wits of 
his time took much pleasure in his society. He was a mem- 
ber of the Convention of Massachusetts which adopted the 
Federal Constitution, and of the Executive Council of the 
State. He died in 1818, aged seventy-five. An only son 
inherited his property, estimated at a quarter of a million of 

Sproat, David. Of Philadelphia. Commissary of Naval 
Prisoners. Previous to the Revolution he was a merchant. 
The mortality of persons under his care, at New York, was 
very great ; but it is impossible to state facts which concern 
him personally with accuracy. He was attainted of treason 


in Pennsylvania, and his estate was forfeited. He died at his 
house, Kirkcudbright, Scotland, in 1799, aged sixty-four. 

Sproule, George. Of Long Island, New York. He 
settled in New Brunswick, and became Surveyor-General of 
that Province, and a member of Council. He died at Fred- 
ericton, in 1817, aged seventy-six. 

Spurgeon, William. Of North Carolina. Major in 
Boyd's corps. Authorized by Governor Martin, January, 
1776, to erect the King's standard, to enlist and array in 
arms the loyal subjects of Rowan County, and " to oppose all 
rebels and traitors." In 1779, in the battle of Kettle Creek, 
when Boyd was mortally wounded, and Moore, the Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, exhibited a want of military skill, Spurgeon 
conducted with spirit, and maintained his ground until over- 
powered. Estate confiscated. 

Stackhouse, Robert. Died at Carleton, New Brunswick, 
in 1831, aged seventy-six. 

Stafford, . Surgeon of the Maryland Loyalists. 

He embarked for Nova Scotia, in 1783, in the transport ship 
Martha, and was wrecked in that Colony oif Tusket River. 
Many perished, but the Doctor was among those who escaped. 
[See James Henley.] 

Stagge, Cornelius. Of New York. He " served three 
years in the Rebel Artillery." He attempted to escape 
shortly after the reduction of Fort Montgomery, but was 
apprehended and brought back. After his discharge he 
joined the Royal side, and gave "intelligence," which is 
dated February 18, 1780. 

Stansbury, Joseph. Of Philadelphia. Born in England. 
Emigrated some years before the Revolution, and settled as a 
merchant. Of literary tastes, of integrity in his dealings, 
and of many private virtues, he was generally respected. In 
1776, it was reported that he " sung God save the King in 
his house, and that a number of persons present bore him. 
chorus : " before the close of that year he was committed to 
prison. In 1777 there was a change in his fortunes, for he 
was appointed by Sir William Howe one of the Commis- 

vol. ii. 28 


sioners for selecting and governing the city watch ; and in 
1778, a manager of that officer's lottery for the relief of the 
poor. In 1780 the Whigs were again in possession of Phila- 
delphia, and he was again in prison ; and the agent of Loy- 
alists' estates was directed by the Council of Pennsylvania to 
make an inventory of his goods and effects. Mr. Stansbury 
petitioned for leave to live within the British lines, but was 
refused as related to New York. His request was, however, 
finally granted without condition as to place, on his promise 
to use his utmost endeavors to procure the release and safe 
return of two prisoners who were then on Long Island ; and 
the further promise, to do nothing injurious to the Whig 
cause. He was liberated, the keys of his property restored, 
and a pass granted to his wife, six children, and servant. He 
went to New York, where he continued during the remainder 
of the war, and constantly wrote on the side of the Crown. 
His " Loyal Verses," edited by Winthrop Sargent, have just 
been published (August, 1860). 

At the peace, Mr. Stansbury removed to Nova Scotia and 
designed to settle there ; but he soon returned to the United 
States. In 1785 he was in Philadelphia, with the design of 
resuming his former business, but warned to quit the city ; 
and, threatened with violence if he remained, he retreated to 
New York, where he was Secretary of an Insurance Com- 
pany, and where he died, in 1809, at the age of fifty-nine. 

Stansbury, Adonijah. Of Delaware. He became a 
settler at Wyoming, where he was soon recognized as a dis- 
guised enemy. In 1777, after the marriage of his daughter to 
a person of opposite political sentiments, who purchased his 
property, he retired from the settlement, and from the storm 
which his course of conduct had created. 

Stanton, Benjamin. Of Rhode Island. Went to St. 
John, New Brunswick, at the peace, and was a grantee of 
that city. He was a member of the Loyal Artillery of St. 
John in 1795. He died 'in 1823, aged sixty-eight. His son 
Benjamin was the first male child of Loyalist parentage born 
in St. John. 


Staria, John. A feigned name, wrote Washington, in 
1780, and sometimes called the " Irish Dutchman," because 
he spoke both languages. He made constant visits between 
New York and Lancaster, Pennsylvania, accompanied by a 
lusty old man named John Smith, who served him as a guide, 
to get recruits for the King's service. 

Stark, William. Of New Hampshire. He was an 
officer in the French war, and saw much service ; having 
been engaged in the capture of Ticonderoga, Crown Point, 
Louisburg, and Quebec. As the war of the Revolution 
opened, he applied for the command of a regiment, but the 
New Hampshire Assembly preferred another officer, and he 
went over to the side of the Crown, and became a Colonel in 
the Royal Army. He endeavored to persuade General John 
Stark, the victor of Bennington, who was his brother, to 
adopt the same course ; but John was not to be moved. 
William Stark is represented as a man of great bravery and 
hardihood, but as wanting in moral firmness. He was killed 
at Long Island, New York, by a fall from his horse. His 
name appears in the Banishment and Proscription Act of 
New Hampshire, his estate was confiscated. He was one of 
the proprietors of Piggivacket, now Fryeburg, Maine, and a 
hill there was named for him. 

Starr, David. Died at Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, in 

Starr, Joseph. Died at Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, in 
1840, aged eighty-four years. 

Stavers, Bartholmew. Of Portsmouth, New Hamp- 
shire. The " first regular stage-driver North of Boston." 
When, in 1763, he put on a four-horse carriage, he advertised 
that he could " be spoke with from Saturday night to Mon- 
day night .... at the sign of the Earl of Halifax." 
A stout Loyalist, and of the opinion that the " Rebels " would 
swing for it. He embarked for England in 1774. Proscribed 
and banished in 1778. 

St. Croix, S. T. de. Of New Rochelle, New York. A 
Captain in a corps of Loyalists. He went to St. John, New 


Brunswick, at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that 
city. He removed to Digby, Nova Scotia. 

Stearns, Jonathan. Of Massachusetts. He graduated 
at Harvard University in 1770. Removing to Nova Scotia 
with the British Army in 1776, he was appointed Solicitor- 
General of that Colony in 1797, but died the following year, 
and was succeeded by James Stewart. His wife was a daugh- 
ter of Thomas Robie, a Loyalist, who is noticed in these 
pages. Before leaving the United States, Mr. Stearns was 
driven from his residence, and was one of the eighteen country 
gentlemen who were Addressers of Gage. 

Steel, Richard. Known also by the name of Williams. 
Tried for his life in New York three times. Imprisoned, he 
broke jail. Sir William Howe gave him a commission. In 
1777, arrested and committed to jail in Boston. 

Steele, Thomas. Of Leicester, Massachusetts. Judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas for the County of Worcester. 
He was the son of Thomas Steele, was born in Boston, and 
graduated at Harvard University in 1730, (in family dignity) 
the fourth of his class. He became a merchant. He served 
his town as Clerk, and as Representative in the General 
Court. In 1756 he was elevated to the Bench, and remained 
until the Revolution. The evidence is, as examined by 
Governor Washburn, (the historian of Leicester,) " that he 
was a man of high respectability of character," and that he 
" possessed the confidence of his fellow-citizens, though differ- 
ing from them in his political sentiments." On the same 
authority, I add that he was probably the only Loyalist in 
that town. Four of Judge Steele's daughters were married : 
one, to the Hon. Joseph Allen ; another, to Doctor John 
Honeywood ; a third, to Doctor Edward Rawson ; the last, 
to a Mr. Hitchcock, of Brookfield ; Mary died single. His 
two sons were Thomas and Samuel. 

Stephens, John. Died in Nova Scotia in 1805. In the 
Revolution he belonged to a corps of Dragoons. 

Stephens, Thomas. Captain in the Pennsylvania Loy- 
alists. Went to Abaco, was a member of the House of As- 
sembly, and died there in 1787. 


Stephens, Solomon. Of New Hampshire. Was pro- 
scribed and banished. He died at Musquash, New Bruns- 
wick, 1819, aged sixty-six. 

Steuart, Charles. Of Virginia. Receiver-General of 
the Customs in British North America. He was born at 
Kirkwall, Orkney, in 1725 : and at the age of twelve was 
sent to the University of Edinburgh, where he studied mathe- 
matics under an eminent disciple of Newton. In 1741 he 
went to Virginia as storekeeper for Robert Boyd, a large 
tobacco-dealer in Glasgow. He soon acquired a thorough 
knowledge of business, established a character for integrity, 
and became the partner of a resident merchant ; but finally 
founded a house of his own at Norfolk. His political pre- 
ferment seems to have been owing to his humane attentions 
to some Spanish officers and a lady, of high rank, who were 
driven into Virginia in distress, while on their passage from 
Havana to Cadiz. The circumstances of their case were such 
as to attract the notice of the British and Spanish govern- 
ments ; and Mr. Steuart, on going to England, was treated 
with marked respect by the ministers of both. Mr. Gren- 
ville, Chancellor of the Exchequer, conferred upon him the 
office of Surveyor-General of the Customs, which he held 
during the Stamp- Act troubles, and until the establishment of 
the Board of Customs at Boston, when he was appointed 
Receiver-General. He returned to England just before the 
appeal to arms ; and, detained by the continually increasing 
asperity of the controversy, never came back to America. 

His name is connected with one of the celebrated cases in 
English jurisprudence. While living in London, his slave 
Somerset became idle by indulgence, and at last deserted his 
service, and insulted his person. In punishment, Mr. Steuart 
put him on board of a ship bound to Jamaica. This is one 
version. Another account is, that the poor negro was turned 
out into the street to die during a fit of sickness ; and that 
when, by the humanity of Granville Sharp and others, he had 
been restored to health, he was claimed by his master as prop- 
erty. Be the truth as it may, it is certain that, at the instance 



of Mr. Sharp, a writ of habeas corpus was obtained, and that 
Lord Mansfield decided not only the freedom of Somerset, 
but that a master could not send his negro servant from Eng- 
land to a Colony or any other country. The result of this trial 
was a movement to abolish the slave-trade; and the union of 
Clarkson and Wilberforce with Sharp to effect that purpose. 

Mr. Steuart was in the possession of an ample fortune, and 
continued to reside in London until 1790, when, settling his 
affairs, he retired to his brother's house, St. Andrew's Square, 
Edinburgh, where he died, November 27, 1797. 

Stevens, Benjamin. Of Kittery, Maine. He graduated 
at Harvard University in 1740, and was ordained a minister 
in 1751. At a subsequent period, he received the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity. On the death of Doctor Holyoke, Presi- 
dent of Harvard University, he was thought of as his succes- 
sor. Hutchinson says that " the corporation, who were to 
elect a " president, " consulted the Boston representatives in 
every step. Two of the corporation [Doctor Winthrop, Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics, and Doctor Cooper, one of the minis- 
ters of Boston], great friends of the popular cause, were suc- 
cessively elected, and declined accepting. The minister of 
Kittery would have had the voice of the people, if his politi- 
cal principles had not been a bar. The want of a concur- 
rence with other necessary qualifications in the same person, 
caused the place to remain vacant longer than usual." 
Doctor Stevens died in 1791, aged seventy. Several of his 
sermons were published. He sustained an excellent charac- 
ter, and was an able man. 

Stevens, John. Of Charlestown, Massachusetts. Grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1766. Arrested by order of 
the Council in 1776. At St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
peace. Died in 1792. 

Stevens, Shubal. Died in King's County, New Bruns- 
wick, 1826, aged seventy-four. 

Steward, Adam. Of Boston. In September, 1777, he 
was seized in that town, fastened to a cart, and carried to Rox- 
bury, where another party conveyed him to Dedham. The 


object was to " cart him " through every town in Massachu- 
setts, and drive him to join the British in Rhode Island. He 
died prior to November, 1778. Sarah, his widow, was ex- 
ecutrix of his will. 

Stewart, Duncan. Last Royal Collector of the Customs, 
New London, Connecticut. 

He was dismissed in 1776, when the Whigs committed the 
affairs of the customs to the Governor ; but remained in town 
without restraint, save that he could not leave without per- 
mission. Leave was granted, it would seem, as often as he 
asked it, on parole. In 1777 he obtained liberty to remove 
with his family and effects. The " populace " were much 
offended because he was treated so liberally, and manifested 
their displeasure by seizing and burning some goods that were 
intended for the use of his family. The leaders of the mob 
were arrested and committed to jail ; but were released and 
remained at large, as the authorities could not command 
a force to recommit them to prison. Yet, he was allowed to 
depart for New York without demonstrations of personal dis- 
respect. He went to England. He was married in Boston, 
January, 1767, to Nancy, youngest daughter of John Erving. 
Three children were born in New London ; one who died in 
infancy, and two sons who accompanied their parents to Eng- 
land. Mr. Stewart was subsequently Collector of the Cus- 
toms at Bermuda. He died in London in 1793. 

Stewart, James. An officer in a corps of Loyalists. 
Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, and was 
one of the grantees of that city. He died at Nashwaak, in 
that Province, in 1837, aged eighty-two, leaving a widow, 
eight children, and forty-two grandchildren. 

Stewart, James. I conclude was a Loyalist. He was 
an early settler of St. John, New Brunswick, and survived 
all the gentlemen who, with him, in 1785, were appointed to 
civil office under the charter of that city. He died at Chelten- 
ham, England, in 1840, aged seventy-nine years. 

Stewart, William. He removed to St. Andrew, New 
Brunswick, on the evacuation of Castine by the Royal troops, 


in 1783, where he continued to reside until his decease. For 
many years he was a pilot of that port. A large family of 
children and grandchildren survived him. His wife died at 
St. Andrew's Island, September, 1843, at the age of eighty- 

Stewart, Allen. Lieutenant in the North Carolina Vol- 
unteers. Went to England. Died in Scotland in 1793. 

Stewart, John. Of New York. Merchant. He was 
born in Ireland, and educated at Dublin University. He 
came to America and established himself at New York. In 
the Revolution he was an officer in the Commissary Depart- 
ment. He went to Digby, Nova Scotia, about the year 1785. 
In 1819 he removed to Upper Canada, and died there two 
or three years afterwards. He left ten children, one of whom, 
James, is (1861) Postmaster of Digby. 

Stewart, Charles. In December, 1778, in a letter dated 
at New York, and addressed to Galloway in England, he said : 
" Great dissensions have arose among the leading people, inso- 
much that General Thompson laid his stick over Chief Justice 
McKean's head, in the Coffee-Room at Philadelphia, calling 
him and many of the Congress rascals, for which he has been 
taken before a Committee of Congress, where he still rests. 
He is supported by Generals Mifflin, St. Clair, and Arnold, 
and many of the citizens. Arnold, it is said, will be dis- 
charged, being generally thought a pert Tory. Certain it is 
that he associates mostly with those people, and is to be mar- 
ried to Miss Shippen, daughter of Edward Shippen, Esq." 
The Rev. Dr. Inglis, in a letter to Galloway the same month, 
relates the quarrel between Thompson and McKean much like 
Stewart ; and adds, " Even Rebels can sometimes tell truth." 

Stewart, Anthony. Of Maryland. He was one of the 
Agents of the Fifty-five Petitioners for land in Nova Scotia. 
[See Abijah Willard.] In a Loyalist tract published in Lon- 
don in 1784, it is said that, at the moment of the trial of Lippin- 
cott [see notice of him], he brought a letter which he requested 
Lippincott to copy and sign, in order to exculpate the Board 
of Refugees, and thus take the blame himself of hanging 


Huddy ; that Lippincott, not suspecting the design, was about 
to comply, when he was arrested ; and that, but for this arrest, 
he would have been without any defence whatever, and of 
consequence, would have been convicted of murder. I find 
Stewart spoken of as guilty of chicanery, and as having had 
" the audacity to insult the Governor of Nova Scotia with im- 
pertinent letters." 

Stickney, Jonathan, Jr. Of Rowley, Massachusetts. 
Sent prisoner to the Council, in 1776, by the Committee of 
that town, with the testimony against him. One witness said 
that Stickney declared he would not fight on either side, but 
if compelled to choose he would fight for the King ; and that 
he thought the General Court the most ignorant body of men 
God ever permitted to transact so important business. A 
second averred that he called the Continental Congress a 
pack of rascally villains. Another, that he declared that 
most of the Colonies had rebelled without any provocation ; 
that he wished the leaders of the rebellion might become turn- 
spits to the nobility of England ; and that those who destroyed 
the tea were damned rascals. A fourth, that he said he 
should be glad to see the blood streaming from the hearts 
of the authors of the difficulties, &c, &c. On the 18th of 
April, Stickney was committed to jail, in Ipswich, on the 
warrant of the Council and House, and forbidden the use of 
pen, ink, and paper, and conversation with any person what- 
soever, unless in hearing of the jailor. The Legislature, on 
his petition, passed a Resolve for his release, on condition that 
he paid the costs of his apprehension and imprisonment, and 
gave a free and full promise to observe, for the future, strict 
decorum in his words and actions, and otherwise demean him- 
self as a good citizen. 

Stilwell, Daniel. An early settler in New Brunswick. 
He died at Grand Lake, Queen's County, in 1842, at the age 
of eighty-six years, having resided in that Province fifty-nine 

Stinson, John, John Jr., and Samuel. Of New Hamp- 
shire. Were proscribed and banished in 1778. John Stin- 


son, a Loyalist, was a grantee of St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1783. ' 

Stinson, . Of or near Woolwich, Maine. Ac- 
cused of loyalty, he armed himself to prevent a Whig officer 
from breaking into his house ; when his wife, terrified at the 
commotion, fell into travail, and almost instantly expired. 

Stirling, . Lieutenant in the Maryland Loyalists. 

In 1783 he embarked in the transport ship Martha, for Nova 
Scotia,- and was wrecked in that Colony, off Tusket River. 
He got upon a piece of the wreck, with two other officers, 
but perished before reaching the shore. [See James Henley .] 

Stirling, Jonathan. Of Maryland. A Captain in the 
Maryland Loyalists. In 1783 one of the survivors of the 
transport ship Martha, wrecked on the passage to Nova Scotia. 
[See James Henley.'] He settled at St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, and was one of the grantees of that city. He received 
half-pay. He died at St. Mary's, York County, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1826, aged seventy-six. Ann, his widow, died at 
the same place, in 1845, at the age of eighty-two. 

St. John, . A physician of this name, and a near 

relative of Hector St. John, died in England, in 1785, aged 
sixty-five. " He lost the whole of his property during the late 
troubles in America." Of this name I find two : Thomas, 
an Ensign in the Royal Garrison Battalion ; and Nehemiah, 
of Connecticut, a member of the Reading Loyalist Associa- 
tion ; possibly the Doctor was one of them. 

Stobo, John. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1799, aged thirty-five. 

Stockbridge, Benjamin. Of Marshfleld, or Scituate, 
Massachusetts. Physician. Fled to Boston in 1775 ; but 
returned home, and placed himself at the mercy of the 
Whigs. Committed to Plymouth Jail ; petitioned the Coun- 
cil to release him. October, 1776, was discharged, on con- 
dition of paying the expenses of his imprisonment, and of 
confining himself to his own estate, except with the leave of 
the Whig Committee, and to attend public worship. 

Stockton, Richard V. Major in the New Jersey Volun- 


teers. Known as " Stockton, the famous land pilot " to the 
King's troops. He was surprised, February 18, 1777, by 
Colonel Neilson, of Brunswick, New Jersey, and, with fifty- 
nine privates, taken prisoner. General Putnam sent him to 
Philadelphia in irons, which Washington disapproved. The 
Major, he said, " has, I believe, been very active and mis- 
chievous ; but we took him in arms, as an officer of the ene- 
my, and by the rules of war we are obliged to treat him as 
such, and not as a felon." Stockton, June 15, 1777, wrote 
General Skinner from the State Prison, Philadelphia, that he 
was about setting out for Yorktown with other prisoners ; 
and that he had been in a poor state of health for a long time, 
but was getting somewhat better. In 1780, on Long Island, 
New York, Derick Amberman, a miller, was murdered by a 
British half-pay officer, and his guest, a Major Stockton, of 
New Jersey. The Briton used the head of a loaded whip, 
the American a sword. The question arose which weapon 
caused the death ; and a surgeon who examined the body was 
of the opinion that, though the forehead was much swollen, 
the mortal wound was made with the sword, which passed 
within an inch of the heart. It is said, further, than an 
Irish officer accused this Major Stockton of the murder, sub- 
sequently, in Nova Scotia, and that a challenge was the result. 
The subject of this notice went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace ; was a grantee of the city, and received half-pay. 
He was a near relative of Richard Stockton, one of the Sign- 
ers of the Declaration of Independence. Major Stockton died 
in New Brunswick. His daughter, Phebe Harriet, died at 
Sussex Vale, in that Province, in 1821, aged sixty. Four 
sons, also, accompanied him into exile ; the last survivor of 
whom, Samuel, died at the Vale, in 1848, at the age of sev- 
enty-four, leaving a wife and seven children. 

Stockton, Andrew. In 1782 he was a Lieutenant in the 
Loyal Foresters. In 1784 he received the grant of a lot in 
the city of St. John, New Brunswick. He died at Sussex 
Vale. ' 

Stoddard, Solomon. Of Northampton, Massachusetts. 


He was born in 1736, and graduated at Yale College in 
1756. He studied law, and settled at Northampton. At 
the beginning of the Revolution he was Sheriff of Hampshire 
County, and was " somewhat obnoxious because of his con- 
scientious adherence to the cause of the Crown." He was 
a man of strict integrity, and of courtly manners. He died 
at Northampton, in 1827, aged ninety-one. The mother of 
Jonathan Edwards was of his lineage. The Rev. David 
Tappan Stoddard, the much-loved missionary to the Nesto- 
rians, who died in 1857, was a grandson. 

Stoddard, Israel. A Major in the Militia of Massachu- 
setts. When, in 1775, Graves and Jones were committed 
to Northampton Jail, and placed in close confinement, on a 
charge of improper communication with Gage, at Boston, a 
hue-and-cry was raised against hirn, and he fled to New York 
for safety. I suppose he belonged to Pittsfield. " Our To- 
ries," says a writer of the time, of that town, " are the worst 
in the Province." 

Stoddard, Samson. Of Chelmsford, Massachusetts. Grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1730. Died in 1777. 

Stokes, Anthony. Of Georgia. Last Royal Chief Jus- 
tice. Subscribed the oath of office in 1768, and as a member 
of the Council in 1772. When he arrived in the Colony 
many of the first settlers were alive, and in conversation with 
them he gleaned many interesting historical facts. In 1778 
his estate was confiscated. He went to Charleston ; and at 
the evacuation of that city, to England. He died at London, 
in 1799, aged sixty-three. Elizabeth, his widow, died at the 
same city, in 1818, aged eighty-four. Judge Stokes was re- 
spected, even by the Whigs. 

Stone, Ebenezer. Died in Queen's County, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1836, aged eighty-nine. 

Stopton, John. He was banished, and his estate was con- 
fiscated. In 1791, he represented to the British Government, 
in a memorial dated at London, that, at the time of his banish- 
ment, several large debts were due to him in America, which 
he had been unable to recover, and he desired relief. Though 


sums of money due to proscribed Loyalists were not included 
(as it was generally admitted) in the Confiscation Acts, the 
Courts of some of the States were slow to coerce debtors. 

Story, Enoch. Of Pennsylvania. In 1775, when he 
attempted to establish a newspaper at Philadelphia, a distin- 
guished Whig said that he knew no more about printing and 
composition than an old horse. When Sir William Howe 
occupied that city, Story Avas Inspector of Prohibited Goods. 
In 1778 he was attainted of treason by the Government of 
Pennsylvania, and went to England. In 1779, when inquiry 
into the management of the war was proposed in the House 
of Commons, he was ordered to attend as a witness. " Per- 
haps," it was pertinently said by the friends of Sir William 
Howe and of General Buro-ovne, " there was a design to 
bring up American refugees, pensioners, and Custom-house 
officers, to impeach and set aside the evidence of military men 
of high rank, and of great professional knowledge." He was 
at Tower Hill, London, February, 1787. 

Story, William. Of Boston. Register of the Court of 
Vice-Admiralty. In 1765 a mob assaulted his house, broke 
open his office, burned his official books and papers, and de- 
stroyed his furniture. 

Story, . Of Duchess County, New York. Fled 

to Queen's County. Owned and commanded an oyster ves- 
sel. Captured, and got a " ransom bill for twenty-five days," 
on payment of twenty half-joes and nine guineas. Captured 
again, by the same person, and paid twenty-five dollars, and 
five gallons of rum, and was heartily cheered for his liberality. 
Captured yet again, by a whale-boat, and ransomed for <£63. 
Story was alive in 1846, aged eighty-seven. 

Stowell, Cornelius. Lieutenant of Militia, of Worces- 
ter, Massachusetts. Returning at night, early in 1775, from 
a visit to a neighbor, who was suspected of desertion from the 
popular cause, he was knocked down, and badly bruised and 
wounded, because he was known as a true friend to Govern- 
ment, and was supposed to exercise an influence upon the 
vol. ii. 29 


political course of a neighbor, at whose house he had passed 
the evening. 

Strang, Gabriel. Was an officer in a corps of Loyalists. 
He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, and was 
one of the grantees of that city. He settled there, and re- 
ceived half-pay. He died at St. John, in 1826, aged seventy- 

Strang, Daniel. In 1777 he was taken with a paper in 
his possession written by Colonel Robert Rogers, who then 
commanded the Queen's Rangers, dated at Valentine's Hill, 
30th December, 1776, which authorized him, or any other 
gentleman, to bring in recruits for his Majesty's service, and 
which pointed out the terms and rewards that were to be of- 
fered to persons who enlisted. When captured, Strang was 
near the Whig camp at Peekskill. He was tried by a court- 
martial, and, making no defence, was condemned to suffer 
death, on the charge of holding correspondence with the 
enemy, and lurking around the camp as a spy. Washington 
approved the sentence. 

Strange, Lot, the 3d. Of Freetown, Massachusetts. 
Was proscribed and banished in 1778. He died at or near 
St. John, New Brunswick, about the year 1819. 

Strong, Selah. Of Brookhaven, New York. Manager 
of a lottery, in 1783, by permission of Governor Robertson, 
for the benefit of Caroline Church, in that town. 

Strudwicke, Samuel. The Secretary, and a member of 
the Council, of North Carolina. In the war against the Reg- 
ulators, he is called Lieutenant-General. He was present 
with Hasell, Rutherford, Howard, and Cornell, in Council, 
March 1, 1775, and, conceiving the highest detestation of il- 
legal meetings, advised Governor Martin to issue a Proclama- 
tion to inhibit and forbid the meeting of the Whig Conven- 
tion called at Newbern on the 3d of April following. 

Stuart, Rev. John, D. D., the last Episcopal missionary 
to the Mohawks, of the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts. He was born at Harrisburg, Penn- 
sylvania, in 1740, in a house which was standing in 1836. 

STUART. 339 

His father, Andrew Stuart, came to America from Ire- 

The future missionary, when he graduated at the College 
of Philadelphia, " made up his mind to join the communion 
of the Church of England." His father, a rigid Presbyte- 
rian, opposed his determination, but at last consented. The 
Episcopal clergy of his native Colony recommended him for 
ordination ; and, on being admitted to orders, in 1770, he was 
appointed to the mission at Fort Hunter. He soon prepared 
a Mohawk translation of the Gospel by Mark, an exposition 
of the Church Catechism, and a compendious History of the 
Bible. He was undisturbed until after the Declaration of In- 
dependence, though " he constantly performed divine service 
without omitting prayers for the King." His relations, how- 
ever, with the Johnsons and with the Indians rendered him an 
object of suspicion, and, finally, of ill-treatment. " His house 
was attacked, his property plundered, and every indignity 
offered his person. His church was also plundered, then 
turned into a tavern, and, in ridicule and contempt, a barrel of 
rum was placed on the reading-desk." So, too, his church 
" was afterwards used as a stable, and at last served as a fort." 
He passed the winter of 1778 at Schenectady ; and ventured 
to remove to Albany early in the summer of the following 
year. But as he had submitted to a " Parole " of the Whigs, 
he was forced to go back to Schenectady. Permitted, in the 
end, to depart to Canada, on giving security to effect the liber- 
ation of a prisoner held by the British in exchange for him- 
self, he took leave of his native land. 

A few years after the peace he visited Pennsylvania, and 
was invited by Bishop Griffith to settle in the Diocese of Vir- 
ginia. Writing in 1785, he said, " At my time of life, and 
with such riveted prejudices in favor of a government totally 
different from that of the United States, I am resolved not to 
look back, having once put my hand to the plow." In 1786 
he opened an academy at Kingston, and two years later he 
went round his "parish" which was then above two hundred 
miles long. In 1799 the degree of D. D. was conferred by 

340 STUART. 

his Alma Mater, the University of Pennsylvania, an honor 
which he appreciated. About the same time he was appointed 
Chaplain to the garrison, and, as he was the owner of nearly 
four thousand acres of valuable land, his circumstances were 

He died at Kingston, Canada, August, 1811, in his seventy- 
first vear. " He was about six feet four inches in height," 
and was thus known among his New York friends as " the 
little gentleman." The appellation of the " Father of the 
Upper Canada Church " has been given, and fitly. His sons 
all achieved position. George Okill, graduated at Harvard 
University in 1801, and died at Kingston, Canada West, in 
1862, one of the officiating clergymen in the Cathedral of the 
Diocese of Ontario, at the age of eighty-six. John, another 
son, was Sheriff of Johnstown District, Upper Canada. James 
read law with Jonathan Sewall, was Chief Justice of Lower 
Canada, was created a Baronet, and died in 1853 ; Charles 
was Sheriff of Midland District ; and Andrew, the youngest, 
was an eminent lawyer of Quebec, for many years member 
of the Provincial Parliament, and, at his decease, Solicitor- 
General of Lower Canada 

Stuart, Ferdinand Smyth. Of Maryland. The ac- 
count is that he was a descendant of the Duke of Monmouth, 
natural son of Charles the Second. He studied medicine at 
the University of Edinburgh ; emigrated to Maryland, where 
he was a physician and a planter. At the beginning of the 
Revolution he was commissioned a Captain in a Virginia 
corps of Loyalists, but was transferred to the Loyal American 
Regiment, and thence " to what is now the Forty-Second 
Highlanders." Some time in the war he was taken prisoner, 
and kept in irons for eighteen months in Philadelphia. His 
estate of sixty-five thousand acres, which he estimated to be 
worth <£ 244,000, was confiscated. For awhile the British 
Government gave him an annual pension of X300. After this 
compensation for his losses was withdrawn, he became very 
poor. He finally returned to England and settled in London. 
In December, 1814, he was run over by a carriage and killed. 
He left a widow in poverty, two sons, and a daughter. 

STUART. 341 

Stuart, John. Of South Carolina. He came to America 
with General Oglethorpe, at the settlement of Georgia. In 
1763 he was appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs for 
the Southern Department. Friends in South Carolina obtained 
that office for him, placed him in the Council of the Province, 
and procured the donation of <£1500 in money. In 1775 he 
formed a plan, in concert with the Royal Governors of Georgia 
and Florida, to land an army in the latter Colony, and, in alli- 
ance with Loyalists and Indians, to assail the Whigs. Moses 
Kirkland was sent to General Gage, at Boston, to perfect a 
system of operations ; but was fortunately captured with all 
his papers. Stuart himself fled to Florida. His wife and 
daughter remained in South Carolina, and were detained 
there bv the Provincial Congress, as hostages for his good 
behavior ; but were allowed X100 per month, while restrained 
of their liberty, for their support, to be reimbursed out of the 
profits of his estate, which was placed in the custody of com- 
missioners. Mrs. Stuart, however, soon escaped, and the 
daughter was sent to prison on suspicion of assisting her. 
The documents of a later period show that Mr. Stuart was 
an active, formidable opponent of the Whigs and their meas- 

In June, 1779, the Committee of Intelligence of Charles- 
ton addressed to him two letters, in which they set forth the 
views entertained of him by the public, and to which he 
replied very fully July 18th, of that year, at St. Augustine. 
The Committee called his quitting South Carolina a precipi- 
tate departure ; but he answered that he should " ever con- 
sider it a most fortunate escape." They told him that his 
estate would be considered as a " security for the good be- 
havior of the Indians ; " to which remark he rejoined that it 
was u disagreeable that his all should be held by so precarious 
tenure," and the "holding of his personal safety, and life it- 
self, on such terms, would be more so." He went to England, 
and died there before the peace. His property, in possession 
of his heirs or devisees, was confiscated in 1782. His wife 
was a Miss Fenwick ; daughter of one of the richest men in 


342 STUART. 

South Carolina. A notice of his son, General Sir John 
Stuart, follows. 

Stuart, Gen. Sir John, K. B. Of the British Army. 
Son of John Stuart, of South Carolina. Was born in Amer- 
ica in 1758. He was sent to England for his education, and 
placed at Westminster School. His father dying, he entered 
the Foot-Guards as Ensign. In the Revolution he served un- 
der Cornwallis. At the battle of Guildford Court-House he was 
dangerously wounded in the groin, from the effects of which 
he never entirely recovered. In 1795 he was a Brigadier- 
General, and employed in the West Indies against Victor 
Hugues. In 1802 he was made a Major-General, for his 
services under Abercrombie, in Egypt, during the preceding 
year. Sent to command in Sicily, he soon after defeated the 
French, under Regnier, for which he received the thanks of 
Parliament, &c. 

Stuart, Gilbert. Of Newport, Rhode Island. Built the 
first snuff-mill in New England. At the beginning of the 
Revolution he went to Nova Scotia, and his property was 
confiscated. His family followed, by leave of the General 
Assembly, on petition of Mrs. Stuart, who set forth that her 
husband was possessed of a tract of land in Newport, in that 
Province, on which they wished to live. She prayed to be 
allowed leave to embark in the Nova Scotia Packet, David 
Ross, Master ; " being willing to give ample security that noth- 
ing but the wearing apparel and the household furniture of 
the family, and necessary provisions for the voyage," should 
be carried away. Mrs. Stuart, " a very handsome woman," 
was Elizabeth, daughter of Captain John Anthony. Their 
only daughter, Anne, married Henry Newton, Collector of 
the Customs at Halifax, Nova Scotia. Mr. Stuart died at 
Halifax, in 1793, aged seventy-five. 

Stuart, Gilbert. Of Rhode Island. Son of Gilbert. 
He was born in 1755 ; but whether at North Kingston or 
Newport, Rhode Island, is in dispute. He was christened 
Gilbert Charles, on account of his father's loyalty to the 
Royal house of Stuart. He went to England, and was a 


pupil of Benjamin West. While abroad he was much praised 
for his pictures. He returned to the United States in 1794, 
and lived principally at Philadelphia and Washington until 
about the year 1801, when he removed to Boston, where he 
became very eminent. In portraits he had no superior, and, 
probably, no equal, in America. He died at Boston, in 1828, 
aged seventy-three. 

Stuart, Rev. James. Of South Carolina. Rector of 
Georgetown and All Saints. Entered upon his duties in 
1772 ; went to England in 1777. Anne, his widow, a na- 
tive of America, died in England in 1805. 

Stuart, Kenneth. Of North Carolina. Lieutenant in 
the Loyal Militia. Taken prisoner in the battle at Cross 
Creek, 1776 ; confined in Halifax Jail ; sent finally to Mary- 
land ; broke prison and escaped. 

Sullivan, John. A Lieutenant in Colonel Moyland's 
regiment ; to whom, in an exculpatory letter of 30th June, 
1783, he says : " I abandoned my dearest connections at a 
tender age, to fight under American colors, at a critical period, 
and when affairs were equally balanced." He and a Captain 
Carberry were ringleaders in the revolt of the American 
troops in Pennsylvania, in June, 1783, and in their march 
upon Congress. On the failure of the mutiny, " these offi- 
cers immediately escaped to Chester, and there got on board 
of a vessel bound to London." 

Sutherland, William. In 1782 he was a Lieutenant 
in the Royal Garrison Battalion, and Quartermaster of the 
corps. At New York, the same year, a Loyalist Associator, 
to settle at Shelburne, Nova Scotia. Went to England, and 
died there in 1813, on the u Retired List of Royal Invalids." 

Sutherland, Alexander. Was an Ensign in the Royal 
Fencible Americans. He was continued in service after that 
corps was disbanded, and received a commission in the British 

Sutter, James. Died in New Brunswick, in 1817, at the 
age of eighty-six. 

Sutton, William. Of Long Island, New York. Magis- 


trate. Sent to Philadelphia by the Convention of New York, 
(August, 1776,) and by the Council of Safety of Pennsyl- 
vania ordered to be confined in jail, at his own expense. In 
1779 he was seized at Cow Neck, by a party of Whigs, and 
carried away prisoner. 

Swanwick, Richard and John. Of Philadelphia. Offi- 
cers of the Customs. Attainted, and estates confiscated. 
Richard was a Notary-Public at New York in 1782. John 
Swanwick, a member of Congress from 1795 to 1798, was a 
son of John. 

Sweet, George. Of Rhode Island. Went to St. John, 
New Brunswick, with his wife and one child, in the ship 
Union, in the spring of 1783. He died at Carleton, near 
that city, in 1818, aged sixty-nine. 

Sweezy, Caleb, Jr. Of New Jersey. He joined the 
Royal side, and having connections who harbored and secreted 
him, was able to commit the most atrocious robberies. In 
1782 a reward was offered by the authorities for his appre- 
hension ; and his hiding-place, in a swamp, was finally discov- 
ered by a party of Whigs, who saw a married woman, with 
whom he had guilty relations, carry him food. His captors 
shot him on the spot. 

Swift, John. The last Loyal Collector of the Customs 
of the port of Philadelphia. He was appointed in 1760 ; his 
residence and office were in Front, below Race Street. 

Swift, Joseph. Of Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Prior 
to the war a Lieutenant in the British Army. Entered the 
service again, and was a Captain of Horse in the Pennsylva- 
nia Loyalists. He was known as " Handsome, but Stutter- 
ing Joe Swift." Attainted of treason, and estate confiscated. 
Went to Nova Scotia, and married. Returned, and died at 
Philadelphia in 1826. 

Swords, Thomas. Of New York. Imprisoned, he ur- 
gently implored Governor Trumbull to be allowed to see his 
family, from whom he had been separated eight months. An 
Ensign, subsequently, in the Loyal Americans ; taken pris- 
oner at the storming of Stony Point, in L779. 


Symondson, John. Entered the military service of the 
Crown, and in 1782 was a Lieutenant in the Third Battalion 
of New Jersey Volunteers. He settled in New Brunswick, 
and received half-pay. He died in that Province. 

Syphers, Jacob. Of Chester County, Pennsylvania. He 
was a miller ; and in the course of his business became well 
acquainted with the country, and with the roads through it. 
Lord Cornwallis, on ascertaining this fact, employed him as 
a " Land Pilot " for his Army, at one hundred dollars per 
month. While thus serving the Crown, his brothers, who 
were on the popular side, wrote him from home not to return, 
as his neighbors had declared that they would shoot him, if 
they ever got sight of him. He followed this advice ; and in 
the latter part of the war lived on Long Island, New York. 
At the peace he retired to Nova Scotia, where he received 
a grant of land. He was extremely fond of gardening, and 
sent to Pennsylvania for fruit-trees, which, under his skilful 
training, bore excellent fruit. In his old age he removed to 
Eastport, Maine, and lived with his grandchildren until his 
decease, in 1845, aged ninety-seven. He was attainted of 
treason, and his estate was confiscated (he was a man of prop- 
erty) as u Jacob Chypher." His only surviving child (1848) 
is Mrs. McMullen, who resides on the homestead, Digby, Nova 

Tallant, Hugh. Of Pelham, New Hampshire. In 1776 
the Committee of Inspection of that town declared that he was 
an enemy to his country, and ordered, on " peril of his life," 
that he should confine himself to his own farm. He " de- 
liberately and willingly signed " a paper which contained this 
restriction ; but afterwards " insulted the Committee to the 
utmost that words could express," and appealed to the Pro- 
vincial Congress for a new trial. His request was granted. 
The second hearing of his case was before the Committees of 
three towns, who not only affirmed the first sentence, but 
directed that he should give sureties to comply with it, and 
pay the costs of the proceedings against him, or be committed 
to close jail. He was entrusted, for a single night, to the 


care of Samuel Little, of Hampstead, and escaped. The 
Pelham Committee, in publishing the facts, denounce Little 
as " a rescuer and deliverer of a Tory in his villany," and 
caution all persons to forbear dealing and intercourse with 
either, — the one, in their opinion, being as great a foe to 
truth and liberty as the other. 

Tawse, . Captain of a company of Loyalist 

Dragoons. In the siege of Savannah, 1779, his command 
dismounted and were posted in a redoubt. He slew three of 
his foes with his own hand, and was himself killed in defend- 
ing the gate, while his sword was in the body of his third 

Taylor, Joseph. Of Boston. Merchant. Graduated 
at Harvard University in 1765. Went to England, and was 
a member of the Loyalist Club, London, in 1776. Proscribed 
and banished in 1778. Returned to Boston, and died there, 
in 1816, aged seventy-one. 

Taylor, Nathaniel. Of Boston. Deputy Naval Officer. 
Addresser of Gage in 1775 ; went to Halifax in 1776 ; pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. Died at Quebec, in 1806, 
aged seventy-two. 

Taylor, John. Of Boston. Addresser of Hutchinson 
in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the same year. 
In 1775 he was an Addresser of Gage. He died previous to 
January, 1780. 

Taylor, William. Merchant. Of Boston. An Ad- 
dresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. He 
went to Halifax in 1776. In 1778 he was proscribed and 
banished. A person of this name, formerly of Boston, died 
at Milton, Massachusetts, in 1789; and another at Shelburne, 
Nova Scotia, in 1810, aged seventy-three. 

Taylor, Gillam. Of Massachusetts. Abandoned the 
country. Was in Boston in 1794, and complained, in a 
published card, of the persons who had " pretended to act in 
his affairs during his absence," and of the injustice of those 
who had attempted to deprive him of liberty, property, and 
good name. He died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1843, aged 

TAYLOR. 347 

Taylor, John. Of New Jersey. Sheriff of Monmouth 
County. A gentleman of great wealth. Born in 1716. 
When Lord Howe arrived to offer terms of reconciliation, he 
appointed Mr. Taylor " His Majesty's Lord High Commis- 
sioner for New Jersey." This office, as well as the fact that 
all his children adhered to the Crown and were in the British 
Army, made him very obnoxious to the Whigs. He was, 
indeed, tried for his life, but acquitted. His property was 
applied to public use, but not confiscated, since he was paid for 
it in Continental money ; yet, such was the depreciation of 
that currency, that payment was little better than forfeiture. 
He died at Perth Amboy, New Jersey, in 1798, aged eighty- 
two. His daughter Mary, who, born in 1745, married Doctor 
Absalom Bainbridge, was the mother of William and Joseph 
Bainbridge, Post-Captains in the United States Navy. 

Taylor, William. Of New Jersey. Son of John, 
Sheriff of Monmouth County. Born at Middletown, in that 
Province, in 1746, and bred to the law. He was a decided 
Loyalist, and lost considerable property, besides the emolu- 
ments of his profession. He was appointed Chief Justice of 
Jamaica, and held that office until his marriage to a daughter 
of Colonel Philip Van Cortlandt. He purchased his confis- 
cated estate in New Jersey, some years after the peace, and 
settled upon it. He died at Perth Amboy, in 1806, aged 
sixty. His children were : John William, who died in the 
military service of the East India Company, in command of 
a battalion ; Pringle, Major of Light Dragoons, and a Knight 
of the Royal Guelphic Order ; Cortlandt, a Captain in the 
Madras Artillery ; and George Elliott, who died in 1833. 

Taylor, James. Died at St. Andrew, New Brunswick, 
January, 1835, aged seventy-nine years. He was a native of 
Glasgow, Scotland, and emigrated to New York in early life, 
and during the Revolution was present on many a hard 
fought field. He went to St. Andrew at the peace in 1783, 
and built the third house erected in that town, which stood 
until within a few months of his decease. 

Taylor, James. One of the earliest settlers of New 

348 TAYLOR. 

Brunswick. Died on the river St. John, January, 1834, at 
the age of seventy-three. He was a member ot the House of 
Assembly for some years for the county of Sunbury. He 
left a large family. 

Taylor, Daniel. Of New York. In 1777 he was dis- 
patched by Sir Henry Clinton to Burgoyne, with intelligence 
of the capture of Fort Montgomery, and was taken on his 
way by the Whigs as a spy. Finding himself in danger, he 
turned aside, took a small silver ball or bullet from his pocket 
and swallowed it. The act was seen, and General George 
Clinton, into whose hands he had fallen, ordered a severe dose 
of emetic tartar to be administered, which caused him to dis- 
charge the bullet. On being unscrewed, the silver was found 
to contain a letter from the one British General to the other, 
which ran as follows : — 

" Fort Montgomery, Oct. 8, 1777. 

"Nous voici — and nothing between us but Grates. I sin- 
cerely hope this little success of ours may faciliate your opera- 
tions. In answer to your letter of 28th of September by 
C. C, I shall only say, I cannot presume to order, or even 
advise, for reasons obvious. I heartily wish you success. 

" Faithfully yours, 

" H. Clinton." 

" To General Burgoyne." 

Taylor was tried, convicted, and executed, shortly after his 

Taylor, Archibald. Of North Carolina. A Major of 
the Royal Militia of North Carolina. He died at Nassau, 
New Providence, in 1816. 

Taylor, James. A magistrate. Died at Fredericton, 
New Brunswick, in 1835, aged seventy-nine. 

Taylor, James. Of New York. Settled in New Bruns- 
wick in 1783, and died at Sheffield, in that Province, in 1841, 
aged eighty-six, leaving three sons and four daughters. 

Taylor, . Captain. Went to England to repre- 
sent his services ; obtained lands at Weymouth, Nova Scotia, 


where he settled, and where, about the year 1820, he died, 
leaving a large family. 

Tedford, Jacob and Samuel. Of New Jersey. Went 
to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, in 1783 ; removed to Yarmouth, 
in the same Province, and died there. 

Temple, Robert. Of Massachusetts. In 1775 he took 
passage at Boston for London, but the vessel in which he em- 
barked proving leaky, the captain put into Plymouth, Massa- 
chusetts, to refit. While at Plymouth, in May 31, 1775, 
Mr. Temple addressed the following letter to the Committee 
of Safety : — 

44 1, Robert Temple, of Ten Hills, near Charlestown, New 
England, do declare that I have received no injury to my 
property, nor have I been under any apprehensions of danger 
to either my person or property from the troops that are under 
the command of General Ward ; but it is a fact that I have 
been so threatened, searched for, attacked by the name of 
Tory, an enemy to this country, and treated in such a manner 
that not only my own judgment, but that of my friends, and 
almost the whole of the town where I lived, made it necessary 
for me to fly from my home. I am confident that this is 
owing to the wickedness of a few, who have prejudiced some 
short-sighted people against me, who live too far from my 
abode to be acquainted with my proper character. I am con- 
firmed in this opinion from the kind protection that my wife 
and family have received, and continue to receive from Gen- 
eral Ward, as well as from the sentiments which the Commit- 
tee of Safety have been pleased to entertain of me. 

R. Temple." 

He was at New York, August 13, 1776, and Sir William 
Howe asked Washington if he had any objection to his land- 
ing and proceeding thence to Massachusetts. As he was rep- 
resented as " a high-flying Tory," he was made prisoner at 
Plymouth, and sent to the camp at Cambridge. His papers 
were also secured, and among them were found several letters 
from officers of the Royal Army at Boston to friends at home. 
He arrived in Bristol, England, with his family, August, 

VOL. II. 30 


1780 : and gave such an account of the " Dark-dav," to the 
Loyalists there, as to convince them that the wonders of which 
they had heard were " literally true." It appears that the 
.ship in which he was passenger sailed under a flag of truce. 
He died in England before the close of the war. His brother, 
Sir John Temple, Baronet, who was Consul-General of Great 
Britain to the United States, married a daughter of Governor 

His daughter Mehetabel Hester, who died in 1798, was the 
first wife of the third Lord DufFerin, and their son Robert 
Temple, a captain in the British Army, was killed at Water- 

Ten Brocke, Anthony. Of New York. I suppose a 
Loyalist. He died in England, in 1782, aged seventy-seven. 
Terree, Zebedee. Of Freetown, Massachusetts. He 
went to Halifax in 1776, and was proscribed and banished in 
1778. The son of a Freetown Loyalist has informed me that 
Terree was in New Brunswick for a time, but returned to, 
and died in the United States, at or near his old home in 

Terry, Thomas. Of Wyoming, Pennsylvania. He was 
also engaged in the Massacre, and the tale that he " butchered 
his own mother, his father-in-law, his sisters and their infant 
children," rests upon the same dubious authority as the ac- 
count which follows. 

Terry, Partial. Of Wyoming, Pennsylvania. Son of 
a respectable Whig of that beautiful valley. Joining the force 
of Tories and Indians sent against the settlement, it is averred 
that " with his own hands he murdered his father, mother, 
brothers, and sisters, stripped off their scalps, and cut off his 
father's head." The story is of doubtful truth, though it 
obtained common belief in 1778, and is yet to be found in 

Terry, Ephraim. Died at Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, in 
1833, aged ninety-one years. 

Thayer, Arodi. Marshal of the Court of Admiralty of 
Massachusetts and of two other Provinces. Son of Gideon 


and Rachel Thayer, and born in Braintree, in 1743. When, 
in 1768, John Hancock was prosecuted for smuggling wine, 
the Marshal arrested him on a precept for £9000 in favor of 
the Crown, and on a demand for bail in the sum of £3000 
more. Hancock offered money as security, which was re- 
fused ; the affair was, however, adjusted. Mr. Thayer went 
to Halifax with the Royal Army in 1776, thence to New 
York, thence to England. In 1778 he was proscribed and 
banished. He continued abroad until 1790, when he re- 
turned to Massachusetts and settled at Dorchester, where he 
passed the remainder of his life. Though in office at the 
beginning of the Revolution, he condemned the course of the 
Ministry, and favored peaceable measures of redress. In a 
word, he was a " moderate Tory," — to use a term of signifi- 
cance of the time, — and maintained his opinions without 
bitterness or the use of invectives. His charities were always 
equal to his means, and his integrity was universally admitted. 
After the asperities of civil war were forgotten, he possessed 
the good-will of all who knew him. He died at Dorchester 
in 1831. His daughter Charlotte, a lady of many estimable 
qualities, died at the same place, in 1859, at the age of eighty. 
Another daughter, who is highly esteemed, still survives, 

Theale, Charles. Died in King's County, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1814, aged seventy-nine. 

Thomas, Nathaniel Ray. Of Massachusetts. He grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1751. He bore the odious 
office of Mandamus Councillor, and shared in the troubles from 
mobs which were visited upon most of the members of that 
board. His property was confiscated. He went to Halifax 
in 1776. Pie is spoken of in "McFingal," as 

" That Marshfiekl blunderer, Nat. Ray Thomas." 

Of the nine children of his parents, he alone lived to grow 
up. He was left rich. He died in 1791, at or near Halifax ; 
another account is that his death occurred in 1787. He 
married Sally Deering, or Dearing, of Boston, " a charming 

352 THOMAS. 

girl," who bore him several children, and who, in 1792, was 
living " genteely in Nova Scotia on a farm." 

Thomas, John. Of Plymouth, Massachusetts. I use his 
name in doubt, and yet circumstances seem to show that 
he was a Loyalist. He graduated at Harvard University in 
1765. Forefathers' Day was first celebrated at Plymouth, 
in public, December 22, 1769, by the Old Colony Club, 
which consisted of seven original and five elected members. 
Mr. Thomas was one of the former. The Club was formed 
"for mutual education and instruction ;" had a hall, library, 
and museum ; an annual public dinner, and invited persons 
of distinction to their table. In 1815 Mr. Thomas was at 
Liverpool, Nova Scotia ; when he, Edward Winslow, (an 
adherent to the Crown, noticed in these volumes,) who de- 
livered the first Address, and John Watson, of Plymouth, were 
the sole survivors of all who had been members of the Club. 
Mr. Thomas died in 1823. 

Thomas, Henry. Of New York. During the Revolu- 
tion he commanded a company in a Loyalist corps ; and in 
1783 he removed to St. John, New Brunswick, and was a 
grantee of that city. The British Government continued 
him in service, and he was Assistant Engineer in New Bruns- 
wick and Nova Scotia for a period of forty-years. He died 
at St. John, in 1828, at the age of eighty-two. 

Thomas, Charles. Of Connecticut. In the struggle he 
engaged in marine enterprises on the side of the Crown, but 
was unfortunate in his exertions and results. He settled at 
St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783, and died in that city, in 
1818, aged seventy-five, " a worn-out American exile." That 
" he never wavered in his attachment to his King," was his 

Thomas, John. Of Georgia. Colonel in the Loyal 
Militia. In 1778 he was joined by a party of Tories from 
South Carolina, when possession was taken of some boats 
on the Savannah River, laden with corn and flour, a part 
reserved for use, and the remainder destroyed. The next 
year he was in communication with the Creek Indians. 


Thomas, Evan. Of Pennsylvania. He commanded a 
company of Loyalists called the Bucks County Volunteers ; 
and for a time was engaged in a predatory warfare in the 
vicinity of Philadelphia. At one time his company acted 
with the Queen's Rangers, embarked on expeditions with 
them, and considered themselves as under Simcoe's protec- 
tion. Attainted of treason and estate confiscated. Settled 
at New Brunswick. He died at Pennfield, December, 1835, 
aged ninety, leaving children, grandchildren, great-grand- 
children, and great, great-grandchildren. 

Thompson, Sir Benjamin. Better known as Count 
Rumford. He was born in Massachusetts, in 1753. It was 
intended that he should become a merchant, but he evinced 
great devotion to the mechanic arts, and little or no aptitude 
for business. Through the kindness of his friend, Sheriff 
Baldwin, he obtained leave to attend philosophical lectures at 
Cambridge ; and afterwards taught school at Rumford, now 
Concord, New Hampshire. While at Concord, he married a 
daughter of the Rev. Mr. Walker, then the widow of B. 
Rolfe. By this marriage his pecuniary circumstances were 
rendered easy. In the Revolutionary controversy, he seems 
inclined to have been a Whig, but was distrusted by that 
party, and at length incurred their unqualified odium. Had 
there been less suspicion and more kindness, it is very prob- 
able that his talents would have been devoted to his country. 
As it was, he adhered to the Crown, abandoned his family, 
and in 1775 went to England. There he accepted of civil 
employment under the Government, and under the patron- 
age of Lord Germain became an under-secretary. Towards 
the close of the war he came out to New York, and was in 
command of a regiment called the King's American Dra- 
goons. His military career did not begin until after the sur- 
render of Cornwallis, or, until the struggle was essentially at 
an end. He was in no battle against his native land ; the 
miserable service of organizing a regiment out of the scat- 
tered and broken bands of Loyalists on Long Island, was, I 
suppose, his principal achievement. Recruits for the King's 



American Dragoons — " likely and spirited young lads who 
were desirous of serving their King and country, and who 
prefer riding to going on foot" — were oifered ten guineas 
each, if volunteers. Such was the advertisement. Again, 
in August, 1782, near Flushing, standards were presented to 
his corps, with imposing ceremonies. Prince William Henry 
(William the Fourth) was present. As the officers of dis- 
tinction came upon the ground, the trumpets sounded, and 
the band played, " God save the King." Returning to Eng- 
land, he was knighted, and received half-pay. Becoming 
acquainted with the minister of the Duke of Bavaria, he was 
induced to go to Munich, where he introduced important re- 
forms in the police. From this Prince he received high 
military rank, and the title of Count Rumford, of the Empire. 
He was again in London in the year 1800, and projected the 
Royal Institution of Great Britain. He died in France in 
1814. His first wife, whom he appears to have deserted, 
died in New Hampshire in 1792. His second wife was the 
widow of Lavoisier, the great chemist. Count Rumford 
bequeathed a handsome sum to Harvard University, and a 
Professorship bears his name. His philosophical labors and 
discoveries gave him a high reputation, and caused him to be 
elected member of many learned societies. His name is 
found among the proscribed and banished in New Hampshire, 
by the statute of 1778. 

His daughter Sarah, Countess of Rumford, died at Con- 
cord, New Hampshire, in 1852, aged seventy. She went to 
Europe with her father, but returned before his second mar- 
riage. Again she went abroad, and was absent several 
years. Finally, she retired to " a small, but neat house, on 
the edge of Concord," where she enjoyed an annuity from 
her father's estate, and, as believed, a pension from Bavaria. 
She possessed many pictures and memorials, which she was 
fond of exhibiting to her visitors. She was eccentric, but 
had a quick and vigorous mind, and idolized America, her 
native country. She never married. 

Thompson, Joseph. Of Medford, Massachusetts. In 


June, 1775, news reached the Provincial Congress (as a 
Committee of that body reported) that the Irvings, of Bos- 
ton, had fitted out, under color of chartering to Thompson, a 
schooner of their own, to make a voyage to New Providence, 
to procure " fruit, turtle, and provisions of other kinds for 
the sustenance and feasting of those troops who are, as 
pirates and robbers, committing daily hostilities and depreda- 
tions on the good people of this Colony and all America." 
Congress therefore resolved that Captain Samuel McCobb, a 
member, " be immediately despatched to Salem and Marble- 
head, to secure said Thompson, and prevent said vessel from 
going said voyage, and cause the said Thompson to be 
brought to this Congress." A Mr. Thompson, of Medford, 
died in England during the war ; probably the same. 

Thompson, Dougald. Of New York. Was at Castine, 
Maine, from the time the Royal forces took possession of that 
place until they evacuated it at the peace. He died at St. 
Andrew, New Brunswick, in 1812, aged sixty-three. 

Thompson, John. Of New York. In 1777 he was ap- 
pointed by General Robertson to the agency of cutting and 
supplying the poor of the city of New York with wood, at 
the " cost of cutting and carting, and four shillings per load 
for his trouble." Fuel, at the time of this appointment, was 
high ; but, in consequence of the large quantities brought in, 
walnut wood was soon reduced to <£4 per cord, and fifty-five 
shillings for any other. During some part of the war, the 
ill-fated Andre w T as Mr. Thompson's boarder. In 1783 he 
removed to St. John, New Brunswick, where he established 
himself as a merchant. He was an Alderman, and for eigh- 
teen years the Chamberlain of that city. He died at St. John, 
in 1825, aged seventy. He occupied the Caldwell House, in 
Prince William Street, which was the first framed building 
erected in St. John, and was burned in the fire of 1837. 

Thorne, Peter. Of Fairfield County, Connecticut. 
Member of the Reading Loyalist Association. Settled in 
Nova Scotia, and died at Wilmot, in that Province, in 1844, 
aged eighty-seven. 


Tilghman, James. Of Philadelphia. Member of the 
Council. Ordered, in August, 1777, to give his parole to 
confine himself to certain prescribed limits, he declined, for 
reasons which he stated at some length. Satisfactory terms 
were, however, concluded subsequently, and in October he 
was at Chester Town, Maryland, soliciting an extension of 
his permission to remain there. From his communications, 
it appears that the only estate from which he derived any 
income was in Maryland. His son William was appointed 
Chief Justice of Pennsylvania in 1806, and died in 1827, 
aged seventy. 

Tilly, Samuel. Of Brooklyn, New York. A grantee 
of St. John, New Brunswick. He died in that Province. 
Elizabeth Morgan, his widow, died at Portland, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1835, aged eighty-four. 

Tilton, John. He was one of the party who hung Cap- 
tain Huddy in 1782. [See Richard Lippmcott.~\ 

Timmins, John. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutchin- 
son in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. The Council of Massa- 
chusetts ordered his arrest, April, 1776. He went to Eng- 
land, and was at Bristol in 1777. Early the following year 
his wife was in Boston, but, " seeing no end to the disturb- 
ances, is going to pluck up stakes, and remove with flocks, 
herds, and children." In June, 1778, Mr. Timmins was in 
London, and seems to have remained there for three or four 
years. In October, 1782, he was about to begin business at 
Wolverhampton, and we find him there August, 1783. Mary, 
his widow, died at Liverpool in 1808. 

Timpany, Robert. Of New Jersey. Major in the Third 
Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. He was born in Ire- 
land, and was educated at the University of Glasgow. He 
emigrated to Philadelphia about the year 1760, and w T as 
engaged there, and at Hackensack, as a teacher, until the 
beginning of the Revolution. He was present at the battle 
of Long Island, in 1776, and was soon after commissioned, as 
above mentioned. His service, until the peace, was severe 
and continual ; thus he led the party which, after a spirited 


action, took the " Parker House," in New Jersey, and was 
commended in general orders for his gallant conduct. He 
distinguished himself at Guilford, at the Cowpens, at Eutaw, 
and at the siege of Charleston. He would have arrived at 
Ferguson's camp with stores and a reinforcement, before the 
battle of King's Mountain, had he not been ordered to halt. 
He was wounded in the groin and in the foot. 

In 1783 he went to Digby in the transport Atalanta ; but 
in four or five years removed to the head of St. Mary's Bay. 
His last years were passed at Yarmouth, with his daughter 
Charlotte, wife of Gabriel Van Norden, Jr. He died in 1844, 
at the age of one hundred and two years, retaining his facul- 
ties to the end of life, and reading without the use of specta- 
cles. His wife, whom he married in 1776, was Miss Sarah 
Clark. Several children survived him. 

Tippetts, . Of New York. His estate, in West 

Chester County, was confiscated, and he fled to Nova Scotia. 
One of his daughters married the u celebrated Colonel James 
De Lancey, one of the boldest foragers of the Neutral 
Ground." .-..." The old Tippett mansion is . . . shaded 
with tall poplars. It possesses a desolate and antiquated 
appearance, in perfect keeping with the strange stories that 
are told of its still being haunted by the ghosts of the old 

Tisdale, Henry. Of Freetown, Massachusetts. Was 
proscribed and banished in 1778. At the peace he went to 
St. John, New Brunswick, and was a grantee of that city. 
After living in that Province about three years he returned 
to Freetown, where he died. 

Tisdale, Ephraim. Of Freetown, Massachusetts. In 
1775 he fled from home and went to New York. During 
the war, while on a voyage to St. Augustine, he abandoned 
his vessel at sea to avoid capture, and gained the shore in 
safety. Though nearly destitute of money, he accomplished 
an overland journey to New York, a distance, by the route 
which he travelled, of fifteen hundred miles. In 1783 he 
embarked at New York for New Brunswick, in the ship 



Brothers, Captain Walker ; and on the passage his wife gave 
birth to a son, who was named for the master of the ship. 
Mr. Tisdale held civil and military offices in New Bruns- 
wick. He removed to Upper Canada in 1808, and died in 
that Colony in 1816. He left eight sons and four daughters. 
Walker Tisdale, of St. John, (the son above referred to,) 
who died at that city in 1857, was in Canada in 1845, when 
the descendants of his father there were one hundred and 
sixty-nine, of whom he saw one hundred and sixty-three. 
The Tisdales of Canada were active on the side of the 
Crown during the recent Canadian rebellion. They are dis- 
tinguished for Loyalty. 

Titus ; or, as he was commonly called, " Colonel Tye." 
A mulatto slave of John Corlies, of New Jersey. In 1780, 
at the head of sixty Tories, he attacked the dwelling of 
Joshua Huddy, (afterward murdered by Lippincott,) who, 
with a servant girl, made a defence until Titus set the house 
on fire ; when a surrender was agreed to, on condition that 
the assailants should extinguish the flames. This they did ; 
but Titus had great difficulty in saving the lives of the two 
captives, for his band were determined to kill them. The 
marauders finally prepared to depart in boats with their pris- 
oners, and such plunder as they could carry. As they pushed 
from the shore Huddy jumped out, and though fired upon and 
wounded, swam to land and escaped. Titus was himself shot 
in the wrist, in the attack on the house, and died in conse- 
quence of lockjaw. 

Tompkins, Thomas. Died at St. Andrew, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1817, aged eighty. His wife, with whom he lived 
fifty years, died at the same place the same year, at the age 
of seventy-seven. The Hon. Thomas Wyer, a member of 
the Council of New Brunswick, married their daughter. 

Tonge, W. P. Was banished, and his estate was confis- 
cated. In 1794 he represented to the British Government 
that several large debts due to him in America at the time of 
his banishment had not been recovered, and he prayed for 


Tooker, Jacob. Went to Shelbnrne, Nova Scotia, at the 
peace ; removed to Yarmouth, where he died about the year 
1828. His son Joseph, who accompanied him, died at the 
same place in 1852, aged eighty-five. 

Toole, John. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1827, aged seventy-four. 

Totten, Peter. Of New York. Went to Annapolis, 
Nova Scotia, in 1783, and became a merchant. A daugh- 
ter married William Winnitt, and was the mother of Sir 
William Winnitt, at one time Governor of the Gold Coast, 
Africa. Another daughter still lives (1861) at Annapolis. 

Totten, Gilbert. A Tory of New York, who is said to 
have been " a terror not only to himself, but to all who knew 
him." The party of marauders to which he belonged (and, 
as I suppose, commanded,) waylaid and captured a French 
doctor, and played a game of cards to determine who should 
kill him. The lot fell on Totten, who (though his " victim 
plead in broken English for his life, numbering his children 
upon his fingers) shot him dead as he knelt on the ground." 
Another atrocious deed attributed to Totten is, that, in re- 
venge, he betrayed to death (to De Lancey's corps) Colonel 
Greene, of Rhode Island, a brave and accomplished man, and 
the generous conquerer of Count Donop. Letters of the time 
implicate Colonel James De Lancey, but there is evidence 
that he was neither present at the murder nor a party to it. 

Towers, William. Died at Tower Hill, St. David, 
Province of New Brunswick, January, 1835. He was the 
principal workman at the erection of the fort at Bagaduce, 
(now Castine, Maine,) which was built by the British forces, 
and maintained to the close of the Revolution. After the 
evacuation of that post he removed to St. Andrew, New 
Brunswick, and built there, in 1783, the first house. Thence 
he removed to St. David, an entire wilderness, and settled 
about seven miles from the head of Oak Bay, on a fine hard- 
wood ridge, to which he gave the name of Tower Hill. He 
was the father of a numerous family, and was possessed of a 
strong constitution. His age was eighty-four years. 

360 TOWNE. 

Towne, Benjamin. Commenced the publication of the 
" Pennsylvania Evening Post," at Philadelphia, Jan. 1775, 
as a Whig paper, and in opposition to "Humphrey's Ledger," 
commenced the same month. Towne remained a Whig until 
the British Army took possession of the city, when he became 
a Loyalist. On the evacuation he professed to return to his 
former sentiments, and his paper again advocated the popular 
cause, but he had now the respect and confidence of neither 
Whigs nor Loyalists. Though proscribed by the Govern- 
ment of the State for his aberration, he continued the " Even- 
ing Post" without being molested. Desiring to get into favor 
with his first friends, he requested the celebrated Wither- 
spoon, then a member of Congress, to renew his contributions 
to the " Post," which the Doctor declined ; but told him if 
he would make his peace with the country, by publishing an 
acknowledgment of his offence, a profession of his penitence, 
and a petition for forgiveness, their old relations should be 
resumed. This Towne promised to do, and asked Wither- 
spoon to write the article, which he did immediately ; but 
Towne, disliking some passages, which the Doctor would not 
allow him to omit, refused to comply with his promise. The 
piece, however, found its way into the public prints, and pass- 
ing as the production of Towne, raised his reputation as a 
writer. In this Recantation, Towne is made to speak of him- 
self thus : " I was originally an understrapper to the famous 
Galloway in his infamous squabble with Goddard ; and did, 
in that service, contract such a habit of meanness in thinking 
and scurrility in writing that nothing exalted .... could 
ever be expected of me. Now changing of sides is not any 
way surprising in a person answering the above description." 
Again, and in conclusion, " I do hereby recant, draw back, 
eat in, and swallow down, every word that I have ever spo- 
ken, written, or printed, to the prejudice of the United States 
of America ; hoping it will not only satisfy the good people 
in general, but also all those scatter-brained fellows who call 
one another out to shoot pistols in the air, while they tremble 
so much they cannot hit the mark," &c, &c. Towne died 


July, 1793. He did not possess the faculty of gaining and 
retaining property, though not deficient in talents. That he 
lacked stability, if not moral principle, seems manifest. 

Townsend, Rev. Epenetus. Episcopal minister, of North 
Salem, New York. He graduated at King's College, (Colum- 
bia,) New York, and, about the year 1767, went to England 
to take Holy Orders. He returned in 1768, and entered upon 
his pastoral duties. In 1776 he was sent to the Whig Com- 
mittee, but was dismissed. Three weeks after the Declaration 
of Independence, however, he abandoned his pulpit ; and in 
October was a prisoner at Fishkill. In March, 1777, he was 
removed to Long Island, and shortly afterward embarked with 
his family for Nova Scotia ; the vessel foundered, and every 
one on board perished. 

Townsend, Gregory. Of Boston. An Addresser of 
Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. In 1783 he was 
at New York, and in service as Assistant Commissary-Gen- 
eral. Was proscribed and banished in 1778. A person of 
this name died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1798. 

Trail, Robert. He was Comptroller of the Customs, at 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, with a salary of about £180 
sterling per annum. He was included in the New Hamp- 
shire Proscription Act of 1778. His wife was a near relative 
of William Whipple, a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. He had three children: Robert and William, who 
settled in Europe ; and Mary, who married Kieth Spence, 
of Portsmouth, and whose son, Robert Trail Spence, was a 
Captain in the United States Navy. 

Traitresses. [See Women.'] 

Traphager, Henry. Of New York. A grantee of St. 
John, New Brunswick ; he died there, in 1817, aged seventy- 

Travers, Francis. Died at St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1821, aged sixty-eight. 

Tredwell, . Of Queen's County, New York. 

Physician. Uncle to the Bishops Onderdonk. In 1780 his wife 
and son were robbed in a chaise by a party of Whig maraud- 
ers. He died in Queen's County, in 1830, aged ninety-five. 

VOL. II. 31 


Trecartin, Martin. Of Duchess County, New York. 
Went to St. John, New Brunswick, with his wife, in the ship 
Union., in the spring of 1783, and was a grantee. Rebecca, 
his widow, died in that Province, in 1848, aged eighty-four. 
She was the mother of thirteen children, and her descendants 
at the time of her decease were one hundred grandchildren, 
and thirty great-grandchildren. 

Tremain, Jonathan. Was a merchant in New York 
until the evacuation by the British Army at the peace. Went 
to Halifax, Nova Scotia, and resumed business. Died in 
1822, aged eighty, leaving a large family, of whom several 
are now (1861) living. His son James is a gentleman of 

Troup, . Lieutenant in the New Jersey Volunteers. 

Mortally wounded in the battle of Eutaw Springs, 1781. 

Troutbeck, Rev. John. Of Boston. Episcopal minister. 
He was at Hopkinton, Massachusetts, with a salary of <£50, 
as early as 1753, a missionary of the Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. In 1755 he was appointed 
Assistant Rector of King's Chapel, and officiated there for 
twenty years. He was an Addresser of Gage ; and was pro- 
scribed and banished. He left Boston in 1776 ; and King's 
Chapel was not again opened for worship for nearly a year. 
The first occupants were members of the Old South, whose 
own house — used by the British as a riding-school — had 
been seriously injured. Mr. Troutbeck was at London, the 
guest of the Rev. Dr. Peters, (of Hebron, Connecticut,) 
March 2, 1776, and had just arrived from Halifax. A year 
later Benjamin Hallowell wrote his son Ward, " Poor Parson 
Troutbeck, going round to Newcastle in a collier, is taken by 
one of the pirates that is cruising in the North Sea." In 
1779 he was , in London, and a Loyalist Addresser of the 
King. He died previous to 1783. 

Trowbridge, Edmund. Of Massachusetts. Judge of the 
Supreme Court. He was born at Newton, Massachusetts, in 
1709, and graduated at Harvard University in 1728. For 
some time he bore the name of GofFe, after an uncle. In 1759, 
" This Goffe," wrote John Adams, " had been Attorney- 


General for twenty years, and commanded the practice in 
Middlesex and Worcester and several other counties. He 
had power to crush, by his frown or his nod, any young law- 
yer in his county." In 1766 the popular party left him out 
out of the Council ; but the next year he was appointed to 
the Supreme Court. Beyond all question he was the most 
learned lawyer on the Bench, and an honorable man in every 
relation of life. In the trial of Captain Preston and the 
soldiers, for firing upon the people in King (State) Street, 
March 5, 1770, his uprightness and ability commanded uni- 
versal applause. In 1771, records John Adams, " I went this 
evening, spent an hour and took a pipe with Judge Trow- 
bridge at his lodgings." Again, a year later, " Rode to Cam- 
bridge, and made a visit to Judge Trowbridge in his solitary, 
gloomy state. He is very dull, talks about retiring from 
Court," &c, &c. In 1774 Mr. Adams wrote his wife (at 
Falmouth, Maine, now Portland), " Friday, I dined with 
Colonel, Sheriff, alias Bill Tyng [See William Tyng~\. . . At 
table we were speaking about Captain MacCarty, which led 
to the African trade. Judge Trowbridge said, ' That was a 
very humane and Christian trade, to be sure, that of making 
slaves.' ' Ay,' says I, ' it makes no great odds ; it is a trade 
that almost all mankind have been concerned in, all over the 
globe, since Adam, more or less, in one way and another.' 
This occasioned a laugh." Of a truth, in this instance, the 
Tory was superior to the Whig. At another time the Judge 
said, " It seems by Colonel Barre's speeches that Mr. Otis has 
acquired honor by releasing his damages to Robinson." [See 
John Robinson, Commissioner of the Customs, and James 
Boutineau.~] " Yes," says I, " he has acquired honor with all 
generations." Trowbridge, " He did not make much profit, 
I think." Adams, " True, but the less profit, the more honor. 
He was a man of honor and generosity, and those who think 
he was mistaken will pity him." The very year that these 
conversations occurred, the subject of this notice was im- 
peached by the House, and his former friends, Hawley and 
John Adams, were of the committee to report the articles 

364 TRYON. 

against him ; but as the Council failed to act, the matter ended. 
In 1775 Joseph Warren offered the Judge a pass or card of 
safety, which was declined with the remark, " I have nothing 
to fear from my countrymen." He was right, for he was not, 
as far as I am informed, once molested or even rudely ad- 

By the terms of the will of John Alford, a member of the 
Council, and a merchant of great wealth, the power of deter- 
mining the objects to which his bounty should be applied was 
vested in his executors, Judge Trowbridge and Richard Cary. 
They selected Harvard University as one ; and the Alford 
Professorship of Natural Religion, Moral Philosophy, and Civil 
Polity was thus founded. 

Prior to the Revolution the Judges of the Supreme Court 
of Massachusetts wore scarlet robes with deep facings and 
cuffs of black velvet, and powdered wigs adorned with black 
silk bags. In summer, however, black silk gowns were worn 
instead of the robes. Edmund Trowbridge, one of the last w r ho 
thus appeared upon the Bench, died at Cambridge, in 1793, 
aged eighty-three. Rev. Joseph S. Buckminster, of Brattle- 
Street Church, Boston, was the son of his only daughter. 

Tryon, William. He was educated to the profession of 
arms, and was an officer in the British service. Appointed 
Lieutenant-Governor of North Carolina, the death of Gov- 
ernor Dobbs left him at the head of the government of that 
Colony in 1765 ; and he continued to administer its affairs 
until July, 1771, when he was transferred to New York. 
During the whole period of his administration in North Caro- 
lina, the public mind was successively agitated by the Stamp 
Act, and a civil war, known in the annals of the Colony as 
the Regulation, or the rebellion of a party who assumed the 
name of Regulators. The oppressive taxes growing out of 
the French war, and the knavery of the officers of the law, 
were the subjects of their complaints, and the alleged causes 
of their taking up arms. 

Governor Tryon's wife — a Miss Wake, who had a fortune 
of £20,000 sterling — and her sister, Miss Esther Wake, were 

TRYON. 365 

lovely and accomplished women, and tradition relates that they 
exercised much influence in public affairs. For the first two 
years of his administration his headquarters were on the Cape 
Fear River ; but he succeeded, through the blandishments of 
Lady Try on and her sister, in obtaining an appropriation for 
a splendid palace, though the Colony was poor, and great op- 
position was made to the measure. The sum of £ 5,000 was 
first set apart for the purpose ; but £ 10,000 more were found 
necessary to complete the edifice ; and as Tryon's dinners were 
princely, and the fascination of the ladies of his family were 
irresistible, the Assembly were prevailed upon, after a great 
deal of management, to make a second, and the required 
grant. As the controversy progressed, the Governor's un- 
popularity increased ; and, to save his waning authority, he 
mingled with the common people, and prepared for them feasts 
and routs. On one occasion, according to the accounts of the 
day, he barbecued an ox, and placed it on the table as one 
dish ; but the people, on its being announced that the repast 
was ready, rushed in a mass to the table, upset the barrels of 
liquors which had been provided, and threw the ox into the 
river. Tryon, mortified and dejected, retired from the crowd 
to his house. The day was passed in riot and tumult. Quar- 
rels with the Assembly on various subjects followed from time 
to time, during the remaining part of his administration. 

At New York the Province-House which he occupied was 
burned by the carelessness of servants ; and his wife and 
daughter narrowly escaped death. The latter threw herself 
from a second-story window into the arms of a man whose 
hand she subsequently refused in marriage. The Colony 
voted him £5,000, and the British Government added a lib- 
eral sum for his personal losses. The spirit of the man, while 
at the head of affairs in New York, may be fully illustrated 
by a single circumstance. " I should," said he in 1777, " were 
I in more authority, burn every committee-man's house with- 
in my reach, as I deem those agents the wicked instruments 
of the continued calamities of this country ; and in order 
sooner to purge the country of them, I am willing to give 


366 TUCKER. 

twenty-five silver dollars for every acting committee-man who 
shall be delivered up to the King's troops." 

It is claimed by the friends of Governor Tryon that he was 
" a gentleman of rank and honor, and of undaunted courage." 
His political course in North Carolina gives evidence of consid- 
erable talents ; and his military operations in New York evince 
much ability and skill. But that he showed himself, in either 
State, to be a man of honor, or that his civil or military life 
in America entitles his memory to respect, is a matter of great 
doubt, I imagine, even with the most liberal and charitable of 
those who are familiar with his public conduct. When Fair- 
field was burned, Mrs. Burr, a lady of great dignity of char- 
acter, and possessed of most of the qualities which give dis- 
tinction to her sex, resolved to remain in her dwelling, and, 
if possible, save it from the flames. She made personal ap- 
plication to Tryon to spare it ; but he answered her not only 
uncivilly, but rudely, brutally, and with vulgarity ; and when 
a soldier attempted to rob her of her watch, Tryon refused to 
protect her. At the burning of Norwalk his conduct was 
equally exceptionable ; since he seated himself in a chair on 
the top of Grammon's Hill, and calmly enjoyed the scene. 
Governor Tryon's property, both in North Carolina and New 
York, was confiscated. 

In 1780 he was succeeded by General Robertson, also a 
General in the Army, who was the last Royal Governor of 
New York. Tryon died at London in 1788, with the rank of 

Tucker, . A physician. Of Wilmington, North 

Carolina. His property was confiscated in 1779. When Mr. 
Quincy, of Massachusetts, was on his southern tour in 1773, 
he dined, March 29th, as he recorded in his journal, " at 
Doctor Thomas Cobham's, in company with Harnett, Hooper, 
Burgwin, Doctor Tucker," &c. Hooper and Harriett were 
eminent Whigs, and the former became a signer of the Decla- 
ration of Independence. Doctor Tucker, if at that time 
inclined to the popular side, adhered to the Crown subse- 
quently, and to his ruin. 


Tufts, Simon. Of Boston. He graduated at Harvard 
University in 1767, and became a merchant. In 1775 he 
was charged by the Boston Committee of Inspection with 
selling tea, and was examined. He made a statement of the 
facts of the case under oath, which was published by the 
Committee. His arrest ordered by the Council of Massachu- 
setts, April, 1776. Proscribed and banished in 1778. He 
died in 1802. 

Tupper, Doctor James. Of Pownalborough, Maine. It 
would seem, formerly of Nantucket, Massachusetts, and 
" High Sheriff under his Majesty." For his loyalty he was 
imprisoned several times. In 1779 he was at Newport, 
Rhode Island, and departed, probably, with the British Army 
at the evacuation, in October of that year. He returned to 
Nantucket, and died there. 

Tupper, Eldad. Of Massachusetts. A guide to the 
British on the invasion of Bristol County, in 1778. He was 
well acquainted with the country, and with the Whigs of 
note, and in office. Proscribed and banished the same year. 

Turnbull, George. Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant of 
the Third American Regiment, or the New York Volunteers. 
In the attack on Fort Montgomery, October, 1777, he was a 
Captain in the Loyal Americans, and the first man to enter 
the works. For his intrepidity generally, he was transferred 
from that corps to the command of the Volunteers. He dis- 
tinguished himself also at the siege of Savannah, in 1779. 
A year later he commanded the garrison at Rocky Mount, 
South Carolina, a strong post which connected Camden with 
the District of Ninety Six. His force consisted of the Volun- 
teers and some Militia. He repulsed Sumter in three differ- 
ent attacks, and compelled the Whig partisan to retire. 
Turnbull married a daughter of Cornelius Clopper, of New 
York. ' 

Turner, William. Of New York. Went to Shelburne, 
Nova Scotia, at the peace, and died there soon after. 

Turner. Of Maine. Thomas and James, in 1778, set 
out on foot with the design of travelling by land to Halifax. 


After enlisting with the " Rebels " to avoid detection, and a 
variety of other adventures, they arrived in Nova Scotia. 
James was in that Colony the year following. Thomas was 
taken prisoner, in 1781, on the Kennebec, and sent to Bos- 
ton. A year later, both brothers were " at home in peace." 

Turney, Thomas, Jr. Of Fairfield, Connecticut. Fled 
to Long Island in 1776 ; the fact was communicated to Wash- 
ington. Died at Burton, New Brunswick, in 1840, aged 
eighty-seven, leaving thirteen children. 

Tweedy, . Of Rhode Island. Departed at the 

evacuation by the British Army. His wife was Catharine, 
daughter of James Honeyman, Judge of the Court of Vice- 
Admiralty of Rhode Island. The property bequeathed to 
her by her father was confiscated, but on petition restored. 

Tyler, Rev. John. Of Norwich, Connecticut. Episco- 
pal minister. He was born in Wallingford, Connecticut, 
and graduated at Yale College in 1765. He was bred a 
Congregationalist, but embraced Episcopacy ; and in 1768, 
went to England for ordination. From April, 1776, to the 
same month in 1779, his Church was closed, in consequence 
of the excitement which prevailed against the clergymen of 
his communion. Yet he performed divine service in his own 
house, during this period, without molestation. He died in 
1823, in his eighty-first year. " He was an interesting 
preacher ; his voice was sweet and solemn, and his eloquence 
persuasive. The benevolence of his heart was manifested in 
daily acts of courtesy and charity to those around him. He 
studied medicine, in order to benefit the poor, and to find out 
remedies for some of those peculiar diseases to which no com- 
mon specifics seemed to apply During the latter 

years of his life, he was so infirm as to need assistance in the 
performance of his functions." His wife was a daughter of 
Isaac Tracy. 

Tynes, Samuel. Of South Carolina. Colonel in the 
Loyal Militia. In 1780 Marion fell upon his camp at mid- 
night, found some of his men asleep, some feasting, and others 
playing cards, but none on the watch. The surprise was 

TYNG. 369 

complete, the panic general. Several of the luckless Tories 
were killed with cards in their hands ; the Colonel, with two 
of his officers, and many privates, were made prisoners. He 
was again i n the field, and again routed. In 1782 he was an 
Addresser of Doyle. 

Tyng, William. Sheriff of Cumberland County, Maine. 
His ancestor came to New England about the year 1640. 
His grandfather, the Hon. Edward Tyng, was a gentleman 
of distinction, and was appointed Governor of Annapolis, 
Nova Scotia, but died in France. His father was the gallant 
Commodore Tyng, who performed valuable service as a naval 
officer in the war between England and France in 1745 ; he 
was the senior commander of the Colonial fleet sent against 
Louisburg in that year, and Sir Peter Warren, who com- 
manded the ships of the Crown in the same expedition, offered 
him the rank of Post-Captain, which he declined on account 
of his declining years ; he died at Boston, in 1775, at the age 
of seventy-two. 

William, the subject of this article, was born in Boston, 
August 17, 1737, and passed most of his youthful days in his 
native town. His early life was distinguished for correct 
morals, dignity of deportment, and an ardent desire to assist 
the unfortunate. In 1767 he was appointed Sheriff of the 
county of Cumberland, and removed to Portland. Two years 
after, he married Elizabeth Ross, daughter of Alexander 
Ross. He represented Falmouth in the General Court in the 
years 1772 and 1773; and was instructed by the town as 
follows : — 

" Sir : — Whereas we are sensible there is reason to com- 
plain of infringements on the liberties of the people of this 
Province, and as you are a representative for this town, we 
would offer a few things for your consideration on transacting 
the very important business that may lay before the General 
Court at the next session. We are not about to enumerate 
any grievances particularly, as we doubt not the wisdom of the 
General Court is amply sufficient to investigate not only 
every grievance, but every inconvenience the Province at 

370 TYNG. 

present labors under ; all we mean is, to suggest some method 
whereby all grievances may be redressed. And considering 
the singular abilities and good disposition of the present 
Governor, together with his family, being embarked on the 
same bottom with ourselves, we know of no expedient more 
effectual than for the members of the General Court, by a 
rational and liberal behavior, to conciliate the affections of his 
Excellency. The particular mode of doing this, we must 
leave to their wisdom and prudence, which on this important 
occasion they will undoubtedly exert, only beg leave to ob- 
serve, that, could his Excellency be prevailed upon to join the 
other branches of the legislature in supplicating the Throne 
for redress of any of our grievances, it appears to us the most 
probable way of obtaining his Majesty's royal attention and 

His conduct was generally conciliatory to those whose po- 
litical tendencies he could not respect. There were several 
personal quarrels between the citizens of Falmouth in con- 
sequence of their political divisions ; and Colonel Tyng was 
involved in one of them, and with a friend. He and General 
Preble met in King Street, when some conversation took 
place about an expected mob, in which he called the General 
an old fool ; and said that "were he not an old man he would 
chastise him." Whereupon Preble " threatened to cane or 
knock him down, if he should repeat the words." Tyng 
drew his sword, and in turn threatened to run the General 
through ; but the latter collared and shook him. They, how- 
ever, parted on good terms, as the Colonel asked Preble's 
pardon. When, in September, 1774, he appeared before the 
County Convention to answer certain questions propounded 
by the Whigs, he seems to have given entire satisfaction, in 
affixing his name to a Declaration, as follows : — 

" Whereas great numbers of the inhabitants of this County 
are now assembled near my house, in consequence of the false 
representation of some evil-minded persons, who have reported 
that I have endeavored all in my power to enforce the late 
Acts of Parliament relating to this Province ; I do hereby 

TYNG. 371 

solemnly declare that I have not in any way whatever acted, 
or endeavored to act, in conformity to said Acts of Parlia- 
ment. And in compliance with the commands of the inhabi- 
tants so assembled, and by the advice of a committee from the 
several towns in this County now assembled in Congress, I 
further declare I will not, as Sheriff of said County, or other- 
wise, act in conformity to, or by virtue of, said Acts, unless 
by the general consent of said County. I further declare I 
have not received any commission inconsistent with the char- 
ter of this Province, nor any commission whatever since the 
first day of July last." 1 

Soon after the affair at Lexington he left Maine, and went 
to Halifax. During the troubles with Mowatt, which termi- 
nated in the burning of Falmouth, the country people who 
assembled there under Thompson took from his house a sil- 
ver cup and tankard, and his gold-laced hat. But Congress 
ordered the silver plate to be restored, and it was delivered 
to Mrs. Tyng's mother. After the Royal troops entered the 
city of New York he repaired thither. In 1778 he was pro- 
scribed and banished under the Act of Massachusetts. While 
in New York, Edward Preble, a Midshipman in the service 
of Massachusetts, who was afterwards the distinguished Com- 
modore Preble, of the Navy of the United States, was carried 
there a prisoner of war. He was the son of General Preble, 
with whom Colonel Tyng had the quarrel related above ; but 
the young naval officer, who was afflicted with a dangerous 
sickness, was restored to his family through Tyng's interces- 
sion, after receiving from him every attention and kindness 
that his situation required. At the close of the war Colonel 
Tyng retired to the river St. John, New Brunswick, and was 
one of the agents of the British Government for the settlement 
of the Loyalists who emigrated to that Colony. He was also 
appointed Chief Justice of a Court of Judicature, and was re- 
spected for his dignity and humanity as a Judge. Six lots in 
the city of St. John were granted him by the Crown. He 
resided there in 1784 ; but was at Georgetown in 1785. In 

1 lie was commissioned a Colonel by Gage in 1774. 

372 UPHAM. 

1793 he returned to the United States, and settled at Gor- 
ham, Maine, where he remained during life. He was devot- 
edly attached to agricultural pursuits, and to the enjoyments 
of social intercourse. His house was the seat of hospitality, 
and of instructive and delightful conversation ; and the sor- 
rowing, careworn, and unfortunate were ever relieved. He 
died December 10, 1807, of apoplexy. St. Paul's Church, 
of the Episcopal communion, Portland, was erected under his 
immediate patronage, and there his remains were carried for 
the performance of the funeral service, attended by his breth- 
ren of the Masonic Lodge, clad in full mourning. His wife, 
to whom he was most tenderly devoted, bore him no children. 
Denied posterity, he regarded with the most affectionate ten- 
derness those whom he adopted to supply the place of natural 
offspring. He was a Christian ; and secret communion with 
his God was his daily practice. In the outward observances 
of his profession, as a member of the church, he was blameless. 
William Tyng, in a word, was a true man in every relation of 
life ; and his memory is to be cherished by all who love such, 
whatever their sectarian or political differences or preferences. 
Madam Tyng, as his relict was denominated, continued at 
Gorham, and closed her life there towards the end of the year 

Underwood, John. Of Rhode Island. He joined the 
enemy during the war, but returning to that State, was re- 
quired to quit it, by Act of May, 1783. He went to St. 
John, New Brunswick, the same year, in the ship Union. 
He died at Shediac, in 1848, aged one hundred and one 

Upham, Joshua. Of Brookfield, Massachusetts. Grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1763. In 1775 he addressed 
to the Committee of Correspondence, of Brookfield, an able 
and interesting letter relative to his political sentiments, which 
was unanimously voted to be satisfactory. Subsequently, he 
incurred the displeasure of the Whigs, and became a Refu- 
gee ; and was proscribed and banished. Entering the British 
Army, he attained the rank of Colonel of Dragoons. He was 

UPHAM. — USHER. 373 

with Winslow in the attack on Norwalk, and with Arnold in 
the expedition to New London. In 1781 he was Deputy In- 
spector-General of Refugees, at Lloyd's Neck, Long Island, 
and received an Address of thanks ; and the same year gave 
Governor Franklin an account of the attack and retreat of 
a corps of four hundred and fifty men, mostly French, who 
landed in Huntington Harbor. He settled in New Bruns- 
wick after the war ; and was a Judge of the Supreme Court, 
and a member of the Council. He went to England on pub- 
lic duty, in 1807, and died there the year following. Of the 
Loyalists who went to New Brunswick, few performed greater 
service ; of few is the memory more deeply cherished. Judge 
Upham was connected by marriage or by blood with many 
of the present distinguished families and official characters of 
that Province and of Nova Scotia. His first wife, Elizabeth, 
the mother of five children, died at New York in 1782. His 
second son, Joshua N., died in Massachusetts, in 1805, at the 
age of thirty. His eldest daughter, Elizabeth, died unmarried, 
at Fredericton, in the spring of 1844, in the seventy-fourth year 
of her age ; and another daughter, Frances Chandler, wife of 
Hon. John W. Weldon, Speaker of the House of Assembly, 
died at Richebucto, May 19, of that year, at the age of thirty- 
nine. His son, Charles Wentworth Upham, late President 
of the Senate of Massachusetts, and a Representative in Con- 
gress from that State, is a gentleman of fine attainments, and 
has enriched the literature of the country with several valua- 
ble productions. For his " Life of Sir Henry Vane," he de- 
serves the thanks of every lover of civil right, and of religious 

Upham, Jabez. Of Massachusetts. Brother of Joshua 
Upham. He died at Hampton, New Brunswick, in 1822. 
Bethiah, his widow, died at the same place, in 1834, at the 
age of eighty-one. 

Usher, Rev. John. Of Bristol, Rhode Island. He grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1719, and in 1722 was ap- 
pointed to the charge of St. Michael's Church, Bristol, by the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 

vol. ii. 32 


After a service of fifty-two years, and "just in time to escape 
the evil which was about to come upon the country, and es- 
pecially upon the clergy of the Church of England, who felt 
bound to maintain their loyalty during the Revolution," he 
died at Bristol in April, 1775, at the age of eighty-six. 

Usher, Rev. John. Of Bristol, Rhode Island. Episco- 
pal minister. He was son of Rev. John Usher. Graduated 
at Harvard University in 1743, and became a lawyer. After 
eighteen years' service as a lay reader to St. Michael's Church, 
he was ordained by Bishop Seabury in 1793. He resigned 
the Rectorship in the year 1800, and died in 1804, in his 
eighty-second year. He was a man of great worth. His 
exertions in behalf of that Church, "in nursing and sustain- 
ing it through a long and dreary night of discouragement, 
may well cause his name to be held there in perpetual re- 

Ustick, William and Henry. Traders, of the city of 
New York. In April, 1775, at a meeting at the "Liberty 
Pole," these persons were denounced as inveterate foes to 
American freedom, — one voice only dissenting, — on a charge 
of purchasing spades and shovels, and of manufacturing bill- 
hooks and pickaxes for the use of the Royal Army at Boston. 
Bishop Henry Ustick Onderdonk, of Pennsylvania, who died 
in 1858, and Bishop Benjamin Treadwell Onderdonk, of New 
York, who died in 1861, were nephews. 

Valentine, Hulet Peters. Of Long Island, New York. 
Born in 1716. Judge, and Clerk of Hempstead. Died in 
1786, aged seventy. 

Van Buren, Henry. Of Long Island, New York. Phy- 
sician. The Loyal Refugees of King's County requested to 
meet at his house, Flatbush, June, 1781. An Addresser of 
Commissary Scott in 1782. 

Van Buskirk, Lawrence. Of New Jersey. Captain in 
the King's Orange Rangers. Born in Hackensack. Before the 
Revolution, he was a farmer, and the owner of several slaves. 
One of his daughters, who died in 1849, in her eighty-third 
year, used to relate to a respected correspondent, to whom 


she was connected by marriage, an incident of the great Whig 
Chief, which may be recorded. 

After her father and brothers had joined the Royal troops, 
Washington, she said, was encamped on their farm six weeks. 
Their cows were all stolen, when her mother went to him, 
represented that her children had no food, and obtained an 
order for one, and the boon of a sentinel to protect her from 
insult. This Venerable, loyal lady, spoke of Washington as 
" a good man whom every one liked " ; and of having seen 
Greene, Lee, Maxwell, and many other Whig officers at her 
father's house. By her account, it seems, too, that her moth- 
er and four young children were driven from home, and lived 
in a Dutch parsonage ; but finally took refuge with the British 
in New York. 

At the peace, Captain Buskirk retreated to Nova Scotia. 
He never visited the United States. He died at Shelburne, 
in 1803, aged about seventy-four. His wife, who died at the 
same place in 1791, was Jane Van Buskirk, and his cousin. 
His property, of the estimated value of <£2400, was confis- 

Van Buskirk, Abraham. Of New Jersey. , Captain in 
the King's Orange Rangers. Son of Lawrence Van Buskirk. 
He embarked at New York for Nova Scotia in 1783, and 
perished at sea, at about the age of thirty-three. His wife 
was Anne Corsen, or Corson, who subsequently married Jacob 
Remson, and, a second time a widow, Lewis Ryas. She 
inherited a large and valuable estate near Port Richmond, 
New Y r ork, which was partially wasted by her second husband. 
She was a woman of good education, address, and manners. 
She died childless, at Staten Island, in 1825. 

Van Buskirk, Thomas. Of New Jersey. Lieutenant 
in the King's Orange Rangers. Son of Lawrence Van Bus- 
kirk. Went to Nova Scotia at the peace ; but returned to 
New Jersey, and died there at the age of about thirty years. 
His wife was a Van Buskirk. 

Van Buskirk, Abraham. Died at Eastport, Maine, in 
1819, aged sixty. 


Van Buskirk, Garrat. Was a native of New Jersey. 
His connection with the Revolutionary troubles in that section 
compelled him to leave the country at the close of the con- 
test, and he went to St. John, New Brunswick, but subse- 
quently settled in Nova Scotia. He died in Aylesford, in 
1843, aged eighty-seven years. 

Van Buskirk, Jacob. Of New Jersey. Entered the 
military service, and in 1782 was a Captain in the Third 
Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. After the war he set- 
tled in Nova Scotia, and received half-pay. 

Van Buskirk, Abraham. Of New Jersey. Entered 
the military service, and in 1782 was Lieutenant-Colonel of 
the Third Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. He was with 
Arnold in his expedition to New London ; and the traitor, in 
his official account of his deeds there, speaks of the Volun- 
teers, and of the exertions of Colonel Van Buskirk. He 
settled in Nova Scotia, and in 1784 was Mayor of Shelburne. 
He received half-pay. He died in that Province. 

Van Cortlandt, Philip. Of New York. Major in the 
Third Battalion of the New Jersey Volunteers. Descended 
from a noble family of Holland. His ancestor came to New 
York in 1629, as Secretary to the first Governor sent out by 
the States-General, and received the grant of two large manors 
— Yonkers and Cortlandt — on the Hudson River. Philip 
was born in 1739. He may have favored the popular cause 
at first, since, in 1775, he was a Deputy from West Chester 
County to meet delegates from other counties to appoint mem- 
bers of the Continental Congress. He adhered to the Crown, 
and, as an officer in the Volunteers, was frequently engaged 
against the Whigs in the field. At the peace he went to 
Nova Scotia, and thence to England. His estates were con- 
fiscated, as well in possession as in reversion, and his claim as 
the representative of the manor of Cortlandt was included in 
the forfeiture. He died in 1814. Catharine, his widow, 
daughter of Jacob Ogden, died in England in 1828. His 
sons were five : Philip, of whom a single word presently ; 
Stephen, a twin brother of Philip ; Jacob Ogden, a Captain 


in the British Army, killed in Spain in 1811 ; Henry Clinton, 
a Major in the Thirty-First Regiment, who, in 1835, was liv- 
ing in the East Indies ; and Arthur Auchmuty, a Captain in 
the Forty-Fifth Regiment, who died at Madras. His daughters 
were eight, of whom six were married : namely, Mary Rick- 
etts, to John M. Anderson ; Elizabeth, to William Taylor, of 
Cowley House, England ; Catharine, (twin of Elizabeth,) to 
Dr. William Gourlay, of Scotland, whose daughter Jane mar- 
ried General John Austin ; Margaret Hughes, to O. Elliott 
Elliott, of Binfield Park ; Gertrude, to Vice- Admiral Sir Ed- 
ward Buller, Bart. Last, of those who grew up, Sarah Ogden 
and Charlotte. Besides these thirteen, there were ten others 
who died young. The widow of Admiral Buller died at Tor- 
quay in 1849. 

Van Cortlandt, Philip, Jr. Of New York. Son of 
Philip. Born in 1766. Was an Ensign in the Third Bat- 
talion of New Jersey Volunteers. 

Van Cortlandt, Augustus. Of New York. When the 
famous Marrener seized Bache, and others, in 1778, he was 
to have been carried off, also ; but a negro of Chief Justice 
Horsemanden fired a gun which alarmed the marauders, and 
they retreated. In 1782 Van Cortlandt was an Addresser of 
Commissary Scott. He died at Yonkers, in 1823, aged nine- 

Van Dam, Anthony. Of New York. First Secretary 
of the Chamber of Commerce of that State ; elected in 1768, 
and held the office in 1784. In 1775 he took an active part 
in the Revolutionary proceedings ; was appointed a member 
of the Committee of One Hundred, and of the Committee 
for instituting a Military Night Watch. He was also offici- 
ally employed in matters connected with forwarding stores to 
Albany. He went to England, and, as is believed, became 
an agent of the underwriters at Lloyds'. He died at London, 
in 1807, aged seventy-seven. 

Vandeburgh, Richard. " Keeper of the Black-horse, or 
Half-way House " : sailed from New York for Nova Scotia, 
May, 1783. He returned to the United States. 



Vander Host, Elias. His paternal ancestor was Baron 
Vander Host of Holland. On his mother's side, he was de- 
scended from the noble family of Toisson, who, at the revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes, fled to South Carolina, leaving 
a considerable estate in France. The Vander Hosts accom- 
panied the Prince of Orange to England at the Revolution, 
and the head of the family received from that monarch (Wil- 
liam III.) a medal and an autograph letter in commemora- 
tion of the event. Subsequently the Vander Hosts emigrated 
to America, and became persons of property. 

Elias was here born, and entering the British Army, com- 
manded a company at the age of nineteen. He was in Eng- 
land for a change of climate, at the beginning of the Revolu- 
tion, and, cut off from his resources in America, was offered a 
pension as a Loyalist by his relative, George, Lord Lyttleton, 
but declined, and embarked in commercial pursuits. His only 
son, Thomas Cooper Vander Host, succeeded in recovering 
most of his property in the United States. His daughter, 
Anne, married John Rees, an officer in the British Navy, 
who was in the battles of Camperdown and Copenhagen. 
Elias Vander Host, American Consul at Bristol, England, 
was, I conclude, the subject of this notice. 

Van Deusen, James. Was at first a Whig and enlisted 
in the army, but deserted, and joined the Royal forces. He 
was taken by his former friends, tried, convicted, and put 
to death, in 1780. 

Vandyke, . He belonged, probably, to New Jer- 
sey ; but possibly to Pennsylvania. In 1777, or 1778, he 
w r as commissioned to raise a corps of Loyalists, and in May 
of the latter year he had embodied a force consisting of three 
troops of light dragoons, and one hundred and seventy-four 
foot soldiers : total number, three hundred and six. 

Van Horne, Gabriel. Died at Fredericton, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1815, aged sixty-seven ; and his widow, Mary, died 
at the same place the same year. 

Van Housen, Ryner. Of New York. Prisoner of the 
Provincial Congress. Officially charged with being " Too 


good a pilot to be trusted at large ; " and, July 18, 1776, con- 
fined in Albany, and supported at the public expense, under 
the direction of the Committee of that city. 

Van Norden, John. Of New Jersey. Son of Gabriel. 
An Ensign in the Third Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. 
At the peace, accompanied by his family of two, and two 
servants, he went from New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, 
where the Crown granted him one town lot. He was an in- 
structor in King's College, Nova Scotia, for some time ; but 
removed to Bermuda, and held several public stations. 

Van Norden, Gabriel. Of New Jersey. At the be- 
ginning of the war he removed to New York, where he 
opened a house of entertainment. At the peace, accompanied 
by his family of eleven persons, and by three servants, he 
went from New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the 
Crown granted him one town lot. His losses in consequence 
of his loyalty were estimated at £1500, for which the British 
Government made provision. He settled near Yarmouth, and 
died quite old, in 1810. 

Van Schaack, Peter. Of Kinderhook, New York. An 
exile to England, but returned to New York after the war, 
practised law, and was eminent in the profession. He seems 
to have been a most estimable man, and to have enjoyed the 
entire confidence and friendship of John Jay, Egbert Benson, 
Richard Harrison, Gouverneur Morris, George Clinton, and 
other Whigs, without interruption and during life. In 1778 
the state of Mrs. Van Schaack's health became alarming, 
and it was desirable *that she should visit the city of New 
York, the place of her nativity. Her physicians were of the 
opinion, that, in the peculiar state of her mind, her native air 
and proximity to the sea would be of more benefit than 
medicine. Her husband applied to the Governor of New 
York for leave to carry her there. The city was in possession 
of the British, and though that lady herself, as well as her 
partner, were objects of universal love and esteem, the request 
of the dving woman was refused. Such was the stern decree 
of war, — of civil war. Again, Mr. Van Schaack applied for 


liberty to take his sick wife within the British lines, and was 
again refused. She was wasting away under a consumption. 
Of the medical staff of Burgoyne's army, then prisoners, was 
a Doctor Hayes, of great reputed skill ; and Lafayette was 
asked to allow the British surgeon to visit her, but the Com- 
mittee of Safety interfered, and the humane mission was for- 
bidden. She soon died. In her last moments, she told her 
heart-broken husband that she forgave him who had prevented 
her from going to New York ; and when he desired to know 
whether she would not also forgive those who had prevented 
Doctor Hayes from coming to her, she answered, " Yes, she 
forgave them, and everybody." 

Of all the circumstances of her sad fate, Mr. Van Schaack 
wrote a most touching account. He was sorely stricken. 
Within eight years he had lost six children, he had buried his 
father, had been deprived of the use of one eye, and was 
harassed with the fear of total blindness. Under these cir- 
cumstances, the commotions of the time had broken up a 
flourishing business, and he was now an outlaw about to de- 
part from his native land. " Torn from the nearest and 
dearest of all human connections," are his own words, " by 
the visitation of Almighty God, and by means of the public 
troubles of my country, I am now going into the wide world, 
without friends, without fortune, with the remembrance of 
past happiness, and the future prospect of future adversity." 

The order for his banishment bore the signature of Leonard 
Gansevoort, Junior, Secretary of the Board of Commissioners, 
who had been his student at law. " Leonard," said he, " you 
have signed my death-warrant, but I appreciate your mo- 
tives." In other words, " Leonard, I know your worth ; you 
have taken one side of the controversy, and I the other. You 
decided from principle, and so did I." Of overt acts against 
his country, Van Schaack had committed none ; his sole 
offences were his opinions. That he was a pure and noble 
man, there is sufficient proof. On his return from England, 
Mr. Jay went on board of the ship, took him to the Governor's, 
the Chief Justice's, &c, and he received a hearty welcome from 


all ; and it is to be remarked that the friends who thus cor- 
dially greeted him were not of the moderate Whigs alone, but 
of those styled " violent Whigs," of whom George Clinton 
was regarded the head. Mr. Van Schaack died in 1832, aged 
eighty-five, and was buried at Kinderhook, New York. His 
" Life," by his son, which is mainly composed of his corre- 
spondence, is an interesting and instructive work. 

Van Schaack, Henry and David. Of New York. Per- 
mitted to return to the State by law, on the entreaty of 
Whigs, in 1784. 

Van Wart, Jacob. Of New York. Emigrated to New 
Brunswick at the close of the war, where he settled. He 
died in King's County, in 1838, aged seventy-eight. He was 
accompanied by his brothers, William and Isaac. Isaac died 
some years ago, but William is (1847) still living in New 
Brunswick. These Van Warts and Isaac Van Wart, who 
was one of the captors of Andre, were kinsmen. 

Van Wyck, Thomas. Of New York. In 1776 he ac- 
knowledged allegiance to Lord Richard and Sir William 
Howe. In 1780 he was an Addresser of Governor Robert- 
son ; in 1781 he was a Captain in the Loyal Queen's County 
Militia. At the peace he left the country. 

Vardill, Rev. John, D. D. Of New York. Episcopal 
minister. Graduated at King's (Columbia) College, and be- 
came a tutor in that institution. In 1774 he embarked for 
England, for the purpose of taking Holy Orders ; and the 
same year was elected Assistant Rector of Trinity Church, 
New York. He declined the office, and remained abroad. 
For a time he was employed by the British Government. In 
1785 he was in Ireland. He was the author of some poetical 
satires on the Whigs ; and Trumbull, in his " McFingal," 

says : — 

" In Vardill, that poetic zealot, 
I view a lawn bedizen'd Prelate ; 
While mitres fall, as 't is their duty, 
On heads of Chandler and Auchmuty." 

He died in England, in 1811, at the age of fifty-nine, Rector 
of Skirbeck and Fishtoft, Lincolnshire. 


Varnum, Daniel. Of Kent County, Delaware. October 
16, 17T5, was examined by the Local Committee of Inspec- 
tion, confessed to having said " he had as lief be under a 
tyrannical King as a tyrannical Commonwealth," and under 
the direction of the Committee, published a retraction and 
apology therefor. 

Vassall, John. Of Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was 
descended from the ancient house of Du Vassall, Barons de 
Guerdon, in Querci, Perigord. His American ancestor, who 
possessed a fortune, came early to New England, and was one 
of the Assistants of the Province of Massachusetts proper. 
But, an Episcopalian, he was viewed with jealousy ; and re- 
moving to Scituate, in the Colony of Plymouth, he became 
proprietor of a large estate, which bore the name of West 
Newland. After the conquest of Jamaica he obtained an 
extensive grant there. 

John, the subject of this notice, was born in Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, in 1738, and graduated at Harvard Univer- 
sity in 1757. An Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, he gave 
great offence. Early in 1775 he was driven from his seat by 
mobs, and took up his residence at Boston. The Committee 
of Safety, June 24, of the last mentioned year, " Ordered, 
That the commanding officer who has the charge of the hay 
on John Vassal, Esquire's estate, be directed to supply Mr. 
Seth Brown, who has the care of the Colony horses, with as 
much hay as they may need for their consumption." And 
furthermore, on the same day, " Ordered, That Mr. Brown, 
the keeper of the Colony horses, do not admit any horses into 
the stables of John Vassal, Esquire, but such as are the prop- 
erty of this Colony." On the 6th of July, the Committee 
voted, " That Joseph and Parsons Smith be allowed to cut, 
each, one ton of English hay, and one ton of black grass, on 
the estate of John Vassal, Esquire, in Cambridge, they to be 
accountable therefor ; and that Mr. David Sanger be directed 
accordingly." Similar orders and votes passed this body rel- 
ative to the estates of other Loyalists, who had been driven 
from their homes ; and the subject came up in the Provin- 


clal Congress the same year. On the 11th of July, Con- 
gress " Resolved, That the persons employed in cutting the 
grass on the land of the Refugees, be allowed half a pint 
of rum each per day." These incidents, though slight in 
themselves, throw light on the transactions of the day. Mr. 
Vassall's mansion-house, at Cambridge, became the head- 
quarters of Washington ; and is now occupied by Professor 

In 1776 Mr. Vassall went to England. He was passenger 
in one of the six vessels that arrived at London, from Halifax, 
prior to June 10th, laden with Loyalists and their families. In 
July, of that year, he designed to take a house " at the Court 
end of the metropolis, and enjoy the comforts of a plentiful 
fortune." In 1780 he seems to have lived at Bristol ; other 
Refugees from Massachusetts were at Birmingham ; but he 
disliked that place, and said it was "a dirty, ill-built hole." 
Later he resided alternately at Chatley Lodge, in the county 
of Wilts, and the city of Bath. Though his American prop- 
erty was confiscated, a part of the Jamaica grant was still in 
the family, and his children inherited a competence. He died 
at Clifton, England, in 1797, almost instantaneously, after 
eating a hearty dinner. His wife, Elizabeth, sister of Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Thomas Oliver, died at Clifton, in 1807, in 
her thirty-second year. His children were John, who died at 
Lyndhurst in the year 1800 ; Spencer Thomas, of whom pres- 
ently ; Thomas Oliver, who died in England, in 1807 ; Eliza- 
beth ; Robert Oliver, who became a member of the Council 
of Jamaica, and died at Abington Hall, in that island, in 
1827 ; a second Elizabeth, who married Mr. Lemaistre, and 
died at Cheltenham in 1856 ; Leonard ; and Mary, who alone 
was born in England, who married Mr. Archer, and who, 
with her only child, deceased at Clifton in 1806. 

Vassall, Spencer Thomas. Son of John Vassall. Born 
in 1764. Entered the British Army as an Ensign, as the ac- 
count is, at the age of twelve years. He rose to the command 
of the Thirty-Eighth Regiment, and was regarded as one of 
the bravest officers in the service. He was mortally wounded 


at the storming of Monte Video, in 1807, — the year of his 
mother's and of his brother Thomas Oliver's decease. His 
remains were taken to England, and buried in St. Paul's 
Church, Bristol, where there is a monument to his memory. 
His widow, Catharine Brandith Backhouse, daughter of Rev. 
Dr. Evans, married Thomas Chetham Strode, in 1816, and 
survived until 1842. His son, Spencer Lambert Hunter, who 
died in 1846, was a Knight, and a Captain in the Royal 
Navy ; his other son, Rawdon John Popham, is now (1862) 
a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Royal Artillery ; his daughter, 
Honora Mary Georgina, who deceased in 1834, was the wife 
of Rev. Edward P. Henslowe ; and his youngest daughter, 
Catharine Spencer Alicia Beresford, married Thomas Le 
Marchant Saumerez, son of the Admiral of that name, and, 
after his decease, Rev. Eardley Wilmot Michell. Add the 
cognomens, and we have thirty-six names for ten persons ; a 
case which has not previously occurred in any family men- 
tioned in these volumes. 

Vassall, William. Of Boston. Brother of John. He 
was born in 1715, and graduated at Harvard University in 
1733. In 1774 he was appointed a Mandamus Councillor, 
but was not sworn into office. He went to England, and 
was proscribed and banished. The forfeiture of his estate 
gave rise to a singular suit. As the Federal Constitution 
was adopted, a State could be sued ; and, at Mr. Vassall's in- 
stance, proceedings against Massachusetts were commenced in 
the Court of the United States ; and Hancock, who occupied 
the Executive Chair, was summoned as defendant in the case. 
His Excellency declined to appear ; and soon after the elev- 
enth amendment to the Constitution put an end to the right 
of Loyalists to test the validity of the Confiscation Acts of 
the Revolution. Mr. Vassall "was for many years connected 
with King's Chapel, Boston, and in 1785 protested, by proxy, 
against the change in the Liturgy, and the unauthorized ordi- 
nation of James Freeman." 

Mr. Vassall died at Battersea Rise, England, in 1800, aged 
eighty-five. He was upright, generous, and loving. Ann 


Davis, his first wife, bore him Sarah, four named William, 
two named Fanny, Frances, Lucretia, Henry, and Catharine. 
His second wife, Margaret Hubbard, was the mother of Mar- 
garet, Ann, Charlotte, Leonard, and Nathaniel. Each wife 
had twins. Nathaniel, the youngest son, a Captain in the 
Royal Navy, died in London in 1832. 

Vassall, William. Of Boston. Son of William Vas- 
sall. Born in Boston in 1753, and graduated at Harvard 
University in 1771. He went to England. He inherited 
the bulk of his father's property in the West Indies, which 
descended to his nephew, Rev. William Vassall, Rector of 
Hardington, England; "but so burdened and deteriorated, 
in consequence of emancipation, that it was not worth any- 
thing"; and that gentleman declined to administer upon it. 
He died at the Weston House, near Totness, December 2, 
1843. Anne, his widow, died at the same place, October, 
1846, aged seventy-five years. 

Vassall, Florentius. I am not certain that this gentle- 
man's name should appear in this work, for circumstances 
alone indicate his loyalty. He was born in Jamaica, West 
Indies, and lived there, I suppose, the greater part of his life. 
He was in Boston in 1775, and in that year went to England. 
He died in London in 1778. Of the immense domain which, 
fifteen miles wide on both sides of the Kennebec River, Maine, 
extending from the vicinity of Merry Meeting Bay to near 
the southerly line of the present town of Norridgewock, he 
was the owner of one twenty-fourth part ; and he possessed 
a large proportion of this share at the time of his decease. In 
his will, executed in 1776, he gave to his son Richard, and to 
Richard's daughter, Elizabeth, life estates in these lands, and 
then devised them in entail to her male children. The be- 
quest proved of little value to either. This granddaughter, 
Elizabeth, was the wife of Sir Godfrey Webster. Bart. Some 
years after her marriage, Lord Holland, while travelling in 
Italy, formed an intimacy with her, in consequence of which 
her husband brought an action for damages, and recovered 
X6000, and obtained a decree of divorce. His Lordship mar- 

vol. ii. 33 


ried Lady Webster in 1797, and took by sign-manual the 
surname of Vassal], which, however, was not assumed by his 
children. The estate in Maine could have been sold ; but 
after the divorce, Lady Holland's son Henry, who (after the 
death of his elder brother) was the sole male heir, ceased all 
intercourse with her, and preferred sacrificing his property 
to joining her in a conveyance. After the lapse of years, 
the rights of herself and of this son were purchased sepa- 
rately, by parties in Boston, who sued three of the settlers or 
"squatters," in the name of Henry, the son. The cases were 
carried up to the Supreme Court, at Washington, where it 
was decided that, during his mother's life, he could not 
maintain an action. After her decease suit against one set- 
tler was renewed ; but on intimation by the Court that fifty 
years' possession was sufficient to presume a grant or title, 
without considering another point, namely, whether the right 
of the plaintiff to recover was barred by the statute of limita- 
tions, the defendant paid a small sum for the land he occupied, 
and each party his own costs. Thus, in 1851, terminated liti- 
gation which, for a long time, was the subject of much interest 
on the Kennebec and elsewhere in Maine. 

Lady Holland was a very remarkable woman. Those who 
knew her speak of her as brilliant and witty, as possessed of 
queenly grace of manners, as well informed, of wonderful tact, 
and of excellent sense. The friendly feeling of Bonaparte to 
the Fox family, especially after the peace of Amiens, is well 
known ; and Mr. Harris relates that, in return "for the many 
acts of kindness which she had bestowed upon him," he "left 
her a gold snuff-box, which had been presented to him by Pope 
Pius VI.," containing a card, with these words: "L'Empe- 
reur to Lady Holland, temoigne de satisfaction et d'estime." 
She died at London, in 1845, aged seventy-five. Among her 
bequests were the income of an estate, about £1500 per an- 
num, to Lord John Russell, for his life ; and a legacy of £100 
to Macaulay, the historian. 

By her marriage with Sir Godfrey Webster she was the 
mother of Sir Godfrey Vassall Webster, Bart., who died in 


1836 ; of Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Henry Vassall Webster, 
Knight K. T. S. of the British Army, who died at London, 
in 1847, aged fifty-four ; and of Harriet, who married Admi- 
ral Sir Fleetwood B. Reynolds, C. B., K. C. H., and who died 
at Florence, in 1849, leaving an only child, the wife of the 
son and heir of the Earl of Orford. While Lady Webster, 
she bore Lord Holland a son, — Charles Richard Fox, — who 
married Mary Fitzclarence, second daughter of King Wil- 
liam IV., and who, in 1845, was a Colonel in the Army, and 
Aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria. As Lady Holland, she was 
the mother of three children, who died young : of Henry Hol- 
land, the present (1857) Lord Holland ; of Mary Elizabeth, 
wife of Lord Lilford ; and of Georgiana Anne, who deceased 
in 1819. 

Verner, Frederick. Of Pennsylvania. He was tried 
in 1778 as a spy, and sentenced to death. Doubts arose as 
to the sufficiency of the evidence and the legality of the trial, 
and he was accordingly kept in prison. In March, upon 
suggestion of the President of the Council to Congress that 
he could be exchanged for a Whig in New York under a 
like sentence, that body ordered his delivery to the Sheriff of 
Philadelphia. Estate confiscated. 

Vernon, Nathaniel. Of Pennsylvania. He was Sheriff 
of the county of Chester, and by a document of 1775, his 
office appears to have been worth X100 per annum. He ac- 
cepted a commission in the military service of the Crown, 
and in 1782 was a Captain of cavalry in the British Legion. 
His estate was confiscated ; but subsequently vested in his 
four sons. 

Vernon, Gideon. Of Pennsylvania. A nephew of Na- 
thaniel Vernon. Following the example of his uncle, he 
entered the Royal service, and was a Captain in a corps of 
Loyalists. He possessed a landed property of seven hundred 
acres, which w T as confiscated, and which now is of great value. 
For the loss of this estate, the British Government made him 
no compensation. He settled in New Brunswick at the close 
of the war, and was the first Sheriff of the county of Char- 

388 VIETS. 

lotte. The latter part of his life was passed in Canada, and 
he died there in 1836. His son, Moses Vernon, who was a 
magistrate of Charlotte County for several years, is (1848) 
a resident of St. John. 

Viets, Rev. Roger. Of Connecticut. Episcopal minister. 
Born in Simsbury, Connecticut, in 1737 ; son of John and 
Lois Phelps Viets ; brother of the wife of the late Right Rev. 
Bishop Griswold. He entered Yale College at the early age 
of thirteen, and graduated in 1758. His parents were zealous 
Presbyterians. By study of the books in the College library 
which related to Episcopacy, he became a convert to that 
form of faith ; and, overcoming the opposition of his friends, 
resolved to fit himself for the ministry. He went to England 
for ordination, and on his return took charge of St. Andrew's 
Church in his native town, as missionary of the Society for' 
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. The salary 
was so small that he was compelled to be a farmer in summer 
and a teacher in winter. His nephew, above mentioned, was 
among his pupils ; and " to Roger Viets was Bishop Gris- 
wold more indebted than to any other person, his superior 
mother perhaps excepted, for his early religious impressions, 
and his early literary culture." 

Mr. Viets was a good scholar, and a man of refined taste. 
His library was one of the best of the time in Connecticut. 
At the beginning of the Revolution, like most of the Episco- 
pal clergymen, he, probably, intended to remain neutral. He 
soon offended the Whigs. Some Loyalists who were endeav- 
oring to elude their pursuers, appealed to him at midnight for 
shelter ; " he dared not lodge them, but food he could not 
refuse." He was closely watched ; and, summoned before 
the Superior Court on the charge of aiding the escape of 
prisoners, and of holding a treasonable correspondence with 
the enemy, he was sentenced to pay a fine of X20, and to 
suffer one year's imprisonment in Hartford Jail. 

At the peace, the Society withdrew their support to their 
missionaries in the United States ; but offered increased 
emolument to such of them as would remove to the remain- 


ino; British Colonies in America. After much reflection, Mr. 
Viets resolved to abandon home for the wilds of Nova Scotia. 
In 1786 he accepted the rectorship of the new parish at 
Digby, and died at that place in 1811, after a ministry of 
twenty-four years, at the age of seventy-four. On my first 
visit to Nova Scotia, I was the guest of the son of a Loyalist, 
who took me to his grave ; and well do I remember my emo- 
tions as I uttered: "Here, then, rests a Tory; and you say, 
Judge, that he was a good man." Little did I then dream 
that I should devote much of the leisure of twenty-five years 
to the — " Tories " — of the American Revolution. 

Waddle, William. Of New York. He was an Alder- 
man of the city from 1773 to 1777, if not longer. In the 
last named year, Governor Tryon wrote Lord George Ger- 
main (February 11) that the Mayor, Recorder, and Waddle, 
had administered the oath of allegiance to two thousand nine 
hundred and seventy of the inhabitants of the city ; and that 
this number had " qualified " thus " without a shadow of com- 

Waddell, Henry. Of New Jersey. Episcopal minister. 
Decided in his attachment to the Crown. Before the Revolu- 
tion a distinguished lawyer in Monmouth County. After the 
war he took Holy Orders. He was successively Rector of the 
Episcopal Church in Shrewsbury, Middletown, and Trenton. 
He died at the last mentioned place, in 1811, aged sixty-five. 

Wadsworth, John. Of Duxbury, Massachusetts. He 
was the son of Dr. John Wadsworth, and graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1762. He designed to study law, but 
taught school in his native town some years, and in 1770 was 
chosen a tutor in his Alma Mater. As an instructor he was 
very distinguished. He was " an able logician, and his su- 
perior power in metaphysical discussions was universally ac- 
knowledged." He was fond of politics, and his arguments in 
opposition to the Whig cause gave much offence to persons 
with whom he had maintained the most intimate relations. 
Indeed his " Tory principles would have lost for him the tutor- 
ship but for the attachment of his pupils and the exertions of 



friends, who urged in his favor his remarkable faculty of com- 
municating his ideas." It was said, too, that his political 
errors were seeming rather than real ; that he argued on the 
Royal side merely to show his ability, and because he loved 
disputation. Yet, he was retained at the University by a 
vote of barely one majority. He died of small-pox, July 12, 
1777. In 1808 friends and pupils who " loved and honored 
his character" erected a monument to his memory in the old 
burying-ground, Cambridge, which bears a long and lauda- 
tory inscription in Latin. The subject of this notice was the 
only Wadsworth in Massachusetts suspected of loyalty. His 
cousin Peleg, the maternal grandfather of Henry Wadsworth 
Longfellow, the poet, was a general officer, and at one time 
chief of military affairs in Maine. 

Wadsworth, Elisha. Of Connecticut. In 1777 he was 
convicted by the Superior Court of attempting to rescue 
Moses Dunbar, then under sentence of death ; and ordered to 
pay a fine of £40, to suffer imprisonment, and to pay the costs 
of prosecution. 

Walbridge, Zebulon. Of New York. Was included in 
the disfranchising law of that State of 1784, but was restored 
to his civil rights by an Act of 1786, on his taking the oath of 
abjuration and allegiance. 

Waldo, Francis. Of Falmouth, Maine. He was the 
second son of General Samuel Waldo, and graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1747. Until 1758, there was no Custom- 
House in Maine. A Naval Officer and a Deputy-Collector 
resided at Falmouth for some years previously, but the first 
collection district was created in that year, when Mr. Waldo 
was commissioned Collector. His authority extended from 
Cape Porpus to the Kennebec. In 1763, " in pursuance of 
strict orders from the Surveyor-General, he issued a proclama- 
tion against smuggling rum, sugar, and molasses, which had 
previously been winked at, and the officers were directed to 
execute the law with rigor." He was Representative to the 
General Court from Falmouth for the years 1762 and 1763, 
but forfeiting the favor of the popular party, he was not after- 

WALDO. 391 

ward electee!. In 1770 George Lyde succeeded him as Col- 
lector of the Customs. Soon after the burning of Falmouth 
he retired from Maine, and never returned. In 1778 he was 
proscribed and banished. His property passed to the State 
under the Confiscation Act, and was sold in 1782. He went 
to England, and died in London in 1784. He was never 
married ; disappointed in an affair of the heart, in 1768, his 
intentions in this respect were forever abandoned. His sister 
married Thomas Flucker, Secretary of Massachusetts, and 
Flucker's only daughter married General Knox. Mrs. Knox 
was a lady of strong mind and lofty manners. She inherit- 
ed a large share of the Waldo Patent. The children of Gen- 
eral Knox were three. Henry ; the wife of Hon. Ebenezer 
Thatcher of Maine, and the widow of the late Hon. John 

Waldo, Samuel. Brother of Francis, and eldest son of 
General Samuel Waldo, a large landed proprietor in Maine. 
He graduated at Harvard University in 1743, and removed to 
Falmouth immediately after. His family had long exercised 
a great influence in Maine, in consequence of their estate, and 
in 1744 he was elected a member of the General Court. Gov- 
ernor Shirley, the same year, gave him the commission of 
Colonel. In 1753 he went to Europe, with authority from his 
father to procure emigrants to settle the Waldo Patent, and 
was successful in the objects of his mission. In 1760 he was 
appointed Judge of Probate for the county of Cumberland, 
and continued in office until his decease. Thus he held the 
first Probate Courts in Maine, and his brother Francis was 
appointed to the charge of the first Custom-House. After his 
first election as Representative, he was frequently reelected, 
and was a member of the legislature for eight years. He died 
April 16th, 1770, aged forty-nine. He was buried four days 
after " with great parade, under the church, with a sermon, 
and under arms." His remains were subsequently removed 
to Boston. . His first wife was Griselda or Grizzell Oliver, of 
Boston, whom he married in August, 1760, and who died 
the following February. In March, 1762, he married Sarah 


Erving, who bore him six children, namely : Samuel, John 
Erving, Francis, Ralph, Sarah, and Lucy. 

Waldo, Joseph. Merchant, of Boston. He went to Eng- 
land, and died there in 1816, aged ninety-four. He was edu- 
cated at Harvard University, and for a considerable period was 
the oldest graduate living, having received his degree in 1741. 

Waldo, John. Of Massachusetts. Went to England, 
and was at Bristol, October, 1777. 

Walker. Of Massachusetts. Five proscribed and ban- 
ished in 1778, namely : Adam, of Worcester ; John, of 
Shrewsbury ; and Gideon, Benjamin, and Zera, of Marsh- 

Walker, Daniel. Of Charlotte County, New York. 
Was known as " little Walker," and in 1775 some Whigs 
declared that " they would have him, if he could be found 
above ground." 

Wallace, Michael. Of Norfolk, Virginia. Merchant. 
His property was confiscated. At the peace he removed to 
Halifax, Nova Scotia, and remained there during life. He 
was Treasurer of the Province, Judge of Admiralty, Acting 
Provincial Secretary ; and four times, during the absence of 
the Governors, at the head of affairs. For several years after 
I went to the frontier, there was not a single bank in Nova 
Scotia or New Brunswick, and the treasury notes, or " Michael 
Wallace money," formed the only paper currency in both 
Provinces ; while they passed current in the border towns of 
Maine, to which the Colonists resorted for the purchase of teas 
and other articles, which they smuggled almost with impunity. 
Mr. Wallace was a gentleman of the Old School, and to the 
last wore a queue and used hair-powder. He died in 1831, 
aged eighty-four. Mary Kirby, his wife, bore him ten chil- 
dren, of whom four are now (1861) living. 

Wallace, John. Of Savannah, Georgia. Brother of 
Michael. Merchant. His property was confiscated. In 
1788 he went to Halifax, but was subsequently British Con- 
sul for Georgia. He died at Savannah in 1804. 

Wallace, Hugh. Of New York. Member of the Pro- 


vincial Council. Second President of the Chamber of Com- 
merce. In 1776 the Council of Safety gave him permission 
to go on board the ships-of-war in the harbor of that city. 
He was subsequently arrested and confined to the limits of 
Middletown, Connecticut ; his wife, meanwhile, was at New 
York. While a prisoner, his plate, valued at X1500, was sent 
to Richard Yates for safe-keeping, and that gentleman, on re- 
moving, put it on board a vessel which was captured. The 
captors made prize of the silver, and the facts of the case were 
represented to Gouverneur Morris by Alexander Wallace. 
The estate of Hugh Wallace was confiscated. At the peace 
he went to England, and died at Waterford, Ireland, in 1788. 

Wallace, Alexander. A merchant, of New York, 
whose property was confiscated. He was a member of the 
Committee of Correspondence, composed of fifty prominent 
men, of whom Mr. Jay was one ; and like several others of 
that body who finally adhered to the Royal cause, was in the 
beginning, I suppose, of Whig sympathies. To this Com- 
mittee, Francis Lewis, subsequently a signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, was added by unanimous consent, May 
19, 1771. 

In February, 1776, the Provincial Congress gave Mr. Wal- 
lace permission to put "one and a half pipes of wine" on 
board the ship Duchess of Gordon, for the use of Governor 
Tryon. In August of the same year he was arrested, by 
order of Washington, and sent to Fishkill. He asked to be 
released in December, and was allowed to go to Middletown, 
Connecticut, on parole. So in 1776, he represented in a 
petition to the Committee of Safety that his private papers 
were buried on Long Island in a place known only to himself, 
and would soon perish, probably, unless recovered. Graydon, 
when a prisoner on that island, was at his house one day, and 
relates that he put a glass of wine into the hands of his son — 
a lad of seven or eight — and asked what toast he drank. 
" Church and King " was the response. Mr. Wallace went 
to England at the peace with Hugh Wallace, his brother and 
partner. He died at Waterford, Ireland, in the year 1800. 


Wallace, James. Of Savannah, Georgia. Brother of 
Michael and John. His property was confiscated. He suc- 
ceeded John as British Consul for Georgia. 

Wallace, Jonathan. Was one of the first Loyal emi- 
grants to New Brunswick. He died at St. George, August, 
1840, at the age of eighty-nine. 

Wallace, . Of New England. Died at the house 

of Edmund Doharty, Halifax, Nova Scotia, of small-pox, in 

Waller, . In 1785, at the special recommendation 

of Dr. Franklin, a clause was inserted for his relief in a bill 
before the Legislature of North Carolina, which, however, 
the Senate rejected with hardly a dissenting voice. 

Waller, John. Of New York. Major of Brigade to 
General De Lancey. Died at Jamaica, Long Island, in 1780. 

Wallop, Bennet. A Captain of infantry in the Queen's 
Rangers, and Major of brigade in the Loyalist forces. John 
Laurens wrote Washington, in 1780, that he was a man of 
great interest and credit among the British. 

Walter, Rev. William, D. D. Of Boston. Episcopal min- 
ister, and Rector of Trinity Church. He was son of Rev. 
Nehemiah Walter, of Roxbury, and graduated at Harvard 
University in 1756. He was ordained by the Bishop of Lon- 
don. The Assistant of Rev. Mr. Hooper, he succeeded him 
at his decease as Rector. In 1776 he went to England. At 
the peace, accompanied by his family of six persons, and by 
three servants, he went from New York to Shelburne, Nova 
Scotia, where the Crown granted him one town and one 
water lot. His losses in consequence of his loyalty were es- 
timated at ,£7000. A fellow-Loyalist and clergyman of his 
own communion wrote, in 1785 : "I understand that Par- 
son Walter has arrived at Halifax, in the quality of a D. D. 
What is your opinion of this gentleman ? The ladies who 
emigrated from York to Annapolis reprobate him as a fop and 
coxcomb, and affirm that his whole attention is given to dress, 
balls, assemblies, and plays." He returned to Boston in 1791, 
and the next year was chosen Rector of Christ Church. He 


died in Boston, in the year 1800, at the age of sixty-one. 
The Rev. Dr. Parker, who preached his funeral sermon, de- 
lineated his character as ornamental to religion and to the 
Church, to literature and humanity. "Dr. Walter was a re- 
markably handsome man ; tall, and well proportioned. When 
in the street, he wore a long blue cloth cloak over his cassock 
and gown ; a full-bottomed wig, dressed and powdered ; a 
three-cornered hat ; knee-breeches of fine black cloth, with 
black silk hose, and square quartered shoes with silver buck- 
les. His countenance was always serene, his temper always 
cheerful ; happy himself, he communicated happiness to all 
around him. In the desk he read the glorious service like 
one inspired ; his voice was clear, musical, and well modu- 
lated In his family he was at once loved, reverenced, 

and admired His heart, his house, his purse, were 

ever open to the needy. His wife, who bore him seven chil- 
dren, and who died in 1798, was Lydia, daughter of Benjamin 
Lynde, Jr., of Salem. His grandson, Lynde Minshall Wal- 
ter, was the founder and first editor of the " Boston Evening 

Waltermeyer, John. A Tory partisan leader. He was 
noted for enterprise and daring, but not for cruelty or feroc- 
ity. In 1781, at the head of a band of Tories, Indians, and 
Canadians, he attempted to carry off General Schuyler, whose 
abode at that time was in the suburbs of Albany. The party 
entered the dwelling, commenced packing up the plate, and a 
search for the General. But that gentleman opened a win- 
dow, and, as if speaking to an armed force of his own, called 
out, — " Come on, my brave fellows ; surround the house, and 
secure the villains who are plundering." The happy strata- 
gem caused Waltermeyer and his followers to betake them- 
selves to flight. 

Walton, Jacob. Of New York. In 1769 he was re- 
turned to the House of Assembly from the city, and his elec- 
tion was viewed as a triumph of the Episcopalians over the 
Presbyterians. During the recess of 1775 he joined Cruger, 
Phillipse, and others of the Ministerial party, in a letter on 

396 WALTON. 

the state of public affairs, to General Gage at Boston. In 
1776 General Lee ordered him to remove from his house, for 
the accommodation of the Whig troops. " You may recollect 
Home's Hook, that Jacob Walton purchased, built an elegant 
house, and greatly and beautifully improved the place ; he 
was obliged to quit, the troops took possession, and fortified 
there. When Mrs. Walton received the order to go out of 
her house she burst into tears, for she was fixed to her heart's 
desire." Mr. Walton died August 12, 1782 ; his wife, a 
daughter of Henry Cruger, preceded him just eleven days. 

Walton, William. Of New York. He was elected 
President of the Chamber of Commerce, New York, on the 
day that an Address was voted to Governor Tryon ; which 
was as loyal, and, I add, as obsequious, as that presented to 
General Gage by the "Addressers" in Massachusetts. Rear- 
Admiral Jacob Walton, of the British Navy, (who died at 
New York, in 1844, aged seventy-seven,) inherited the prop- 
erty of his family ; and when, about the year 1830, he took 
possession of the " Walton House," in Pearl Street, he found, 
among other things, in the spacious attic, dragoon saddles and 
Hessian muskets. This mansion, which, at the Revolutionary 
era was called the most elegant in the city, is still standing. 

Walton, Abraham. Of Queen's County, New York. 
In 1779 a party of rebels assailed his house, forced open the 
door, seized his person, and plundered the dwelling of silver 
plate and money. • The leader of the party was supposed to 
be one Benjamin Kirby, "a native of Long Island, who had 
taken the oath of allegiance, but on D'Estaing's arrival at 
Sandy Hook revolted to Jonathan." Mr. Walton was a 
member of the Committee of One Hundred, of the City and 
County of New York, in 1775, and one of the twenty-one 
delegates chosen to the Provincial Congress the same year. 
As a member of the Committee, he signed a letter to the 
Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council of London, 
containing the following emphatic expression :...." All 
the horrors of civil war will never compel America to sub- 
mit to taxation by authority of Parliament." But yet he was 

WANTON. 397 

subsequently known as a distinguished Loyalist. He died at 
New York in 1796. 

Wanton, Joseph. The last Governor of Rhode Island 
under the Royal Government. He was the son of Governor 
William Wanton, and was connected with families of the 
highest respectabilty. He graduated at Harvard University 
in 1751, and at the Revolutionary era was a merchant of 
wealth. He was a man of amiable disposition, elegant man- 
ners, and handsome person. " He dressed in the finest style 
of the times, wore a large white wig, with three curls, one 
falling down his back, and one forward on each shoulder." 
This wig was made in England, of the pattern and size of that 
worn by the Speaker of the House of Commons, and was so 
large that the fashionable hat of the period could not be 
placed on his head, without disturbing the curls. One oc- 
casion is mentioned — that of Commencement at Brown 
University — when the Governor placed his hat under his left 
arm, and held his umbrella in his right hand. And of the 
umbrella, it may be remarked, that, on the day in question, 
he carried the first ever used in Rhode Island by a gentleman. 

His first election to the Executive Chair was in 1769. In 
1775 the House of Assembly, or House of Magistrates, 
passed an Act to raise and organize an army of fifteen hun- 
dred, against which, he, the Deputy-Governor, and other 
members of the Upper House, entered a written dissent. 
Subsequently, in the same year, the popular branch passed an 
Act recapitulating this offence in the preamble, and stated in 
addition that he had refused to issue a proclamation for a day 
of fasting and prayer, in accordance with a Resolve of the 
Assembly ; that, though he had been elected Governor of the 
Colony for that year, he had not taken the oath of office ; 
and that he had refused to sign the commissions of the 
officers appointed to command the troops. In the body of the 
Act, all power as Governor was taken from him» until he 
should comply with certain conditions therein stated, and 
authority to sign civil and military commissions was intrusted 
to Henry Ward, the Colonial Secretary. These proceedings 

vol. ii. 34 

398 WANTON. 

occurred in April and May, and in June the Assembly passed 
another Act, which recited that Governor Wanton had ap- 
peared and demanded that the official oath be administered to 
him, but that as he had not given satisfaction to that body, 
his request could not be complied with. From that period, 
Deputy- Governor Nicholas Cooke appears as the head of the 
executive branch of the Government, and affixed his signature 
accordingly. Perhaps Governor Wanton's appointment, 
under the great seal of England, to inquire into the affair of 
the burning of the King's ship, the Graspee, by the Whigs in 
1773, hastened his decline and fall. He always lived at 
Newport, and owned a large and valuable estate at the North 
end of the city. While occupied by the British, he was 
" Superintendent " of the troops. At the evacuation, he fol- 
lowed the Royal Army to New York, where he died in 1780. 
A monument was erected over his remains in the family burial- 
ground of the Ludlows. Such is one account of the place of 
his decease and interment, [papers in the Library of the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society,] but it is stated elsewhere that 
his death occurred at Newport, at the age of seventy-five, and 
that his remains were deposited in the family vault. Again, 
I find it said that he died in 1782. In the notice of his son 
Joseph, which follows, I endeavor to reconcile the discrep- 

Wanton, Joseph, Jr. Of Rhode Island. Son of Gov- 
ernor Wanton. In the affair of the Graspee, his influence 
with his father, and with the other Commissioners of inquiry, 
prevented, probably, extreme measures, and caused a dissolu- 
tion of the Court. His course, subsequently, was favorable 
to the Whigs, and doubts have been expressed as to his loy- 
alty ; but in December, 1775, he was one of the very few 
persons who refused to take the oath of fidelity to the country 
which was tendered by General Lee, and in consequence was 
put under .guard and taken to Providence. So again in 1778 
he was an Addresser of Lord Howe and of Sir Peter Parker. 
When the British had possession of Rhode Island, a regiment 
was raised by General Prescott, to mount guard at night. The 

WANTON. 399 

citizens were in the power of the enemy, and entered this 
corps of necessity ; the Whigs, to avoid the penalties inflicted 
on " Rebels." Wanton was appointed to the command, and 
accepted. At the evacuation he accompanied the Royal 
troops to New York, as is averred, (to escape insult and 
injury at the moment,) with the design of returning as soon 
as his conduct could be explained. These several acts seem 
to afford evidence that his sympathies were on the side of the 
Crown ; and that, like many others, he attempted the difficult 
part of pleasing both parties. At all events he lost his 
estates. At first, the General Assembly did but sequester ; 
but finally, after the peace, and in violation of the treaty, 
they confiscated. His wife was a daughter of James Honey- 
man, Judge of the Court of Vice-Admiralty, of Rhode Isl- 
and ; and the property bequeathed to her by her father was 
included in the forfeiture, but, to the honor of the State, re- 
stored. Colonel Wanton's daughters, Mary, Elizabeth, and 
Ruth, married British officers. I conclude that he, and not 
his father, died at New York in 1782, and that he w r as buried 
in the Ludlow family burial-ground. So I suppose that Bet- 
sey Wanton (called Elizabeth above), who, at Charleston, 
South Carolina, in 1782, became the wife of Captain Wil- 
kinson, of the Sixty-Fourth Regiment, was not, as I find the 
record, his sister, but his second daughter. The informant of 
the writer of the MS. in the Massachusetts Historical Society's 
Library, may not have known that the Governor had a son 
of his own Christian name — hence the confusion of dates and 

Wanton, William. Of Rhode Island. Son of Governor 
Wanton. In July, 1783, he was at New York, and a peti- 
tioner for grants of lands in Nova Scotia. [See Abijah Wil- 
lard.~\ He settled afterwards in New Brunswick, and about 
the year 1786 was appointed Collector of the Customs for 
the port of St. John. He held that office for a period of 
thirty years. In 1801 he went to England, accompanied by 
his lady, in the mast-ship, Duke of Kent. He died at St. 
John, in 1816, aged eighty-two. His widow died at Exeter, 

400 WARD. 

England, in 1824. The monument erected over his remains 
when I last saw it was in a ruinous condition. 

Ward, John. Of West Chester County, New York. He 
was an officer in the Loyal American Regiment, and entered 
the military service of the Crown as early as 1776. During 
the war he was frequently in battle. The Loyal Americans 
went to New Brunswick in 1783 ; and when, in the course of 
that year, the corps was disbanded, he settled at St. John as a 
merchant. He filled various public stations ; and for many 
years enjoyed the appellation of The Father of the City. At 
the time of his decease he was not only the senior magistrate 
of the city and county of St. John, but the oldest merchant 
and half-pay officer in New Brunswick. Mr. Ward was a 
gentleman of noble and venerable appearance. He died in 
1846, in the ninety-third year of his age. His remains were 
taken to Trinity Church, " where the impressive funeral 
service of the Church of England was read, and were subse- 
quently interred in the New Burial-Ground, followed to the 
grave by one of the largest and most respectable funeral pro- 
cessions ever seen in this city, — including, in distinct bodies, 
the Justices of the Peace for the city and county of St. John, 
— the Common Council of the city, headed by his Worship 
the Mayor, and his Honor the Recorder, — the members of 
the Legal Profession, (the Barristers being in their gowns,) 
at the head of whom was his Honor Mr. Justice Carter, sup- 
ported by the Honorable the Attorney-General and Solicitor- 
General, — the Grand Jury for the city and county, then 
attending the Circuit Court, — and the officers and men of 
the New Brunswick Regiment of Artillery of St. John ; as 
well as a vast concourse of other citizens, — all anxious to 
pay the last tribute of respect to one who was so intimately 
associated with the early history of the country," &c. 

Ward, Thomas. Of Newark, New Jersey. The leader 
of a band of marauders. He was a Whig at first, and in the 
army. After his desertion, he commanded a block-house on 
the Hudson River, which was attacked by Wayne. In 1780 
he occupied a garrison-house on Newark Bay, and lived by 

WARD. — WARNE. 401 

plundering. Those associated with him were negroes, and 
vile creatures of his own race. 

Ward, Benjamin. Of New York. A Lieutenant in the 
Loyal American Regiment. Wounded, 1777, in the storm- 
ing of Forts Montgomery and Clinton. 

Warden, James. Of Massachusetts. Was an Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774. Joseph and William Warden went 
to Halifax in 1776. All belonged to Boston, and the last, 
who was proscribed and banished in 1778, went to Shel- 
burne, Nova Scotia, at the peace, with his family of four and 
a servant, where fifty acres of land, a town and a water lot, 
were granted him ; he had lost X350 by his loyalty. 

Warden, John. Of Virginia. A lawyer of some celeb- 
rity. He was unfriendly not only to American Indepen- 
dence, but to the adoption of the Federal Constitution. 

Wardrobe, David. Of Westmoreland County, Virginia. 
In November, 1774, he was examined by the Whig Com- 
mittee of that county, concerning a letter " false, scandalous, 
and inimical to America," which he had written to a corre- 
spondent in Scotland. The Committee passed a number of 
Resolves, which they recommended " to all those who regard 
the peace, the liberty, and rights of their country ; " two 
were as follows : " Resolved, That the vestry of Cople Parish 
be desired no longer to furnish the said Wardrobe with the 
use of the vestry-house for his keeping school therein." And, 
" That all persons who have sent their children to school to 
the said Wardrobe do immediately take them away, and that 
he be regarded as a wicked enemy to America, and be treated 
as such." 

Warlick, . Of North Carolina. Captain in a 

Loyalist corps. Killed in 1780, in the battle of Ramsour's 

Warne, William. Of New York. Confessed he was 

" a Tory." The Committee of Safety (September, 1776,) 

ordered that he be committed to jail for one month ; but be 

taken out every morning, and compelled to work all day, at 

" such wages as his labor may be reasonably worth." The 

34 * 


month at an end, the jailer to present him to the Whig 
authorities, to abide " such further order as may then be 
made concerning him." 

Warner, Jonathan. Of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 
A member of the Council. He married Sarah Wentworth, 
of the distinguished family of that name. The " Warner 
House," at the corner of Daniel and Chapel Streets, (now 
owned and occupied by Colonel John N. Sherburne, a rela- 
tive,) was completed in 1723, is the oldest brick house in 
Portsmouth, and cost £6000. It is said that the lightning- 
rod of this mansion was put up under the direction of Frank- 
lin himself. 

Mr. Warner's political life closed when the Whigs assumed 
the Government. He had an only child who died young. 
" We well recollect " him, says Mr. Brewster, " as one of the 
last of the cocked hats. As in a vision of early childhood, 
he is still before us, in all the dignity of the aristocratic crown 
officers." In the " Rambles," too, there is a pleasant anec- 
dote, in substance as follows. Mr. Warner's slave Peter, 
tired of his old hat, threw it away, and went to his master for 
another. " Make a rhyme, Peter," was the reply, " and you 
shall have a new one." The bondman, sorely discouraged, 
left his master's presence in thoughtful mood, and repaired to 
Wyseman Claggett for assistance. " What is your name ? " 
asked the counsellor. " Peter Warner, massa." " Peter 
Warner — threw his hat in the chimney corner " — responded 
Mr. 0. playfully. " There is your rhyme ; now go and get 
your new hat." Peter departed, repeating the words all the 
way ; presenting himself in the parlor, much elated, said 
he, — " Massa, I 've got the rhyme." " Well, say it." " Peter 
Warner — took off his hat and threw it — in the fire-place." 

Washburn, David. Of Connecticut. While under 
sentence of death for treason, he escaped from the jail in 
Fairfield, and enlisted in Emmerick's corps. Taken by 
Whigs at Huntington, and threatened with hanging ; General 
Silliman interfered on the ground that the British would re- 
taliate. Washburn was released in May, 1780. 


Waterbury, John. Of Connecticut. Went to St. John, 
New Brunswick, at the peace, and was a grantee of that city ; 
and entered upon the life of a merchant. In 1795 he was a 
member of the Loyal Artillery. He died at St. John, in 1817, 
aged sixty-eight. 

Waterbury, David. Of Connecticut. Settled in St. 
John, New Brunswick, and held various public stations. He 
died there, in 1833, aged seventy-five. In 1775 there was 
a David Waterbury, Lieutenant-Colonel of the Connecticut 
militia, who, because of some difficulty, resigned. 

Waterbury, Peter Cooke. Of Connecticut. Was a 
Cornet of Cavalry in Arnold's American Legion. In 1783 
he settled at St. John, New Brunswick, and received half- 

P a 7- 

Waterhouse, Samuel. Of Boston. An officer of the 

Customs. He is described as "the most notorious scribbler, 

satirist, and libeller in the service of the conspirators against 

the liberties of America." He accompanied the British troops 

to Halifax at the evacuation, and embarked for England, with 

his family, in the ship Aston Hall, July, 1776. In 1778 he 

was proscribed and banished. In 1779 he was in London, a 

Loyalist Addresser of the King. 

W atkins, . Ensign and Adjutant in the King's 

American Regiment. Killed under Tryon, in the expedi- 
tion to Connecticut, in 1779. 

Watson, George. Of Massachusetts. He was appointed 
a Mandamus Councillor, but does not appear to have taken 
the oath of office. I suppose this gentleman to have been the 
Colonel George Watson, of Plymouth, who died at that place 
in the year 1800 ; and who is said to have possessed almost 
every virtue that can adorn and dignify the human character. 
His daughter Elizabeth, who died at Rome in 1809, was the 
first wife of Sir Grenville Temple, Bart. 

Watson, Jacob. Of New York. A dealer in "pig-iron, 
anchors, potash, kettles, negro wenches and children, horses," 
«fec. In 1776 an Addresser of Lord and Sir William Howe. 

Watson, John. Of New York. Went to Shelburne, 

404 WATTS. 

Nova Scotia, in 1783 ; thence, the same year, to St. John, 
New Brunswick. He died at Wickham, in the last men- 
tioned Province, in 1846, aged ninety-nine years. 

Watts, John. Of New York. Member of the Council. 
The original name was Watt. The subject of this notice was 
born in New York in 1715, and was appointed to the Council 
in 1758, at which time his brother-in-law, James De Lancey, 
was at the head of public affairs. He was so popular with 
the "Government-men" of the Colony, that, in 1775, he was 
designated to succeed Governor Colden ; but strange are the 
vicissitudes of human life : on the 4th of May of that very 
year he abandoned his native country, and never returned to 
it. He embarked for England, in the packet Charlotte, " with 
a heavy heart," he said, "foreseeing the distresses which were 
hanging over us." His estate was confiscated. The house 
in which he lived was near Whitehall, in the part of Pearl 
which was formerly called Dock Street. He died in Wales, 
in 1789. His wife, Ann De Lancey, whom he married in 
1742, died in 1775, and two months after leaving New York. 
He was the father of ten children, of whom three died in in- 
fancy. His daughter Ann, who died in 1793, married Cap- 
tain Archibald Kennedy, R. N., who succeeded to the titles 
and estates of his family, as eleventh Earl of Cassilis ; their 
son, the twelfth Earl, was born in America. Susanna, an- 
other daughter, was the wife of Colonel Philip Kearney, and 
the mother of Stephen Watts Kearney, General in the United 
States Army. Mary, the fourth daughter, married Sir John 
Johnson, Knight and Baronet. [See notice of her husband.] 
Margaret, the youngest, was the wife of Major Robert Wil- 
liam Leake. Of his son Stephen, presently. His son, the 
late Hon. John Watts, owned and occupied a house in Broad- 
way, New York, which he sold for £2000 sterling in 1792, 
which could have been sold for $107,000 in 1836, and which 
was lately purchased for $37,500. This gentleman, who 
made a munificent donation to the Orphan Asylum, New 
York, married Jane De Lancey, a cousin-german. The late 
General Philip Kearney, who lost an arm in Mexico, and his 


life in the present unhallowed rebellion, was of his lineage. 
Of Robert, the remaining child of the Loyalist, I have no in- 

Watts, Stephen. Of New York. Son of John. He 
was born in 1754. At the age of twenty-two he was Major 
of the " Royal Greens," a corps raised principally in the val- 
ley of the Mohawk, and commanded by. his brother-in-law, 
Sir John Johnson. In the battle of Oriskany, Major Watts 
lost a leg. This affair occurred in August, 1777, in a marshy 
ravine, about midway between Rome and Utica, New York ; 
and, for the numbers engaged, was one of the bloodiest of the 
war. The Major was left on the field with the slain, and was 
reported among the killed. But reviving from faintness, pro- 
duced by the loss of blood, he crawled to a brook and slaked 
his thirst ; and, found two or three days afterward by some 
Indian scouts, was conveyed to the British camp. He was 
" brave and handsome." He went to England. His wife 
was Mary Nugent. 

Weeks, Rev. Joshua Wingate. Of Marblehead, Mas- 
sachusetts. Episcopal minister. Born at Hampton, New 
Hampshire, and graduated at Harvard University in 1758. 
He became Rector of St. Michael's Church in 1762, having 
been ordained in England the preceding year. In 1775 he 
was driven from Marblehead by the political commotions of 
the time, and took refuge with the Rev. Mr. Bailey, at 
Pownalborough. He, however, returned to Massachusetts ; 
and in 1778, applied for leave to quit the country ; but his 
petition was rejected. Before the peace he was in England ; 
and went thence to Nova Scotia. He was missionary at 
Annapolis ; chaplain to a military corps at Halifax ; officiated 
at Preston and Guysborough ; and could have been settled at 
Digby. At times he was poor, and even in distress. He 
died in Nova Scotia in 1804. He married Sarah Treadwell, 
of Ipswich, Massachusetts, (before he took orders,) who, in 
1779, was the mother of eight living children. 

Weekes, Daniel. Of Long Island, New York. Ac- 
knowledged allegiance to Lord and Sir William Howe, in 


1776. Removed to Nova Scotia, and died near Halifax, in 
1852, at the supposed age of one hundred and fourteen years. 

Weekes, Townsend. Of Hempstead, New York. Ac- 
knowledged allegiance to Lord and Sir William Howe in 
1776 ; the same year, the " greatest Tory " among the pris- 
oners sent to General Greene. 

Weekes, John. Of Long Island, New York. Acknowl- 
edged allegiance to Lord and Sir William Howe in 1776. 
Two years later, his house was plundered by a band from 
Connecticut, led by one Carehart, who, pretending to be an 
adherent of the Crown, had previously visited Weekes and 
others, and had been kindly entertained. 

Welch, Nicholas. Major in the North Carolina Loy- 
alists. He joined that corps in 1778 ; a year and a half 
afterward, he appeared in the neighborhood of his home in 
North Carolina, wearing rich regimentals, and exhibiting a 
considerable amount in British gold to induce recruits. Many 
joined him. In the battle of Ramsour's Mill, which soon 
followed, he participated with his force. [See John Moore.'] 

Welch, John. Of Lanesborough, Massachusetts. In 
1778 he was declared an enemy to his country, and ordered 
to be sent to Bennington. Died at Boston, in 1812, aged 
eighty-two ; Mary, his wife, died at the same place in 1803, 
at the age of seventy. 

Weld, Benjamin. Of Massachusetts. His wife was 
Sarah, daughter of Doctor Benjamin Church, who, a leading 
Whig, went over to the Royal side. 

Wells, Robert. A native of Scotland. Established 
himself at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1758, as a book- 
seller, printer, and publisher of a newspaper. For many 
years he was the principal bookseller in the Carolinas, and 
his business was both extensive and profitable. He held the 
office of Marshal of the Admiralty Court ; and was also a 
noted auctioneer for the disposal of cargoes of slaves. He 
was a good editor, and in his relations as a man of business 
was active, prompt, and just. His newspaper was the second 
published in South Carolina; and in 1775 it was called "The 

WELLS. 407 

South Carolina and American General Gazette," which may 
have been its name from the beginning. Firmly attached 
to the Royal cause, he resigned his establishment to his son 
John, at the beginning of the Revolution ; went to Europe, 
and never returned. His estate was confiscated in 1782. In 
England he acquired a fortune of about one hundred thousand 
dollars ; but owing to a variety of causes his circumstances, 
in 1785, were much embarrassed. His son, William Charles 
Wells, M. D., was a Fellow of the Royal Society, and there 
is a monument to his memory in St. Bride's, Fleet-street. 

Wells, John. Was born in Charleston, South Carolina, 
and succeeded his father, who was a firm Loyalist, as a printer 
and bookseller of that city, in 1775. Until the capitulation 
of that city, John was a Whig, having borne arms against the 
British. But he then commenced the publication of a Royal 
Gazette, which he continued until December, 1782. At the 
close of the war he was among the proscribed ; and abandon- 
ing the United States, he went to Nassau, New Providence, 
where he established " The Royal Bahama Gazette." Dis- 
satisfied with his residence there, he was preparing to return 
to his native land, " when he was summoned to the world 
of spirits." He had married at Nassau, and was highly 

Wells, William Charles. Of South Carolina. Physi- 
cian, and Fellow of the Royal Society. He was the son of 
Robert Wells, and was born in Charleston. In 1770 he went 
to Edinburgh, became a student at the University, and made 
the acquaintance of Hume, the historian. He returned to 
Charleston, in 1781, and was placed under the care of Dr. 
Alexander Garden, the principal physician of that city. In 
1775 he was asked to sign a Whig paper, called the "Asso- 
ciation," the object of which was to unite the people against 
the measures of the Crown. He refused, and immediately 
embarked for London. In 1776 he resumed his medical 
studies at Edinburgh, and three years afterwards went to 
Holland as Surgeon of a Scotch regiment in the service of 
the United Provinces. Ill-treated, however, by his command- 

408 WELLS. 

ing officer, he resigned his commission, and sent a challenge 
to the offender ; which was declined. In 1781 he went to 
Charleston, then in possession of the British troops, to arrange 
the affairs of his family ; and during his stay there was an 
officer in a corps of volunteers, a printer, a bookseller, a mer- 
chant, and a trustee of parties in England who had business 
of importance to arrange in that part of the country. And 
besides, he wrote a political paper, by request of Colonel Bal- 
four, in which he designed to show that Whigs of rank, who, 
after having been taken prisoners and sent to their homes on 
parole, appeared in arms against the Crown, were, by military 
usage, and the nature of the case itself, liable to the punish- 
ment of death. This, by direction of Balfour, was frequent- 
ly published in the newspapers ; and it is probable that it 
was owing to this warning, that that officer and Lord Moira 
thought themselves justified in executing Colonel Hayne. 
At the evacuation of Charleston Dr. Wells retired to St. 
Augustine, where he edited a weekly newspaper, and the 
first ever printed in Florida. He was also captain of a mili- 
tary company, and the manager of a theatre established by 
the young officers, for the benefit of the poorest of the Loyal- 
ists who had fled from the Carolinas and Georgia. 

He was in London in 1784 ; at Paris in 1785 ; and three 
years later was admitted to practice in the former city by the 
Royal College of Physicians. For a considerable time he 
hardly took a fee or had a professional call. In 1798 he w T as 
elected Assistant Physician to St. Thomas's Hospital, and in 
1800 he became one of the Physicians. His contributions to 
the press on medical topics were numerous. He also wrote 
several biographical sketches and controversial papers. " He 
was skilful and learned in his profession, a vigorous and ele- 
gant writer, and his knowledge was profound, accurate, and 
various." Early in his last illness he directed all his manu- 
scripts to be burned, except an essay on the difference be- 
tween the white and negro races in color and form. He died 
in London in 1817. 

Wells, John, and John, Jr. Of South Carolina. The 


first a physician ; his estate amerced twelve per cent. The 
son, an Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton ; banished and estate 

Wells, Samuel. Of Cumberland County, New Hamp- 
shire Grants. He was born in Deerfield, Massachusetts, in 
1730, and settled on "the Grants," at Brattleboro', in 1762 
on an estate of six hundred acres. He became the principal 
officer in the militia in that section of country ; was a Judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas, and member of the New York 
House of Assembly. Because of his loyalty he was examined 
before the Provincial Congress, but dismissed ; and later, in 
the increased asperity of the contest, was confined to his farm, 
and permission given to shoot him if found beyond its limits. 
Implicated with those who aimed to reduce Vermont to a de- 
pendency of the Crown, and, possibly, a principal man of the 
party ; he fled the country after measures had been taken to 
arrest him, by Washington, under a vote of Congress in secret 
Session. He returned to Brattleboro', and died there, in 1786, 
aged fifty-five. Once rich, his estate was found deeply insol- 
vent. In consideration of his losses the British Government 
granted each of his children twelve hundred acres of land in 
Canada, and they all removed to that Colony twelve or fifteen 
years after his decease. His wife was Hannah Sheldon. 

Went worth, Benning. He was proscribed and banished, 
and his estate was confiscated, under the Act of New Hamp- 
shire of 1778. I suppose that before abandoning the country 
he was a resident of Boston. In 1795 he was appointed a 
member of the Council, and the year following, Secretary of 
Nova Scotia. At this time he enjoyed the office of Treasurer 
of that Colony, but resigned the trust in 1797. In 1800 he 
was commissioned Master of the Rolls, and Registrar in 
Chancery. He died at Halifax in 1808. His son, Lieuten- 
ant Benning William Bentinck Wentworth, of the Royal 
Navy, died in England, in 1810, at the age of twenty-one 

Wentworth, Mark Hunting. Of New Hampshire. 
Was the son of Lieutenant-Governor John Wentworth, and 

vol. II. 35 


father of Sir John Wentworth. He was bred a merchant, 
and had the agency of procuring spars for the Royal Navy. 
He took an active part in politics, and was a member of the 
Council. His death occurred in 1785, in New Hampshire. 
His character was highly honorable ; his charity and kindness 
unbounded. His fortune, which he amassed in business, was 

Wentworth, Sir John, Baronet. Last Royal Governor 
of New Hampshire, and Surveyor-General of the King's 
Woods in North America. He was born in 1736, and grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1755. His uncle, Benning 
Wentworth, preceded him in the Executive Chair. John -was 
in England at the time the ministry determined to remove 
Benning ; and, having been acquainted with some members 
of the administration, of whom the Marquis of Rockingham 
(himself a Wentworth) was the head, solicited that his rela- 
tion might not be ejected from office, but be allowed to resign. 
This was acceded to, and the nephew, at the early age of 
thirty-one, succeeded to the honors of the uncle. The addi- 
tional office of Guardian of the Royal forests afforded some 
patronage, required but little personal attention, and afforded 
<£700 income annually. 

Governor Wentworth was very popular with his people, 
until Gage applied to him to procure workmen in New Hamp- 
shire, to proceed to Boston to erect barracks for the British 
troops. The carpenters at Boston had refused the employ- 
ment ; and Wentworth endeavored to comply with Gage's re- 
quest. This was a death-blow to the Royal Government, and 
to his own authority ; and he was soon compelled to abandon his 
post. His last official act was performed at the Isles of Shoals, 
where he prorogued the Assembly. He embarked for Boston 
in the Scarborough ship-of-war, August 24th, 1775, and soon 
sailed for England. He was an excellent public man in almost 
every particular. In business few surpassed him in prompt- 
ness, intelligence, and efficiency. His talents were of a high 
order, his judgment was sound, and his views were broad and 
liberal. The Universities of Oxford and Aberdeen — too 


generally unmindful of the merits of Colonists — conferred 
upon him the degree of Doctor of Laws. He was the friend 
of learning, and gave to Dartmouth College its charter rights. 
He did much to encourage agriculture, and promote the set- 
tlement of New Hampshire ; and labored zealously to increase 
its worth and importance as one of the thirteen British Prov- 
inces. When the Revolutionary troubles began, his efforts to 
prevent a rupture were unwearied. He could not resist the 
great movement which released America from the bondage of 
the Colonial System ; but he did retire from his official trusts, 
with a character unimpeached, and with the respect of his 
political opponents. In my judgment not one of the public 
men of the time who clung to the Royal cause will go down 
to posterity with a more enviable fame. Had Bernard, Hutch- 
inson, Try on, Franklin, Dunmore, Martin, and the other 
Loyalist Governors been like him, the Revolution might have 
been delayed. But since Colonies become nations as surely as 
boys become men, a dismemberment of the British Empire 
could not have been prevented ; and, would have happened, 
probably, in another generation, though every servant of the 
Crown on the Continent had been a Wentworth. 

The Governor's habits were expensive. It is related that 
he kept sixteen horses for his own use, and that he gave much 
attention to his stables. A very pleasant anecdote has been 
preserved, in substance, that one day when among his horses, 
a countryman who was sauntering about his house in the hope 
of getting sight of " a live representative of royalty," met 
him without knowing him, and accosted him thus : — " They 
say that Johnny is short and thick, and fond of wine, but, on 
the whole, a pretty clever sort of a fellow : how I should 
like to see him ! ' : They entered the mansion, when Johnny 
revealed himself to his amazed guest. His residence was in 
Pleasant Street, Portsmouth. He owned a large farm in 
Wolfsborough, on which were five barns, and on which, in 
1773, he erected a mansion-house one hundred feet in length 
and forty-five feet in width, and out-buildings of a correspond- 
ing size. His whole estate was confiscated. 


In 1778 he was at Paris ; and John Adams records, that, as 
he was leaving his box in the theatre, "A gentleman seized 
me by the hand. I looked at him. ' Governor Wentworth, 
sir,' said the gentleman. At first, I was somewhat embar- 
rassed, and knew not how to behave towards him. As my 
classmate and friend at college, and ever since, I could have 
pressed him to my bosom with most cordial affection. But we 
now belonged to two different nations at war with each other, 
and, consequently, we were enemies." The bonds of long 
personal friendship were not, however, easily broken. The 
Whig and the Loyalist met afterwards in amity. Mr. Adams 
remarks further that he never knew the object of the Gov- 
ernor's visit to the French capital ; and concludes mention of 
him with this handsome tribute : " Not an indelicate expression 
to us, or our country, or our ally, escaped him. His whole 
behavior was that of an accomplished gentleman." 

The Governor was in favor in England ; and the King is 
said to have observed after a protracted interview that he was 
the most intelligent and sensible man on the subject of the 
dispute with the Colonies who had entered the Royal closet; 
yet, he seems to have been without public employment for 
several years. At last, and in 1792, he was appointed to the 
Executive Chair of Nova Scotia. In 1795 he was created a 
Baronet. Four years later, the Duke of Kent, father of 
Queen Victoria, visited Halifax, and Sir John gave a dinner 
and ball at the Government House, which, from the descrip- 
tion, must have been of princely magnificence. He retired 
from office in 1808, with a pension or allowance of <£500 
sterling per annum, and was succeeded by Sir George Pre- 
vost. Sir John and Lady Wentworth went to England ; but 
returned to Nova Scotia early in 1810, and received an affec- 
tionate greeting as well as a public address. He died at Hali- 
fax in 1820, at the age of eighty-four. Of his Lady, the 
reader will find some incidents of interest in the notice of her 
first husband, Theodore Atkinson, Jr. She was gay, fashion- 
able, distinguished for beauty ; and when abroad, conspicuous 
at Court. She died in England in 1813. Her portrait by 


Copley is in the possession of a gentleman of Dover, New 
Hampshire, who married an Atkinson, " and is considered an 
excellent likeness and a rare picture." The second and last 
Baronet, Charles Mary, (the only son of Sir John,) who was 
born at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1775, and who was 
appointed a member of the Council of Nova Scotia in 1801, 
died unmarried at Hingsand, Devonport, England, in 1844. 
The elegant mansion of Sir John at Wolfsborough was burned 
the very year of his decease. His house in Portsmouth was 
occupied for a long time by a kinsman, Ebenezer Wentworth, 
who, formerly Cashier of the Branch Bank of the United 
States, died in 1860. This gentleman " preserved with care 
the parlor in the same style that its old occupant left it at the 
time of the Revolution. Many distinguished visitors from 
abroad have had curiosity to view the premises, and his valu- 
able collection of family paintings. He always courteously 
welcomed them, and the rarity of the exhibitions was regarded 
with additional satisfaction, from the well-bred manner in 
which they were presented." 

Wentworth, Paul. Of New Hampshire. A member 
of the Council, and a benefactor of Dartmouth College. He 
was disposed at first, it would seem, to favor the popular cause, 
since, in 1774, he was one of the agents of America in Lon- 
don, to whom the Continental Congress directed a letter to be 
sent, on the affairs of the time. He was in England in 1784, 
and the author of a map of Holland's Survey. The next 
year he was at London, and joined other Loyalists in a peti* 
tion to the Government for relief. In 1789 Dartmouth Col- 
lege conferred the degree of L.L. D. He died suddenly on 
his estate, Surinam, in 1793. 

Wentworth, Edward. Of Boston. In June, 1777,, 
found guilty at a special sessions of the peace of being an 
enemy to the United States, and immediately sent on board 
of the guard-ship. He died at Boston in 1794. 

West, Jonathan. A Tory robber who lived in the pine* 
barrens of New Jersey. In an affray with some of the in- 
habitants of Monmouth County, he was wounded and taken 



prisoner. His arm being much mangled was cut off. He 
escaped to his old haunts, and became more desperate than 
before, and though with but one arm used a musket with great 
dexterity. He was finally overtaken a second time, and refus- 
ing to surrender, was killed. 

Westover, Job. Of Sheffield, Massachusetts. In May* 
1775, the Whig Committee of Observation unanimously de- 
nounced him as an enemy of American liberty. Job had 
affirmed that " the Parliament of Great Britain had a right to 
tax the Americans," and had said many things disrespectful 
of the Continental and the Provincial Congress. 

Wetmore, Timothy. Of Westchester County, New York. 
He was a person of consideration and influence. In Septem- 
ber, 1774, the freeholders and inhabitants of that county met 
at Rye, and declared that they were " much concerned with 
the unhappy situation of public affairs," and that they con- 
sidered it to be their duty to state that they had had no part 
" in any resolution entered into, or measures taken, with re- 
gard to the disputes at present subsisting with the mother 
country." They also expressed their " dislike to many hot 
and furious proceedings in consequence of said disputes, 
which," in their opinion, were " more likely to ruin this once 
happy country than remove grievances, if any there are." 
They also declared their " great desire and full resolution to 
live and die peaceable subjects to our gracious Sovereign King 
George the Third and his laws." To this cautious Declara- 
tion Mr. Wetmore affixed his name. It appears to have satis- 
fied neither party, and was misconstrued by both. A few 
weeks after he accordingly submitted the following explana- 
tion : — 

" The above paper [quoting it], like many others, being lia- 
ble to misconstruction, and having been understood by many 
to import a recognition of a right in the Parliament of Great 
Britain to bind America in all cases whatsoever, and to signify 
that the Colonies labor under no grievances, I think it my 
duty to explain my sentiments upon the subject, and thereby 
prevent future mistakes. It is my opinion that the Parliament 


have no right to tax America, though they have a right to 
regulate the trade of the Empire. I am further of opinion 
that several Acts of Parliament are grievances, and that the 
execution of them ought to be opposed in such manner as 
may be consistent with the duty of a subject to our Sovereign ; 
though I cannot help expressing my disapprobation of many 
violent proceedings in some of the Colonies. 

" November 3, 1774." 

This — for the time, and in New York — was much like a 
Whig's view of the controversy, and might have passed for a 
Recantation. Fifteen of those who met at Rye, and were fel- 
low signers with Mr. Wetmore, had previously expressed their 
" sorrow that they had any concern " in the Declaration, and 
" utterly disclaimed every part thereof, except their professions 
of loyalty to the King, and obedience to the constitutional 
laws of the Realm ; " and thus the proceedings in September, 
by so great defection, rather served than injured the Whigs of 
that county. 

Whatever were the causes which induced Mr. Wetmore to 
join in repudiating the sentiments, which he probably em- 
bodied for the action and adoption of his associates, which he 
felt required to expound, and which, in his explanation, he 
nullified, he finally fell off, adhered anew to the Royal party, 
and in the course of events became an exile. After the close 
of hostilities he retired to New Brunswick, resided at St. John 
for several years, and held situations of honor and trust. 

Wetmore, Robert G. Of New York. Son of Timothy 
Wetmore. He became a resident of New Brunswick, and 
abandoning the profession of the law, to which he was edu- 
cated, devoted himself to the study of divinity, and was 
ordained a clergyman of the Episcopal Church. He died in 
1803, in Savannah, Georgia, at the seat of the Hon. Joseph 
Clay, Jr. 

Wetmore, Thomas. Of New York. Son of Timothy 
Wetmore. Removed to New Brunswick, where he filled 
several important public stations. In 1792 he held the offices 


of Deputy-Surrogate of the Colony, was Master and Exam- 
iner in Chancery, Register of Wills and Deeds for the county 
of Queen's, and was a member of the Council. At a later 
period he was appointed Attorney-General, and continued to 
serve the Crown in that capacity until his decease, in 1828, 
at the age of sixty-one. His fifth daughter, Susanna Mary, 
wife of George J. Dibblee, died at Fredericton, in 1848, aged 

Wetmore, David B. Of New York. Went to New 
Brunswick, and was one of the fir^t settlers of the Province. 
For many years he was a member of the House of Assembly, 
and a Judge of the Common Pleas for King's County. He 
died at Norton, in that county, in 1845, aged eighty-two, leav- 
ing many descendants. 

Wetmore, John. Died near Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, in 
1848, aged ninety-three years. 

Wetmore, Caleb. Of New York. Settled in St. John, 
New Brunswick, and in 1805 was an Alderman of the city. 
He removed, subsequently, to King's County, where he died 
in 1853. 

Wharton, Thomas, the elder. Of Pennsylvania. He 
was a merchant of great wealth and influence, and of the sect 
of Quakers. In the enterprise of Galloway and Goddard, to 
establish " The Chronicle," a leading newspaper, he was their 
partner ; and the parties supposed that Franklin, on his return 
from England, would join them. Previous to the Revolution 
Franklin and Mr. Wharton were correspondents. In 1774, 
Washington records that he "dined with Thomas Wharton." 
In 1777 he was apprehended and sent prisoner to Virginia ; 
and at a subsequent period was proscribed as an enemy to his 
country, and lost his estate under the Confiscation Acts of 
Pennsylvania. Thomas Wharton, Jr., was a distinguished 
Whig, and President of Pennsylvania. In the early part of 
the controversy, and, indeed, until the time when blood was 
shed, both acted together, and were members of the same de- 
liberative assemblies and committees. 

Whayland, Joseph, Jr. Prisoner in the jail at Annap- 


olis, October, 1776. In a petition to the Maryland Conven- 
tion, he prayed for the restoration of the clothing taken from 
him when captured ; and said that he was then naked, and 
had been so during his imprisonment, and was too poor to 
purchase anything. 

Wheaton, Obadiah. Of Boston. Went to Halifax in 
1776 ; in 1778 he was proscribed and banished. A Loyalist 
of the name of Obadiah Wheaton died in New Brunswick, 
where he had become a resident many years ago. 

Wheeler, Rev. Willard William. Episcopal minister. 
He was born at Concord, Massachusetts, in 1734, and grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1755. John Adams was a 
classmate. In 1767 he went to England for ordination, and 
was appointed missionary, at Georgetown, Maine, by the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 
In 1772 he went to Newport, Rhode Island, as Assistant at 
Trinity Church. In 1783 he was chosen Rector of St. An- 
drew's Church, Scituate, and of Trinity Church, Marshfield. 
He died at Scituate, in 1810, aged seventy-five. 

Wheelock, Obid. A Captain. Died at Annapolis, Nova 
Scotia, in 1807, aged seventy-two. 

White, Henry. Of New York. Member of the Coun- 
cil. Previous to the Revolution he was an eminent merchant. 
In 1769 his place of business was the " De Peyster House, 
on the Fly " : and his advertisements, in the papers of the 
day, show that he kept for sale nails, teas, glass, sail-cloth, 
Madeira wine, &c. He was an original member, and finally 
President of the Chamber of Commerce. The East India 
Company selected him as one of the New York consignees of 
the odious tea on which "three pence the pound duty" was 
to be paid. He was on terms of intimacy with, and trans- 
acted business for Governor Martin, of North Carolina ; and 
a letter of his Excellency, which was intercepted, and in 
which he asked Mr. White to send him a Royal standard, 
was considered in the Provincial Congress, July, 1775. The 
next year he applied to that Congress for leave to supply 
the British ships of war with provisions and vegetables. He 

418 WHITE. 

seems to have gone to England, and to have returned after a 
short absence ; and circumstances appear to show that he was 
a Commissary, or performed the duties of that office for a time, 
when the Royal Army occupied New York. His estate was 
confiscated. The ill-fated Andre made his will at Staten 
Island, June, 7, 1777, without witnesses, and therefore not 
to he proved in the ordinary way. On the 9th of October, 
1780, Mr. White went to the office of the Surrogate and de- 
clared that he was well acquainted with the testator's hand- 
writing, and that he believed the instrument to be genuine. 
At the peace Mr. White went to England ; he died there in 
1786. Eve, his widow, daughter of Frederick Van Cort- 
landt, died at New York, in 1836, at the age of ninety-nine. 
Of his son, Frederick Van Cortlandt White, a word pres- 
ently. John, another son, entered the navy, and died Sir 
John Chambers White, Vice- Admiral of the White. Anne, 
the eldest daughter, who deceased at Cheltenham, in 1848, 
aged eighty-five, married Sir John M. Hayes, Bart., and was 
the mother of Thomas Pelham, who succeeded to his father's 
title in 1809, and died in 1851 ; of John Warren, who (1857) 
is the present Baronet ; of Anna Maria, who married the Rev. 
Thomas Robertson, late senior Chaplain to the Bengal Presi- 
dency ; and of Selina, the lady of Sir Robert Fitz-Wygram, 
Bart. Descendants of the subject of this notice, of the fourth 
generation, are now (1863) living in the city of New York, 
who not only perpetuate his lineage, but " his upright and hon- 
orable character." Perhaps Captain James Kearney White, 
of his Majesty's ship Tyne, who died at the Bermuda Naval 
Hospital, in 1828, at the age of fifty, was of this family. 

White, Frederick Van Cortlandt. Of New York. 
Son of Henry White. He entered the British Army in 1781, 
as an Ensign. At the time of his decease he was a General. 

White, Gideon. Of Plymouth, Massachusetts. Born 
in that town in 1751. In June, 1775, he went to Boston, 
where he mingled with the British Army, and in the battle 
of Bunker's Hill was a volunteer. He returned to Plymouth 
soon after ; but his father, apprehending that he would be 

WHITE. 419 

molested for fighting against the Whigs, and wishing that he 
might be inactive durino; the war, sent him to Nova Scotia. 
He arrived at Barrington, but was there captured by the 
crew of a Plymouth vessel, brought home, and put in prison. 
Released, however, in a short time, he purchased a military 
commission, and served the Crown until the close of hostili- 
ties. In 1783 he retired with his regiment to Jamaica ; but 
subsequently settled in Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where he 
passed the remainder of his life. He was a member of the 
House of Assembly, and a Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas. He went to England, in 1799, and received marked 
attention from several distinguished persons. He died in 
1833, at the age of eighty-one. His wife, who died in 1831, 
aged seventy-one, was Deborah, daughter of Dr. Miles Whit- 
worth, of Boston. Four of his nine children married in 
Massachusetts, namely : Joanna, to William Davis, Esq., of 
Plymouth ; Miles, to Marcia, daughter of Hon. John Davis, 
of Boston ; Deborah and Sarah, who were the first and second 
wives of Rev. T. B. Gannett, of South Natick. The family 
account is, that Mr. White was the great-grandson of Pere- 
grine White, the first-born of New England, and that his 
mother was a descendant of John Howland, the Pilgrim. 

White, Abijah. Of Marshfield, Massachusetts. He was 
a member of the House of Representatives from that town, 
and a " Government-man " of great zeal, but of little discre- 
tion. He carried to Boston the famous Marshfield Resolves, 
censuring the Whigs, and on his arrival at the capital caused 
the document to be published. The act drew upon him the 
wrath of the writers in the Whig newspapers, and he sunk 
under the burden of general ridicule. He is commemorated 
in McFingal. 

White. Of Marshfield, Massachusetts. Cornelius the 
third, Sylvester, Warren, and Daniel, Junior; proscribed 
and banished in 1778. The first three fled to Boston in 
1775, but returned home and threw themselves on the mercy 
of the Whigs, who committed them to Plymouth Jail. In 
1776 they petitioned the Council for release ; and in October 

420 WHITE. 

of that year they were discharged, on condition of payment of 
the expenses of imprisonment, and of not departing from their 
own estates (except to attend public worship) without leave 
of the Committee of Correspondence. 

White, Paul. Of Marshfield, Massachusetts. He was 
seized, carted to the Liberty Pole in Duxbury, and forced to 
sign a " Recantation." 

White, John. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutchin- 
son in 1774. Left the country. Admitted to the rights of 
citizenship in 1791, by Act of the Legislature. Died at Bos- 
ton, in 1794, aged seventy-five. 

White, Rev. Calvin. Of Derby, Connecticut. He was 
fifth in descent from John White, who came from England in 
1636, and was one of the founders of Hartford. " A Tory 
in principle," he came near being hanged, because he refused 
to shout — "Property and Liberty," at the command of a 
party who assailed him. He was bred a Presbyterian, but 
became an Episcopalian, and was ordained by Bishop Sea- 
bury. About the year 1800, he succeeded the Rev. Doctor 
Mansfield, as Rector of St. James Parish, Derby. Later in 
life he embraced the Roman Catholic faith, but did not enter 
the priesthood of that Church. " He was a devoted and ac- 
complished scholar, and a thorough master of the Hebrew 
tongue." He was widely known and loved. His life was 
pure, his heart kind, his manners courteous. He died at 
Derby, in 1853, aged ninety. Richard Grant White, of New 
York, is a grandson. 

White, Thomas. Of New Haven, Connecticut. Settled 
in New Brunswick, and died at L'Tete Passage in that 
Province, in 1819, aged sixty. 

White, Alexander. Sheriff of Try on, (now Montgom- 
ery, County,) New York. He rendered himself particularly 
obnoxious from the beginning of the controversy. In 1775 a 
band of Whigs, to the number of about fifty, released by 
force a Whig whom he had arrested and imprisoned, and pro- 
ceeded to his dwelling and demanded his surrender. White 
discharged a pistol from his chamber window, and thus, it is 

WHITE. 421 

said, fired the first shot in the Revolution west of the Hudson. 
His fire was instantly returned by the discharge of forty or 
fifty muskets, but he escaped with a slight wound in the 
breast. The Whigs demolished the doors of the house, and 
were at the point of seizing him, when the alarm-gun of Sir 
John Johnson admonished them that his retainers, a much 
more numerous body than themselves, would soon muster and 
overpoAver them, and they accordingly dispersed. During 
the difficulties between the Whigs and Tories of that county, 
in 1775, White was dismissed from his office by the Com- 
mittee, who acted for the people in their sovereign capacity, 
but was restored by Governor Tryon. But the Committee 
would not allow him to perform his official duties after his 
appointment, and popular indignation against him became 
at length so strong that he was compelled to fly. He was, 
however, pursued and taken prisoner, and placed in confine- 
ment at Albany. On his release, after a short imprisonment, 
he left the country. Besides firing the first shot, as men- 
tioned above, it is also said that Sheriff White and a band 
of Loyalists cut down the first Liberty-pole which was 
erected in the valley of the Mohawk — that at German 
Flats. He had been a Captain in the French war. In 1775 
he joined Sir John Johnson and others in a Declaration of 

White, . Of New York. On the night of the 

fire in that city, in 1776, he was hanged on a tavern sign-post 
at the corner of Cherry and Roosevelt streets. He was, says 
a writer of the time, " a decent citizen, and a house-carpen- 
ter, rather too violent a Loyalist, and latterly had addicted 
himself to liquor." Several persons were arrested and ex- 
amined for the murder of this man, but it is believed that the 
offenders were never discovered. 

White, Philip. He was taken prisoner by the Whigs, 
and while some light-horse were conveying him to camp, he 
attempted to escape; though called upon to stop, he continued 
to run, and as he was about to leap into a bog, was cut 
down. In retaliation, Captain Lippincott hung the Whig 

vol. ii. 36 


Captain Huddy, as mentioned in the notice of Lippincott. 
White belonged to New York, or New Jersey, and his death 
occurred in March, 1782. It was pretended that he was un- 
justly killed ; but there is proof that, after making tokens of 
surrender, he took up a musket and killed a son of Colonel 
Hendrickson ; and this fact rests on the evidence of a Loyalist 
who was taken prisoner at the same time. It was said, also, 
that after his capture the Whigs maimed him and broke his 
legs, and tauntingly bid him run ; but the story is false. 

White, John. Removed to New Brunswick in 1783, and 
settled at Long Reach, King's County, on land granted him 
by the Crown. On this land he resided for about fifty-five 
years. He died at Long Reach, in 1838, at the advanced age 
of ninety-six. 

White, Robert. Of Philadelphia. Merchant. He 
commanded a Royal cutter, and was called " an atrocious 
offender." In 1781 he was taken prisoner in New Jersey, 
and Washington, the President of Pennsylvania, and Gov- 
ernor Livingston, of New Jersey, made efforts to retain him, 
but he was immediately exchanged. He was attainted of 
treason, and his estate was confiscated. 

White, William. Died at Portland, New Brunswick, in 
1838, aged seventy-seven. 

Whitehead, Benjamin. A Captain in the militia, of 
Jamaica, Long Island, New York. His attachment to the 
Royal cause involved him in many difficulties. He died at 
Jamaica in September, 1780, in the seventy-fifth year of his 
age. A person of this name, of Jamaica, signed a Declara- 
tion against the Whigs and of attachment to the Crown in 
1775 ; and an acknowledgment of allegiance in 1776. 

Whiteneck, John. Died at Studholm, King's County, 
New Brunswick, in 1841, aged one hundred years. 

Whiting, William. Of Virginia. Went to New Bruns- 
wick in 1783. He died at St. John, in 1830, aged seventy- 
one. He was among the few Loyalists of that State, or of 
those south of it, who came to the northern Colonies. 

Whiting, Benjamin. Sheriff of Hillsborough County, 


New Hampshire. He was proscribed and banished, and his 
property confiscated. 

Whiting, Leonard. Of Hollis, New Hampshire. " A 
noted Tory." In 1775 he was the bearer of despatches from 
Canada to the British in Boston, and was arrested in Groton, 
Massachusetts, under the following circumstances : " After 
the departure of Colonel Prescott's regiment of " minute- 
men," Mrs. David Wright, of Pepperell, Mrs. Job Shattuck, 
of Groton, and the neighboring women, collected at what is 
now Jewett's Bridge, over the Nashua, between Pepperell 
and Groton, clothed in their absent husbands' apparel, and 
armed with muskets, pitchforks, and such other weapons as 
they could find, and having elected Mrs. Wright their com- 
mander, resolutely determined that no foe to freedom, — 
foreign or domestic, — should pass that bridge. For rumors 
were rife that the Regulars were approaching, and frightful 
stories of slaughter flew rapidly from place to place and from 
house to house. Soon there appeared one Leonard Whiting, 
[the subject of this notice] on horseback, supposed to be 
treasonably engaged in conveying intelligence to the en- 

Whiting, by direction of Mrs. Wright, in her assumed 
character of sergeant of the bridge-guard, was seized, taken 
from his horse, searched, and detained prisoner. Despatches 
were found in his boots which were sent to the Committee of 
Safety. Whiting himself was committed to the custody of 
Oliver Prescott. In 1776, our Loyalist, at the instance of 
the Committees of Safety of three towns, was examined by 
the New Hampshire Assembly, and was " acquitted and dis- 

Whitlock, William. Established his residence in New 
Brunswick. Was an Alderman of St. John, and died in that 
city, in 1821, aged fifty-five. 

Whitlock. Four of this name belonged to the Reading 
Association. To wit: Hezekiah, Nehemiah, and Ebenezer, 
of Fairfield County, and Ephraim, of Reading. In the 
Queen's Rangers there was a Lieutenant Whitlock, who 


probably belonged to Connecticut, since he had " a perfect 
knowledge of the country about Norwalk," and " proposed 
to burn the whale-boats which harbored there, and had in- 
fested " Long Island Sound. 

Whitlock, Thomas. Was an officer in a corps of Loy- 
alists. In 1783 he settled at St. John, New Brunswick, and 
was the grantee of a city lot. The Whitlock House, built by 
him in Prince William Street, was the second framed building 
which * was erected after the landing of the Loyalists. He 
received half-pay. 

Whitlock, John. In 1782 he was an officer of infantry 
in the Queen's Rangers. He settled in New Brunswick, re- 
ceived half-pay, and was a magistrate of Queen's County, 
and a Lieutenant-Colonel in the militia. 

Whitmore, Gurdon. Of Middletown, Connecticut. Im- 
prisoned at Hartford, Connecticut. He broke jail and es- 
caped. In the advertisement for his apprehension, he is 
called " infamous ; " and it is said, " he wears his hair." 
It appears that this was his second escape. In 1777, con- 
victed of treason by the Superior Court ; motion for arrest of 
judgment allowed, and final decision deferred. 

Whitmore, . In 1778 he was in Rhode Island, 

and commanded what was called a regiment of " Green- 
coats ; " but in fact, just one hundred and twenty-seven de- 
serters and refugees from the Whigs. 

Whitney, Aaron. Of Petersham, Massachusetts. Con- 
gregational minister. He was born in Littleton, Massachu- 
setts, in 1714 ; graduated at Harvard University in 1737, 
and was the first Whitney who received the honors of that 
Institution. A year later, the records of Petersham show 
that a Committee was instructed to " treet with a minister in 
order for a settlement," and that the candidate must be 
" Orthodox." Mr. Whitney was the choice of the town ; 
and was ordained in December, 1738. When, in 1767, 
probably, a graduate of his own Alma Mater, [see Ensign 
Man~] but a Whig, went to Petersham to teach school, — 
his conduct exasperated his townsmen, and he was attacked, 


even in the newspapers, with unsparing severity. For seven 
years afterward, he preached and prayed submission to the 
King, and at last, his parishioners could bear his instructions 
no longer. Near the close of the year 1774, the town voted 
neither to " bargain with, hire, nor employ the Rev. Mr. 
Whitney to preach for them any longer." He attempted to 
negotiate ; but they would not listen to terms of reconcilia- 
tion, and discontinued his salary. But he continued to hold 
religious services at his own house, until near the end of his 
life. He died in 1779, at the age of sixty-five. Four of his 
sons were educated at Cambridge : namely, Abel, who died 
while in College ; Peter, minister of Northborough, and 
author of a History of Worcester County, who died in 1816 ; 
Paul, a physician in Westfield, who died in 1795; and Abel, 
merchant in Westfield, who died in 1807. The Rev. Frede- 
ric A. Whitney, late Pastor of the First Church in Brighton, 
is a grandson of Peter. The subject of this notice was the 
father of eleven children. He married, first, Alice Baker, 
of Phillipston, who died in 1767 ; and second, Ruth, (widow 
of Rev. David Stearns, of Lunenburg,) who died in 1788. 

Whitney, Ephraim. Of Petersham, Massachusetts. 
Physician. Was a native of Lunenburg, or of Fitchburg. 
In practice many years. " He was a Tory, and an eccentric 
man ; wore his beard the latter part of his life, and left direc- 
tions that he should be buried with it unshaven." He died 
at Petersham, in 1801, aged seventy-two. His son Richard 
graduated at Harvard University in 1787 ; studied law, and 
settled in Brattleboro', Vermont ; a man of superior talents ; 
career sad ; died in 1806 ; John Quincy Adams was a class- 

Whitney, Sylvanus. Of Stamford, Connecticut. In 
June, 1775, he was arraigned before the Committee of that 
town, charged with the offence of buying and selling Tea. 
He made a written confession of the fact, delivered up the 
tea remaining in his possession and was allowed to depart. 
As the reader may be curious to learn how the Whigs some- 
times disposed of this obnoxious article, the following account 



of the destruction of that received of Mr. Whitney is here 
given : " About eight o'clock in the evening a gallows was 

erected in the middle of the street A large concourse 

of people soon collected, and were joined by a number of the 
soldiery quartered in the town. A grand procession soon 
began to move. In the first place a large guard under arms, 
headed by two captains who led the van, with the unfor- 
tunate Tea hung across a pole, sustained by two unarmed 
soldiers. Secondly, followed the Committee of Observation. 
Thirdly, the spectators who came to see the great sight. And 
after parading through part of the principal streets, with 
drums beating and fifes playing a most doleful sound, they 
came to the gallows, where the common hangman soon per- 
formed his office, to the general satisfaction of the spectators. 
As it was thought dangerous to let the said Tea hang all 
night, for fear of invasion from our tea-lovers, a large bonfire 
was made under it, which soon reduced it to ashes ; and, after 
giving three loud huzzas, the people soon dispersed to their 
respective homes, without any bad consequences attending." 
Mr. Whitney was present " during the execution," adds the 
writer, " and behaved himself as well as could be expected." 
He removed to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, and 
was a magistrate, and one of the aldermen of that city. He 
died at St. John, in 1827, aged seventy-nine. 

Whitney, Samuel. He settled in New Brunswick after 
the acknowledgment of American Independence, and estab- 
lished himself as a merchant. In 1795 he was a member of 
the St. John Loyal Artillery. He died in that city, in 1815, 
aged sixty-one. His son, James Whitney, of St. John, was 
the enterprising and well-known proprietor of the steam ves- 
sels which plied in different parts of New Brunswick and 
Nova Scotia. 

Whitworth, Miles. Of Boston. Physician. He was a 
surgeon under Pepperell at Louisbourg, in the campaigns 
against Ticonderoga and Quebec, and in Nova Scotia under 
Winslow. In 1774 he was an Addresser of Hutchinson. 
He remained in Boston during the siege, and was the 


attending physician and surgeon to the Whig prisoners who 
were wounded in the battle of Bunker Hill. In 1776 life was 
arrested and confined by order of the Council of Massachu- 
setts. He died at Boston, in 1779, of a fever contracted 
while in prison. He married Deborah Thayer. Of two of 
his sons presently. Charles, was a Commissary in the British 
Army, and died at Jamaica about the year 1800 ; Deborah 
married Gideon White, of Plymouth ; and Sarah was the 
wife of John Foxcroft, of Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Whitworth, Miles, Jr. Of Boston. Physician. Son of 
Miles. Graduated at Harvard University in 1772 ; and 
(1860) is the only person of that surname on the Catalogue. 
He entered the service as Surgeon in the Navy, and died 
unmarried, in England, in 1778. 

Whitworth, Nathaniel. Of Boston. Son of the senior 
Miles. He was a Commissary in the Royal Army in the 
Revolution, and, subsequently, Commissary-General of the 
British forces in the Mediterranean, where he died, unmarried, 
in 1799, aged forty-five. 

Wickes, Thomas. Of Rhode Island. He was born in 
Warwick in 1715, on an estate which descended to him from 
his ancestors, who were among the first settlers of that town. 
He became a member of the House and of the Senate of the 
Colony, and was known as a man of temperate counsels. 
Elected Senator in 1775, he refused to serve. He was op- 
posed to raising an army, and joined Governor Wanton in a 
protest. He is represented " as an accomplished planter of 
the old school, firm in purpose, courteous in manner, scru- 
pulously exact in all his worldly relations, and fond of social 
life." He died on his estate, Warwick, in 1803. He was 
twice married ; two daughters by his first wife survived him. 

Wickham, John. Of Virginia. He entered the Queen's 
Rangers as an Ensign, and at the peace was a Captain. The 
account is that quite young he acted by the advice of his uncle, 
Colonel Edmund Fanning. He was engaged several times, and 
acquitted himself well. Simcoe, who commanded the Ran- 
gers, speaks of him as an officer of quickness and courage. 


After the Revolution, Captain Wiekham became a distin- 
guished lawyer ; but, though able, learned, elegant, he was 
never popular, because of his course in the struggle for free- 
dom. In 1807 he was one of the counsel of Aaron Burr on 
his trial for treason, and faithfully enough did he perform his 

" He was," said one who knew him, " perhaps, upon the 
whole, the ablest lawyer then practising at the Richmond bar. 
He had learning, logic, wit, sarcasm, eloquence, a fine pres- 
ence, and a persuasive manner. In single endowments he 
was excelled ; but no other man possessed such a variety of 
talents and resources as Wiekham." 

Widows. [See Women.'] 

Wiggins, Samuel. Of New York. Removed to St. John, 
New Brunswick, and died in that city in 1821, aged sixty-six. 
His son, Stephen Wiggins, of St. John, is (1847) one of the 
most eminent merchants in New Brunswick. 

Wiggins, Jacob. A magistrate. Died at Grand Lake, 
New Brunswick, in 1815, aged fifty-four. 

Wiggins, John. Died at Portland, New Brunswick, in 
1815, aged sixty-two. 

Wightman. There seems to have been three, and prob- 
ably four, of this name in the service. But little is known 
of them. The Colonel of the Loyal New Englanders was 
one, though that officer's name is sometimes spelled White- 
man. There was a William Wightman, who was a Lieuten- 
ant in the King's American Regiment, and who was wounded 
in the battle of Hobkirk's Hill, 1781 ; and a Lieutenant John 
Wightman, of another Loyalist corps, who died at Carleton, 
New Brunswick, in 1819, aged seventy-one ; and a Captain 
Wightman, who was a grantee of St. John in 1783. I con- 
clude that they all belonged to one family. 

Wilbour, William. An officer in a Loyalist corps. In 
1783 settled in New Brunswick, and received half-pay. He 
died at St. John, in 1838, aged eighty-eight. 

Wilder, . Of Ashburnham. A " bad Tory," who 

was " occasionally " tarred and feathered by the ardent Whigs. 


Willard, Abijah. Of Lancaster, Massachusetts. In 
1774 he was appointed a Mandamus Councillor, and was soon 
an object of public indignation. While at Union, Connecti- 
cut, in that year, he was seized and confined over night. In 
the morning, the multitude who guarded him, consisting of 
about five hundred persons, condemned him to go to prison, 
but after carrying him six miles on the way thither, released 
him on his signing a Declaration, which they dictated, as fol- 
lows : — 

" Whereas I, Abijah Willard, of Lancaster, have been ap- 
pointed, by Mandamus, a Councillor for this Province, and 
having without due consideration taken the oath, do now freely 
and solemnly declare that I am heartily sorry that I have 
taken said oath, and do hereby solemnly and in good faith 
promise and engage that I will not sit or act in said Council, 
nor in any other that shall be appointed in such manner and 
form, but that I will, as much as in me lies, maintain the 
Charter rights and liberties of this Province ; and do hereby 
ask the forgiveness of all honest, worthy gentlemen that I 
have offended, by taking the above said oath ; and desire this 
may be inserted in the public prints." 

He went to Halifax with the Royal Army in 1776 ; and in 
1778 was proscribed and banished. He was at Long Island 
at a subsequent period of the war ; and in July, 1783, in the 
city of New York, where he, and fifty-four other Loyalists, 
joined in a petition to Sir Guy Carleton for extensive grants 
of lands in Nova Scotia. These petitioners were, and still are 
known as the " Fifty-Five." They represented that their po- 
sition in society had been very respectable, and that previous 
to the Revolution they had possessed much influence. They 
stated that they intended to remove to Nova Scotia, and de- 
sired that the same number of acres that were granted to field- 
officers of the army might be given to each of them. And they 
asked that, if possible, the lands should be conveyed free from 
quit-rents, and from other incumbrances. This petition created 
much clamor at New York, and a copy of it having been sent 
to St. John, and printed, created an excitement there. 

430 W1LLARD. 

In a published controversy between a " Consistent Loyal- 
ist " and u Viator," at London, in 1784, his name appears 
quite often. On the one hand it was said that, as a Commis- 
sary, he " saved the Government several thousand pounds " ; 
and on the other, that he " saved to himself and nephew 
many thousand pounds more than they were worth when the 
rebellion began." Again his accuser remarked that the boast 
of Mr. Willard's integrity reminded him of an anecdote of 
the King of Prussia, who desired a Commissary to be hanged, 
and who, when asked " Which," replied, " Either of them, 
for they are all alike." Still, again, " Viator " averred that Mr. 
Willard was " one of the Governor-hunters even from Gov- 
ernor Shirley's day," and was politically converted only when 
the politic Hutchinson made him a member of the Council. 

Mr. Willard settled in New Brunswick, on the coast be- 
tween the St. Croix and St. John, and at a place which he 
called Lancaster — the name by which it is still known. He 
was a member of the Council of that Province. He died in 
1789, aged sixty-seven. After his decease, his family returned 
to Massachusetts. He could have had the commission of Col- 
onel in the Royal service, but would not bear arms against his 
country. It is believed that Colonel Prescott, who commanded 
the Whig force in the battle of Bunker Hill, was a connec- 
tion, and his brother-in-law. It is said that Mr. Willard, on 
the day of the action, was in company with one of the. British 
Generals in Boston, who from one of the hills, and with a 
spy-glass, watched the movements of the Rebels in their in- 
trenchment ; and that the Briton asked Willard if they would 
fight. The latter, after a survey through the glass, and after 
recognizing Prescott, replied that he would not answer for his 
men ; " but," said he, " Prescott will fight you to the gates of 
h— 1." 

Mr. Willard was " large and portly," and in character, 
" a gentleman." Mary, his widow, died at Lancaster, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1807, aged seventy-nine. 

Willard, Abel. Of Massachusetts. He graduated at 
Harvard University in 1752. In 1774 he was one of the 


barristers and attorneys who were Addressers of Hutchinson. 
In 1776 he accompanied the Royal Army to Halifax. In 
1778 he was proscribed and banished. He died in Eng- 
land in 1781. Eliza, his widow, daughter of Rev. Daniel 
Rogers, died in Boston in 1815. 

Willard, Levi. Of Lancaster, Massachusetts. Grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1775, and went to England. 
Returned in 1785. Died in 1790. 

Wilkins, Rev. Isaac, D.D. Of New York. Episcopal 
minister. He was born in Jamaica, West Indies, and was 
the son of Martin Wilkins, a rich planter, who died when he 
was quite young. He was sent to New York to be educated, 
and graduated at King's College (now Columbia) in 1760. 
He prepared himself for the ministry, but did not take orders. 
Having settled in the county of Westchester, he was returned 
as a member of the House of Assembly, in which body he be- 
came a leader on the ministerial side. His influence with his 
associates and with his party was very great. Near the close 
of the session of the Assembly of February, 1775, Colonel 
Woodhull (a Whig who met a sad and an early death) moved 
that the thanks of the House should be presented to the dele- 
gates to the Continental Congress who met at Philadelphia in 
September previously. The motion was opposed and lost, 
Mr. Wilkins voting against it. When the question of ap- 
pointing delegates to the Second Congress came up he made 
a speech, which was much admired by his friends for its elo- 
quence, clearness, and precision. Schuyler and George Clin- 
ton were his principal antagonists in the debate. 

Mr. Wilkins's zeal and extreme loyalty rendered him very 
obnoxious to the Whigs. Besides his prominent position in 
the Assembly, he gave utterance to his thoughts in essays. 
It is a singular circumstance that the youthful Hamilton, who 
was also born in the West Indies, undertook the task of re- 
plying to two of his political effusions. One of them, " The 
Congress Canvassed," &c, which was signed " A. W. Far- 
mer," was extensively circulated ; and as well as that called 
" A View of the Controversy between Great Britain and her 


Colonies," was summarily disposed of whenever they fell into 
the hands of those whose measures they criticized and con- 
demned. Both were burned in all parts of the country ; and 
on some occasions, the former was dressed in tar and turkey- 
buzzard's feathers. The plumage of this bird was selected as 
being " the most stinking fowl in creation," though failing 
to be " a fit emblem of the author's odiousness " ; but yet, as 
he could not be found " to receive a suit of this same gorgeous 
apparel," his book was " thus decorated, nailed to the whip- 
ping-post, and iet on fire," as the best means of showing in- 
dignation of his person and sentiments. He abandoned the 
country and went to England. At the moment of his de- 
parture he issued the following Address : — 

" New York, May 3, 1775. 

"My Countrymen: — Before I leave America, the land 
I love, and in which is contained everything that is valuable 
and dear to me, — my wife, my children, my friends, and 
property, — permit me to make a short and faithful decla- 
ration, which I am induced to do neither through fear nor 
a consciousness of having acted wrong. An honest man and 
a Christian hath nothing to apprehend from this world. God 
is my judge, and God is my witness, that all I have done, 
written, or said, in relation to the present unnatural dispute 
between Great Britain and her Colonies, proceeded from an 
honest intention of serving my country. Her welfare and 
prosperity were the objects towards which all my endeavors 
have been directed. They are still the sacred objects which 
I shall ever steadily and invariably keep in view. And when 
in England, all the influence that so inconsiderable a man as 
I am can have shall be exerted in her behalf. 

" It has been my constant maxim through life to do my 
duty conscientiously, and to trust the issue of my actions to 
the Almighty. May that God, in whose hands are all events, 
speedily restore peace and liberty to my unhappy country. 
May Great Britain and America be soon united in the bonds 
of everlasting unity; and when united, may they continue a 


free, a virtuous, and happy nation to the end of time. I leave 
America, and every endearing connection, because I will not 
raise my hand against my sovereign, nor will I draw my 
sword against my country ; when I can conscientiously draw 
it in her favor, my life shall be cheerfully devoted to her ser- 
vice. Isaac Wilkins." 

In 1776 he returned to Long Island, where he remained 
until the peace, when he retired to Shelburne, Nova Scotia. 
He remained in that Province several years, and lived a part 
of the time at Lunenburgh. About the year 1800 he again 
established his residence in Westchester County, New York, 
and was settled over the Episcopal parish there. He contin- 
ued in the ministry until his decease, in 1830, at the age of 
eighty-nine. He wrote the following epitaph a short time 
previous to his death : — 


To the memory of 

The Reverend Isaac Wilkins, D. D., 

who, for thirty-one years, was the 

diligent and faithful minister 

of this parish, 

placed here, as he believed, by his Redeemer. 

He remained satisfied with the 

pittance allowed him, rejoicing that even in that 

he was no burden to his 

parishioners ; 

nor ever wished nor ever went forth 

to seek a better living. 

Doctor Wilkins married Isabella, sister of Lewis Morris, a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, and of Gouver- 
neur Morris, another distinguished Whig. Their mother es- 
poused the Royal side, and remained within the British lines ; 
their correspondence with her, during hostilities, occasioned 
suspicion, and caused them difficulty, notwithstanding their 
sacrifices and services. At the moment when Lewis voted in 
Congress for .Independence, British ships of war were lying 
within cannon-shot of his house ; and soon after his manor of 

VOL. II. 37 


Morrisania was desolated, his woodland of one thousand acres 
destroyed, and his family driven into exile. Three of the sons 
of Lewis served in the Whig Army. Staats, brother of Lewis 
and Gouverneur, was an officer in the Royal service ; became 
a member of Parliament, and a Lieutenant-General. Thus 
was the Morris family divided. Lewis Morris Wilkins, son of 
the subject of this notice, who was a member of the House of 
Assembly of Nova Scotia, Speaker of that body, and a Judge 
of the Supreme Court* died at Windsor late in 1847 or early 
in 1848 ; his son, Lewis Morris Wilkins, is now (1861) a 
Judge of the same Court. 

Willet, Samuel. A Cornet of Cavalry in the British 
Legion. He settled in Nova Scotia after the Revolution, and 
received half-pay. He died at Wilmot, in that Province, in 
1839, aged eighty-seven. 

Willey, Alexander. Of Georgia. Member of House 
of Assembly, and subsequently Clerk of the Council. 

Williams, John. Inspector-General of the Customs, and 
resided at Boston. When Hancock's sloop was seized, in 
1768, the mob broke several windows of his house, which was 
near the Common. John Adams said he was as sly, secret, 
and cunning a fellow as need be ; that he affected to speak 
slightly of the Commissioners of the Customs, and insinuated 
that his own connections and interest in England were greater 
than theirs. 

Williams, Job. Of Boston. The leader of the band 
who, armed with axes and other weapons, proceeded to the 
famous " Liberty Tree," and cut it down. He embarked for 
Halifax with the Royal Army in 1776. 

Williams, John. Of Deerfield, Massachusetts. Gradu- 
ated at Harvard University in 1769. He was arrested and 
put under bond by the Governor and Council, in 1781, for 
his course during the war, and held for trial by the Supreme 
Court, at Springfield. The Attorney-General received neither 
papers nor evidence, and no prosecution was instituted, as ap- 
pears from an official source. In 1783 he was elected to the 
General Court ; and after taking his seat a committee was 


appointed to inquire into his political character. Expulsion 
followed, by a vote of sixty to forty-three. In 1785 he was 
elected again, when his right was contested a second time. 
In the inquiry then, the testimony was that when arraigned 
the previous year, he plead the benefit of the sixth article of 
the treaty of peace, and was discharged. The House held 
that the action of the Supreme Court barred further proceed- 
ings, and retained him as a member. Later in life he was a 
member of the Senate and of the Council. He was zealous 
and efficient " in forwarding plans of public improvement." 
He died in 1816, and in his will gave about ten thousand dol- 
lars to the Deerfield Academy. 

Williams, Seth. Of Taunton, Massachusetts. He grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1765. In 1776 he went to 
Halifax ; thence to England, and was in London in 1779, a 
member of the Loyalist Association formed there, and an Ad- 
dresser of the King. He died in London prior to 1791. 

Williams, Elijah. Attorney-at-law, of Deerfield, Mas- 
sachusetts. Graduated at Harvard University in 1764. He 
entered the British Army soon after the affair at Lexington, 
and was proscribed under the Act of 1778. He returned in 
1784, and received half-pay during life. He died in 1793, 
aged forty-seven years. 

Williams, William. Of Pittsfield, Massachusetts. He 
graduated at Harvard University in 1729. In 1771 he was a 
member of the House of Representatives, and Hutchinson 
speaks of him as one of the Government members, " who, in 
common times, would have had great weight," but who, over- 
borne by the superior numbers of the Whigs, Avere inactive. 
Mr. Williams was subsequently an officer in the military ser- 
vice of the Crown. He died in 1784, aged eighty-three. 

Williams, Israel. Of Massachusetts. He was long a 
member of the House of Representatives, and in 1774 was 
appointed a Mandamus Councillor, but declined serving. 
Though old and infirm, he was visited by a mob at night, 
taken from his house, carried several miles, and put into a 
room with a fire, when the doors and the top of the chimney 


were closed, and he was kept several hours in the smoke. On 
being released, he was compelled to sign a paper dictated by 
his tormentors. The circumstance did not escape Trumbull's 
caustic pen ; and he asks, in " McFingal," — 

" Have you made Murray look less big, 
Or smoked old Williams to a Whig ? " 

Mr. Williams was a graduate of Harvard University, of the 
class of 1727. He died in 1788, aged seventy-nine. 

Williams, Elijah. Of New Hampshire. A lawyer, at 
Keene ; but abandoned his practice at the beginning of the 
war. Proscribed and estate confiscated. 

Williams, Reuben. Of Brooklyn, New York. A grantee 
of St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783. Died in Queen's 
County, in that Province, in 1802. 

Williams, William. Of York County, Pennsylvania. 
Attainted and property confiscated. Settled in New Bruns- 
wick at the peace, and died in that Province, in 1802. 

Williams, Robert. Of Charleston, South Carolina. 
Barrister-at-law. In 1780 an Addresser of Sir Henry Clin- 
ton, and a petitioner to be armed on the side of the Crown. 
In 1782 banished and estate confiscated. He went to Eng- 
land, and in 1794 petitioned the British Government to inter- 
fere for the recovery of some large debts due to him in Amer- 
ica at the time of his banishment. He died in England, in 
1808, aged seventy-five ; and his daughter Sarah died there in 
1839, aged seventy-four. 

Williams, . Of Georgia. Major in the Loyal 

Militia. Captured by the Whigs ; called to his prison door, 
and shot through the body. Possibly Sampson Williams 
whose property was confiscated in 1779. 

Williams, Thomas P. Died at St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1827 : probably of Westchester County, New York. 

Williamson, Rev. Alexander. Of Maryland. Epis- 
copal minister. He was licensed by the Bishop of London in 
1755 ; and between that year and 1776 he was Curate of the 
parishes of St. Andrew's and St. Ann's, in St. Mary's Coun- 


ty, and of St. George's, in Frederick County, and Rector of 
Prince George's. He had an estate above Georgetown, Dis- 
trict of Columbia, on which he resided until his decease. 

Williamson, Francis. Of Currituck County, North 
Carolina. His property was conficated in 1779. Previous 
to the Revolution, he was a member of the House of Assem- 


Williamson, Andrew. Of South Carolina. In 1775 
he was in commission as a Major, and received the thanks of 
the Provincial Congress for his services in causing Robert 
Cunningham to be apprehended and sent to Charleston, and 
for embodying the militia, and opposing the insurrection of 
Patrick Cunningham and his accomplices. In 1780, after the 
fall of Charleston, he submitted to the British officer who 
commanded in the District of Ninety-Six, and became as 
active on the side of the Crown, as, previous to that event, he 
had been on the side of the Whigs. So odious was the 
change indeed that he was called the " Arnold of Carolina." 
He was captured by Hayne, who, himself made prisoner, was 
soon conducted to the scaffold. Lord Rawdon, in his defence, 
remarks that Hayne's achievement was of " singular malig- 
nity," and that Williamson was told the object of seizing him 
was " to hang him in the camp of General Greene." What- 
ever the truth, the enterprise cost Hayne his life. The estate 
of Williamson was confiscated. 

Williamson, Christopher. Of Charleston, South Caro- 
lina. An Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. He died 
at Charleston, in 1814, aged sixty-seven. 

Willolghby, Bliss. Of New York. He lived in the 
county of Albany, near Bennington ; and early in 1775, be- 
ing one of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace, kept his house 
and retainers armed, fearing an attack from the rioters or 
Rebels of that region. 

Wilmot, Lemuel. Of Long Island, New York. Entered 

the service of the Crown, and at the peace was a Captain in 

the Loyal American Regiment. In 1783 he settled on the 

river St. John, New Brunswick, where he continued to reside. 



He died near Fredericton in 1814. He received half-pay. 
Hannah, his wife, a daughter of the Hon. Daniel Bliss, died 
in 1810. Five sons survived him. The Hon. Lemuel A. 
Wilmot, the son of his youngest son William, formerly a lead- 
ing politician of the party of the Liberals, is now (1863) a 
Judge of the Supreme Court of New Brunswick. 

Wilson, John. Of New York. Went to Nassau, New 
Providence, where he was one of the editors of the " Royal 
Gazette," and where he died in 1809. 

Wilson, David. Of New York. Went to Shelburne, 
Nova Scotia, and became a merchant of extensive business. 
In 1808 he committed suicide. 

Wilson, John. Of Georgetown, South Carolina. Ban- 
ished and estate confiscated. Went to England. His wife, 
who " descended from one of the most respectable and af- 
fluent families " of that State, and who, " without hesitation, 
bade adieu to her native country and numerous relatives, to 
share his fate," died at London in 1814. 

Wilson, George. A grantee of St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1783. Jane, his widow, died at that city, in 1852, 
aged eighty-eight years. 

Wiltbank, Abraham. Of Delaware. Was a Whig, and 
a Lieutenant in the service of that State, but changed sides. 
In 1778 he was required to abide a trial for treason, or sub- 
mit to the forfeiture of his property. 

Winchester, John. Died at Annapolis, Nova Scotia, in 
1840, aged ninety-eight. 

Win gate, John. An Episcopal clergyman, of Orange 
County, Virginia. In 1775 he was charged with having in 
his possession several pamphlets containing very obnoxious 
reflections on the Continental Congress, and the proceedings 
of the Whigs ; and was waited upon by the Committee of 
that county, who desired him to surrender them. This he 
refused, but after several peremptory demands, finally con- 
sented, to prevent extremities. That the reader may learn 
the titles of some of the publications of the Loyalists, a list 
of those taken from Mr. Wingate is here given, namely : 


"The Congress Canvassed," by A. W. Farmer; "A View 
of the Controversy between Great Britain and her Colonies," 
by the same ; " Free Thoughts on the Proceedings of the 
Continental Congress," &c ; " Short Advice to the Counties 
of New York " ; and " An Alarm to the Province of New 
York." Most of these were printed at New York, by Riv- 
ington ; and were publicly committed to the flames. 

Winslow, John. Of Marshfield, Massachusetts. He was 
the grandson of the second, and the great-grandson of the first 
Governor Winslow, of the Colony of Plymouth ; and no native 
of New England, probably, Sir William Pepperell only ex- 
cepted, was more distinguished as a military leader at the 
time he lived. In 1740 he was a Captain in the unfortunate 
expedition to Cuba ; and, subsequently, "endured much hard 
service in the several enterprises against Crown Point, and 
Nova Scotia, and to the Kennebec, in the two French wars. 
He will be remembered in our annals, principally, for his 
agency in the removal of the Acadians from Nova Scotia in 
1755. The force employed in that Colony at this period was 
composed almost entirely of Massachusetts troops, specially 
enlisted for the service, to act as a distinct body. They were 
formed into a regiment of two battalions, of which Governor 
Shirley was the Colonel, and of which Winslow, then a half- 
pay Captain in the British Army, and a Major-General in 
the Militia, was Lieutenant-Colonel. As Shirley could not 
leave his Government to take the command in person, 
Monckton, a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Army, was appointed 
to conduct the first battalion, and Winslow the second. 
There was, indeed, much adroit management on the part of 
the Governor, in arranging the whole affair ; and the same 
remark may be made of those who participated in the enter- 
prise elsewhere. It is especially applicable to Governor Law- 
rence, of Nova Scotia, and his Council. The plan for 
abducting the Acadians was kept a profound secret, both 
by those who formed it, and by those who were sent to exe- 
cute it. 

A proclamation was issued by Colonel Winslow, requiring 


the inhabitants of certain districts and " of all other districts," 
" both old men and young men, as well as all the lads of ten 
years of age, to attend at the church at Grand Pre," on the 
5th of September, 1755, " at three o'clock in the afternoon, 
that we may impart to them what we are ordered to com- 
municate to them ; declaring that no excuse will be admitted 
on any pretence whatever, on pain of forfeiting goods and 
chattels, in default of real estate." The victims came. Four 
hundred and eighteen men assembled and were shut up in the 
church. This done, Winslow placed himself in their midst 
with his officers around him, and addressed them in a speech 
of some minutes ; and after making known that it was " very 
disagreeable to his natural make and temper " to communicate 
his instructions, yet that it was not his business to " animad- 
vert, but to obey such orders as he should receive," he an- 
nounced the cruel decree, that their "lands and tenements, cat- 
tle of all kinds and live stock of all sorts, are forfeited to the 
Crown ; with all other effects, saving their money and house- 
hold goods," and that they themselves were " to be removed 
from this his Majesty's Province." This, said he, " is per- 
emptorily his Majesty's orders, that the whole French inhabi- 
tants of these districts be removed." On finishing his dis- 
course, he declared that all to whom it had been addressed, 
were " the King's prisoners." In a short time, the number 
of persons collected, and on whom this edict was to fall, was 
483 men, and 337 women, who were heads of families, and 
their sons and daughters, to the aggregate of 1103, making a 
total of 1923. Their stock consisted of 7833 horned cattle, 
493 horses, and 12,867 sheep and swine. Some of these 
wretched people endeavored to fly from the doom pronounced 
against them, when "the country was laid waste to prevent 
their subsistence." In one district alone, six hundred and 
seventy-eight buildings, of which more than a third were 
dwelling-houses, were destroyed. 

The moment of embarkation is thus described. " The pre- 
parations having been all completed, the 10th of September 
was fixed upon as the day of departure. The prisoners were 


drawn up six deep, and the young men, one hundred and six- 
ty-one in number, were ordered to go first on board of the 
vessels. This they instantly and peremptorily refused to do, 
declaring that they would not leave their parents ; but ex- 
pressed a willingness to comply with the order, provided they 
were permitted to embark with their families. Their request 
was immediately rejected, and the troops were ordered to fix 
bayonets and advance towards the prisoners, a motion which 
had the effect of producing obedience on the part of the young 
men, who forthwith commenced their march. The road from 
the chapel to the shore, just one mile in length, was crowded 
with women and children, who, on their knees, greeted them 
as they passed with their tears and their blessings ; while the 
prisoners advanced with slow and reluctant steps, weeping, 
praying, and singing hymns. This detachment was followed 
by the seniors, who passed through the same scene of sorrow 
and distress. In this manner was the whole male part of the 
population of the district of Minas put on board of five trans- 
ports, stationed in the river Gaspereaux ; each vessel being 
guarded by six non-commissioned officers and eighty privates. 
As soon as the other vessels arrived, their wives and children 
followed, and the whole were transported from Nova Scotia." 

Hutchinson, in speaking of the distresses of these people, 
says : " In several instances, the husbands who happened to 
be at a distance from home, were put on board vessels bound 
to one of the English Colonies, and their wives and children 
on board other vessels, bound to other colonies remote from 
the first. One of the most sensible of them, describing his 
case, said, 'It was the hardest which had happened since our 
Saviour was upon earth.' " 

Deeds of darker hue, have seldom been done. The brute 
animals, at least, had committed no acts against the majesty 
of England ; but, " The volumes of smoke which the half- 
expiring embers emitted, while they marked the site of the 
peasant's humble cottage, bore testimony to the extent of the 
work of destruction. For several successive evenings the cat- 
tle assembled around the smouldering ruins, as if in anxious 


expectation of the return of their masters ; while all night long 
the faithful watch-dogs of the Neutrals howled over the scene 
of desolation, and mourned alike the hand that had fed, and 
the house that had sheltered them." In another section of the 
Colony, two hundred and fifty-three houses were set on fire at 
one time, and their owners beheld the awful calamity from the 
neighboring woods in unspeakable agony. When, at length, 
an attempt was made to burn their church, they suddenly 
emerged from the forest, slew and maimed about thirty of 
their enemies, and quickly returned to " God's first temples." 
Seven thousand of these wretched people were hunted up, in 
the course of the year, and sent to different parts of the 
thirteen Colonies. Sole and forlorn, they were to be met 
with afterwards in every principal town from Boston to Sa- 
vannah. Hundreds of them perished ; few were ever in 
comfort. Those who were carried to Georgia, distant as 
they were from home, attempted to make a voyage round the 
coast to Nova Scotia, but after reaching New York and Bos- 
ton, were met by orders which compelled them to relinquish 
their design. 

It is said by the historian, 1 from whom this brief narrative 
is chiefly derived, that no records of this event have been pre- 
served in the archives of Nova Scotia. " The particulars of 
this affair," he remarks, " seem to have been carefully con- 
cealed, although it is not now easy to assign the reason, unless 
the parties were, as in truth they well might be, ashamed of 
the transaction." There can be no excuse for the transporta- 
tion of the Acadians, and for the wanton destruction of their 
possessions ; and humanity is shocked at the accounts, which, 
though the contrivers of the plan "carefully concealed" their 
relative agency in forming and executing it, have still been 
preserved for the execration of mankind. The most respon- 
sible persons appear to have been Charles Lawrence, Gov- 
ernor of Nova Scotia, the members of his Council, the 
Honorable Vice- Admiral Boscawen, and Rear Admiral Moy- 
styn. Colonel Winslow was but the instrument, and acted 

1 Haliburton. 


under the Governor's written and positive instructions. 
Whatever were the offences of some of the Acadians, it is 
undeniably true that, as a people, they were involved in hope- 
less and utter misery, in consequence of their unalterable at- 
tachment to their religion, and their devoted loyalty to their 

In 1756 the indefatigable Shirley determined to raise three 
thousand men in Massachusetts, to aid the mother country in 
her operations against the French in America ; and of these, 
and of six thousand other troops, Winslow was to be Com- 
mander-in-Chief, with the rank of Major-General. His zeal 
not only prompted him to sustain this large requisition upon 
his native Colony, but induced him to propose an increase of 
the number. But causes of dissatisfaction existed in conse- 
quence of some occurrences while upon the unhappy service 
the previous year, just mentioned, and men enrolled them- 
selves slowly and reluctantly. Before the quota was com- 
pleted, Shirley was superseded in his military authority, and 
the Massachusetts troops, accordingly, performed but a sec- 
ondary part in the enterprises which succeeded. Winslow 
took the field at the head of nearly eight thousand men, 
raised in New England and New York, and was in position 
to meet Montcalm, who, to save Crown Point and Ticon- 
deroga, made a movement from Oswego (which fell into his 
hands) by the route of the St. Lawrence. As soon as the 
French General returned to Canada, Winslow and his army 
returned to Massachusetts. The campaign was attended with 
no results ; discomfiture happened to the British arms every- 
where. Winslow's force was diminished by considerable 
desertions, and by deaths on his march homeward, and deaths 
in camp after he had reached the Colony ; and he found, to 
add to his embarrassments, that the Government had made 
no provision for the payment of his officers and men. The 
latter difficulty was met by an appropriation of the General 
Court, and the General was finally permitted of enjoy repose. 

In 1762 he was appointed one of the Commissioners " to 
repair to the river St. Croix ; determine upon the place where 


the said easterly line [of Maine] is to begin ; extend the said 
line as far as should be thought necessary ; and ascertain and 
settle the same by marked trees, or other boundary marks." 
William Brattle and James Otis were his associates, and they 
made a report of their doings which was printed. This may 
have been the first of the many efforts made to solve that 
vexed question — " Which is the true river St. Croix ? " 

In compliment to General Winslow, " the fourth of a family 
more eminent for their talents, learning, and honors, than any 
other in New England," one of the towns incorporated on the 
river Kennebec, in 1771, was called by his name. 1 Of this 
town he was one of the original grantees in 1766 ; and it is 
an interesting incident, as connected with his political sym- 
pathies, that the first settlers were stanch Whigs, who, though 
living almost in a wilderness, had their Committee of Safety, 
and in 1776, voted to raise or provide " one hundred and 
twenty-five thousand of shingles, and ten thousand of clap- 
boards, to purchase a town stock of ammunition." General 
Winslow was a member of the Legislature of Massachusetts 
during the Stamp Act difficulties, and acted, possibly, with the 
Whigs. He was associated with Cushing, Dexter, and 
Samuel Adams, on several occasions, in preparing answers 
to the speeches of Governor Bernard, and the papers which, 
apparently, they jointly submitted, contain very pungent re- 
bukes, and an examination of the grounds and principles of 
the controversy. He died at Hingham, in 1774, aged 
seventy-one. His widow, I suppose, embarked with the Royal 
Army in 1776. She was in England in 1783, and enjoyed a 
pension from the Government. 

Winslow, Pelham. Attorney-at-law. Of Plymouth, 
Massachusetts. Son of General John. He graduated at 
Harvard University in 1753, and entered the office of James 
Otis to fit himself for the bar. In 1774 he abandoned home 
and took refuge in Boston. At the evacuation in 1776 he 
accompanied the Royal Army to Halifax, and thence went to 

1 It is still Winslow, though the town of Waterville was formed of a 
part of it in 1802. 


New York. He entered the military service of the Crown, 
and was a Major. In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. 
He died at Brooklyn, New York, in 1783, leaving a wife and 
an infant daughter. 

Winslow, Edward. Of Massachusetts. Brother of 
General John. He graduated at Harvard University in 
1736. He resided at Plymouth, subsequently, and was Clerk 
of the Courts, Register of Probate, and Collector of the Port. 
He left the country with his family at the evacuation of Bos- 
ton, in 1776, and went to Halifax, Nova Scotia, where he 
died in 1784, aged seventy-two years. The ceremonies at 
his funeral were of a style to confer the highest honor. His 
estates in Massachusetts were confiscated ; but every branch 
of his family was amply provided for by the British Govern- 

Winslow, Edward, Jr. Of Massachusetts. Son of Ed- 
ward Winslow. He graduated at Harvard University in 1765. 
In 1774, the Plymouth County Convention Resolved, " That 
Edward Winslow, Jr., one of the two clerks of the Court of 
General Sessions of the Peace and Court of Common Pleas 
for this county, has, by refusing this body a copy of- an Address 
made at the last term in this county to Thomas Hutchinson, 
Esq., betrayed the trust reposed in him, and by refusing his 
attendance when requested, treated the body of this county 
with insult and contempt, and by that means rendered himself 
unworthy to serve the county in said office." In 1775 he 
joined the Royal Army at Boston, and entering the service, 
became a Colonel. In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. 
In 1782 he was Muster-Master-General of the Loyalist forces 
employed under the Crown. After the war he settled in 
New Brunswick, and was a member of the first Council 
formed in that Colony, Surrogate-General, Judge of the 
Supreme Court, and, finally, Administrator of the Govern- 
ment. He died at Fredericton, in 1815, aged seventy years. 
His son, Edward F. Winslow (1847) is Sheriff of Carleton 
County, New Brunswick. Judge Winslow was one of the 
founders of the Old Colony Club, at Plymouth, and was one 

vol. ii. 38 


of its most active members. He delivered the first anniver- 
sary Address of that association, on the 22d of December, or 
Forefathers' Day, in 1770. 

Winslow, Isaac. A physician, of Marshfield, Massachu- 
setts. He graduated at Harvard University in 1762. He 
commenced the practice of physic, and though of the same 
principles as other members of his family, remained upon his 
estate during the war and his life. I find it said, and the 
authority seems good, that, in 1778, he treated about three 
hundred patients inoculated with the small-pox, and that, 
such was his remarkable skill and success, not one of them 
died. He died in 1819, aged eighty-one. His son John, an 
eminent lawyer, deceased at Natchez, in 1820. His widow, 
Frances, died at Hingham, in 1846, aged eighty-four; and 
his daughter Ruth S., widow of Captain Thomas Dingley, 
died at Pembroke the same year. The family tomb of the 
Winslows is at Marshfield. 

Winslow, Rev. Edward. Of Quincy or Braintree, Mas- 
sachusetts. Episcopal minister. Was born in Boston. Grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1741. In 1776 he determined 
to shut his church, " if required to pray for the present rulers." 
Driven to New York in 1777, by the troubles that followed, 
he died in that city, in 1780, aged fifty-nine, and was buried 
under St. George's Chapel. Jane Isabella, his widow, died at 
Fayetteville, North Carolina, in 1793, aged sixty-six. 

Winslow, Isaac. Of Boston. In 1774 he was an Ad- 
dresser of Hutchinson, and in 1775 of Gage. He was ap- 
pointed a Mandamus Councillor, and was qualified. In 1776, 
with his family of ten persons, he accompanied the Royal 
Army to Halifax ; and in 1778 was proscribed and banished. 
In his religious sentiments Mr. Winslow was a Sandemanian. 
Jemima, his widow, died at London in 1790. 

Winslow, Joseph. The Committee of Newport, Rhode 
Island, of which Jonathan Otis was chairman, wrote to the 
Committee of Easthampton, New York, in June, 1775, that 
he was " an inveterate enemy of our country," and that it 
" was generally thought " he had gone to a hospital to take 
the small-pox, for the purpose of spreading that disease in 


the Whig camp at Cambridge. Thomas Gilbert and Eben- 
ezer Phillips were charged with taking the small-pox for 
the same purpose. The truth of such an averment may be 

Wintermoot, . Of Wyoming, Pennsylvania. He 

was a noted adherent of the Crown, and a large land pro- 
prietor. A fort bearing his name was erected on his estate, 
and was occupied by the miscreant Colonel Butler, as his 
head-quarters, while on his murderous enterprise against 
Wyoming. Wintermoot was himself active in bringing de- 
struction upon the valley, and after doing all the mischief in 
his power, removed to Canada. In the war of 1812 he had 
a son in the British service, with the rank of Lieutenant, who 
was killed at Fort Erie by an American volunteer from the 
neighborhood of Wyoming. 

Winthrop, Robert. Of New London, Connecticut. 
Son of John S. Winthrop. Vice-Admiral in the British 
Navy. He was born in 1764 ; and during the Revolution 
was appointed a Midshipman. In 1790 he was a Lieutenant ; 
and six years later, a Post-Captain. He attained the rank of 
Rear-Admiral in 1809, and of Vice-Admiral in 1830. He 
served on board the flag-ship of Sir George B. Rodney in the 
memorable victory over the French, April 12, 1782. He 
was at the conquest of Martinique, and of St. Lucia. He 
captured a French corvette. He was wrecked in the frigate 
Undaunted. He was on duty in the North Sea. He super- 
intended the landing of the troops in the expedition against 
Ostend. Entrusted with a small squadron to cruise off Hoi 
land, his boats burned a store-ship, made prize of fifteen 
merchant vessels, a sloop-of-war, and an armed schooner. 
He assisted in the capture of the Helder. Stranded in the 
frigate Stag, he was compelled, after saving her stores, to 
burn her. Stationed on the coast of Spain, in the Ardent of 
sixty-four guns, he drove on shore a French frigate, which 
was set on fire and burned by her own crew. Such is the 
bare outline of his services on the ocean. The Sea-Fencibles 
of the Dover district were placed under his orders, in 1807. 


His wife was a Miss Farbrace. He died at Dover in 1832. 
Two sons and four daughters survived him. The late 
Thomas L. Winthrop, Lieutenant-Governor of Massachu- 
setts, was a half-brother. 

Wis wall, John. An Episcopal clergyman, of Falmouth, 
Maine. He was a son of John Wiswall, of Boston, and 
graduated at Harvard University in 1749. He commenced a 
school at Falmouth as early as the year 1753, at which time 
he was a Congregationalist and a student of divinity. In 
1756 he was ordained over the society in New Casco. He be- 
came deranged in 1762, and continued in an unsound state of 
mind several months. In 1764 he changed his religious views, 
and embraced Episcopacy. Several attempts were made be- 
fore the last named year to form a society of Episcopalians at 
Falmouth, but none had proved successful. At this time 
great divisions existed in the only parish there, and after a 
part of the members had agreed to secede and erect a church, 
a quarrel arose among them, and " two of the most respectable 
of" the seceders " fought in the street." Of the new society 
Mr. Wiswall was invited to become the minister. The " sece- 
ders from the old parish had for some time been paying him 
court," and he u suddenly left his people without the usual 
formalities, declared for the Church of England," and accepted 
the call. After preaching several times in the town-house, he 
embarked for England to be ordained, and, as was common 
in those days, took passage in a mast-ship. He returned in 
May, 1765. His flock, July, 1766, consisted of seventy fami- 
lies, and, as he wrote at the time, of " a considerable number 
of strangers." * The Society for the Propagation of the 

1 Parson Smith, to whom Mr. Wiswall seems to have been a source of 
great affliction, and a sort of evil genius, and who was either recording 
that the community was in a " sad toss," or in a " sad uproar," in conse- 
quence of the dissensions which resulted in the formation of the Episco- 
pal Church, says, in his Journal : " June 29th, (Sunday,) the Lieutenant- 
Governor, Judge Oliver, Mr. GofF, Mr. Winthrop, and Mr. Bowdoin, 
at meeting," to hear him. Though seventy families had gone off, that the 
good old man retained the strangers of distinction, must have been, under 
the circumstances, highly grateful to his feelings, 


Gospel in Foreign Parts contributed <£20 per annum, and his 
people paid the remainder of his salary. The latter, under 
the existing laws, were required, also, to aid in the support 
of the minister and colleague pastor of the old parish ; but of 
this burden they were eventually relieved by consent of both 
parties, and by an Act of the General Court. The two 
parishes thus terminated their strife ; no others existed in that 
part of Falmouth, which is now Portland, anterior to the 

But though religious differences came to an end, the in- 
creasing public disputes caused new divisions in Mr. Wiswall's 
own communion. Among those who were offended, and 
seceded because of their minister's loyalty, was General Pre- 
ble, a very distinguished Whig, to whom the Provincial Con- 
gress first offered the command of the Massachusetts forces, 
but who, on account of his age, declined the appointment, 
when it was conferred upon General Ward. Mr. Wiswall, 
however, continued to perform his duties, until Falmouth was 
burned by Mowatt in 1775. In that wanton outrage St. 
Paul's Church, the building in which he officiated, was con- 
sumed. His conduct during the troubles with Mowatt, which 
preceded the conflagration, caused much offence ; and while 
walking with that miscreant, he was seized, and carried before 
the Whig Committee, or Board of War, a prisoner. Though 
he was soon released, his usefulness was at an end, and, yield- 
ing to circumstances, soon departed from town. During the 
war he went to England, and in 1778 was included in the 
Banishment Act of Massachusetts. While abroad he re- 
ceived some professional employment, and in 1781 was a 
Curate at Oxford. After the peace he returned to America, 
and settled in Nova Scotia. He died in that Colony in 1812. 
His son, the Hon. Peleg Wiswall, was appointed a Judge of 
the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia in 1816, and died at An- 
napolis, in 183G, aged seventy-four. 

Witherspoon, Peter. He was on Long Island, New 
York, in 1778, and advertised his intention to instruct a 


450 WOGAN. — WOMEN. 

small number of scholars in Greek and Latin ; and that due 
attention would be paid to the morals of his pupils. 

Wogan, Samuel. Captain in the American Legion. Was 
wounded in Arnold's expedition, against his native State, in 

Wolstenholme, Daniel. Of Virginia. Last Royal Col- 
lector of the Customs on the Potomac. In July, 1776, he 
applied for leave to go to England ; permission was granted by 
the proper civil authority, but in Maryland, where he designed 
to take passage in the Fowey ship-of-war, he was detained. 
Governor Eden interposed, and the Collector embarked with 
his effects under a flag of truce. 

Women. Embarked at Boston for Halifax at the Evacua- 
tion, March, 1776. Ayres, Eleanor, with a family of two ; 
Burton, Mary, milliner ; Beath, Mary ; Conner, Mrs. ; Cum- 
mins, E. & A. milliners ; Carr, Mrs. ; Draper, Margaret, with 
a family of four ; Flucker, Mrs., with a family of five ; Gray, 
Mary ; Griffen, Mrs. ; Hallowell, Rebecca, with a family of 
three ; Hutchinson, Mrs., with a family of six ; Jones, Mary, 
with a family of five ; Jones, Mrs., with a family of three ; 
Lisle, Mrs., with a family of four ; Mackay, Mrs. ; McKin- 
stry, Mrs., with a family of eleven ; Phillips, Martha, with a 
family of two ; Richardson, Miss ; Richards, Mrs. ; Sterling, 
Elizabeth ; Stayner, Abigail, with a family of. two ; Taylor, 
Mrs. ; Winslow, Mrs. Hannah, with a family of three. Em- 
barked at Boston for Halifax, Nova Scotia, March, 1776, 
apparently without husbands or other male protectors, and 
apprehended at Provincetown, Cape Cod, in the most miser- 
able condition : Barry, Mrs. Elizabeth, with five children ; 
Crowfoot, Mrs. Nancy, and child ; James, Mrs. Joanna, and 
son ; Barrett, Mary ; and Winslow, Elizabeth. 

Women. Request denied. Knox, Jane, a widow, of New 
York, applied for leave to go to the city for her effects, and 
was refused ; but liberty was granted for a flag of truce to 
convey her goods to her place of abode, on condition that 
everything should be inspected, " to the end that no danger- 
ous intelligence be secretly conveyed to the enemy." 

WOMEN. 451 

Women. Denounced as inimical to the Whig cause. Eas- 
son, Mary, of Virginia, who was published by the Committee 
of the Isle of Wight as having behaved before them in a very 
insolent, scandalous, and indecent manner when under exam- 
ination on the charge of conveying information to Lord Dun- 

Women. Driven from Town. Hubbard, Catharine, and 
Darrow, Susannah. In 1783 a warrant was issued, on the 
petition of the Selectmen of Stamford, Connecticut, ordering 
them and their children to depart forthwith and never return. 

Women. Put in Prison. Elizabeth, wife of Henry Van- 
dyne, was confined in jail, in New Jersey, in 1776, on the 
charge of counterfeiting the Continental currency. At the 
examination, her husband, who was as guilty as herself, was 
the principal witness against her ; and thus betrayed, she 
made a full confession. A second female prisoner was Jane 
Clemings, who, in 1778, was taken well laden with " hard 
money," vermilion, and other articles for the Indians, on her 
way from Albany to the savage tribes of New York. 

Women. Captured at Sea. Burns, Elizabeth, and Pecit, 
Abigail, on board the ship Peggy, on the passage from Hali- 
fax to New York, July, 1776 ; were carried to Marblehead, 
thence to Boston. 

Women. Attainted of Treason, and Estates confiscated. 
Margaret, wife of Charles Inglis, Rector of Trinity Church, 
New York ; Susannah Robinson, wife of Beverley Robinson, 
of New York ; and Mary, wife of Roger Morris, member of 
the Council of New York ; Elizabeth, wife of Henry Hugh 
Ferguson, of Pennsylvania, — the property of the latter was 
held in her own right, and the gift of her father ; a part, how- 
ever, was restored to her ; Susanna, wife of Jonathan Adams, 
of Pennsylvania. In South Carolina, Colleton, Mrs. ; her es- 
tate in the possession of her heirs and devisees. 

Women. Murdered. McCrea, Jane. She was the daugh- 
ter of the Rev. James McCrea, of New Jersey, and was beau- 
tiful and good. Her sad fate is well known. Of Loyalist 
parentage, she was to have become the bride of David Jones, 

452 WOMEN. — WOOD. 

another Loyalist, and a Captain in the British service. Her 
nephew, Colonel James McCrea, lived at Saratoga in 1823. 

Women. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the Peace. 
Nichols, Ruth, a widow, of Newport, Rhode Island, with two 
children ; Burlock, Hester, of Norwalk, Connecticut, with 
one child ; Van Pelt, Sarah, and Acrigg, Rachel, residence 

Women. Settled at Pennfield, New Brunswick, in 1783. 
Doane, Rachel, of Pennsylvania, a widow. She probably 
was of the family of the Doanes whose crimes and fate are 
recorded in these volumes. 

Women. Went to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, in 1783. Six 
widows ; namely, Cook, Charity, of New Jersey ; Frazer, 
Elizabeth, of Albany ; Gidney, Elizabeth, of the State of 
New York, and residence unknown ; Mrs. McCloud ; Mrs. 
McMullen ; and Mrs. Dougal McMullen. Mrs. Gidney had 
lost by her loyalty property valued at £2500, and the first 
mentioned Mrs. McMullen £500 ; these two had a family. 
Of Mrs. McCloud the record is, — "To receive the same as if 
her husband lived." 

Women. Lived to d great Age. Rankin, Catharine, of 
Virginia. A lady so loyal as to maintain through life that 
America was in rebellion against England. She died in alle- 
giance to the Crown, in Virginia, in 1833, at the age of one 
hundred and nine years. O'Brien, Esther, a native of South 
Carolina, who went to New Brunswick in 1783, and was the 
wife of Thomas O'Brien, whom she survived, and died at 
Mispeck, in that Province, 1854, at the reported age of one 
hundred and thirteen years. 

Wood, Abiel. Of Pownalborough, (now Wiscasset,) 
Maine. The proceedings against him by the various Whig 
authorities, first and last, would make something of a book. 
In 1775 a Committee of Inspection proclaimed that he was 
an enemy to his country, and published ten facts as proved. 
From the tenth I extract the following : " Wood," as the 
document avers, " declared that most of the Congress were 
damned villains, saying there were Hancock, Adams, and 

WOOD. 453 

others, who acted out of selfish views in destroying the tea ; 
and being informed that Hancock did not destroy the tea, the 
said Wood offered to give his oath before any Justice of the 
Peace, that Mr. Hancock was the first man who went on 
board the tea ship ; and that the Devil made them believe 
that one of them should be a King, another a Governor, and 
that they should be in some great places of honor and profit, 
and their views were to stir up the people to sedition in order 
to accomplish their designs." 

Appended to the charges at this time are the depositions of 
several persons who seem to have been very industrious in 
collecting evidence to prove that he was " a Tory." I cannot 
stop to count the number of his accusers, or to give a digest 
of their allegations, or indeed to notice the doings in the 
House of Representatives and the Council, when his case was 
transferred to these tribunals. It is sufficient to remark that 
he was thought to be a Loyalist, and one too stubborn to yield 
to policy or to reason. Yet, it should be recorded that Whigs 
in office, at the same moment, certified that they were well 
acquainted with his general conduct, and believed he was a 
friend to American liberty. In December, 1775, the House 
and Council ordered him to be confined, until he should give 
bond with two sureties in £1000. After the adoption of the 
Constitution of Massachusetts, he was elected to represent the 
town of Pownalborough in the General Court, and when he 
appeared at Boston to take his seat, his course was the subject 
of immediate investigation on the part of his peers, who, after 
a review of the proceedings of others, expelled him from the 
House. Later in life, he filled civil offices, and was a Brig- 
adier-General in the militia. He died at Wiscasset, in 1811, 
aged sixty-seven, his widow died of spotted fever, at the same 
place, in 1814. 

Wood, Robert. Of New York. Was a merchant of that 
city, and a member of the firm of Peter Miller and Company. 
In 1783 he went to St. John, New Brunswick, and estab- 
lished himself in business the year following. He died at St. 
John, in 1827, aged sixty-eight. 


Wood, or Woods, John. Of New York. In December, 
1775, Governor Tryon wrote Lord Dartmouth that he had 
engaged Woods, Thomas Allen, and William Tunx, three 
skilful gunsmiths, to work for the Crown, and had paid their 
passage to England, on the express condition that they should 
be employed in the Tower, or other King's Armory. And 
he added : " There is only one workman now remaining in 
America that is capable of the business of gun-welding, as I 
am informed." A Loyalist named John Wood died at St. 
John, New Brunswick, in 1817, aged eighty-one. 

Woodbridge, Timothy. Of Massachusetts. A member 
of the General Court in 1771 ; and of weight on the minis- 
terial side. 

Woodward, Jesse. Of Monmouth County, New Jersey. 
His ancestor came to America three years after William Penn, 
and built a stone house, which is (1847) still standing. He 
was a man of consequence in his neighborhood, and was em- 
ployed by Lord Cornwallis to contract for stores and forage 
for the Royal Army. When his Lordship left that part of 
the country, considerable sums were due to persons of whom 
Mr. Woodward had made purchases, for which he was held 
accountable ; and unable to make payment, he was imprisoned 
by the Whig authorities, and remained in confinement three 
years. In 1783 he removed to Beaver Harbor, New Bruns- 
wick, and thence to St. John, where he died. He belonged 
to the religious Society of the Friends, or Quakers. 

Woodward, Jesse. Of Monmouth County, New Jersey. 
Son of Jesse. After receiving a good education, he chose a 
seaman's life, and was absent on a voyage at the beginning of 
the struggle, and remained abroad until its close. His politi- 
cal sympathies were, however, on the side of the Crown, and 
he joined his father's family in emigrating to New Brunswick. 
He settled at St. John, and was a shipmaster. He removed 
to Halifax in 1808 ; and died in Africa in 1832. Three sons 
and six daughters survived him. His son, Isaac Woodward, 
of St. John, was recently a County member of the House of 


Woodward, John. Of Monmouth County, New Jersey. 
Brother of the preceding. Although of the religious faith of 
his father, he accepted a military commission, and in 1782 
was an Ensign, and, at the close of the war a Lieutenant in 
the First Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. He settled 
at St. John, New Brunswick, was the grantee of a city lot, 
and received half-pay. He died at St. John about the year 
1805. After his decease, his widow and children returned to 
New Jersey. His son Leeson now (1846) resides at Phil- 

Woodward, Isaac. One of the first who left the United 
States for New Brunswick. He died in that Province, No- 
vember, 1833, at the age of seventy-three. He belonged to 
the Society of the Friends. 

Woodward, Anthony. Of New Jersey. Petition in his 
behalf (May, 1776,) to the Provincial Congress, setting forth 
the distressed condition of his wife and children ; that, hunted 
by bands of armed men, he had been driven, contrary to his 
intention, to the King's troops for shelter ; and praying for 
leave to "return to his rank and station in the community." 
At the peace he settled at Pennfield, New Brunswick. 

Wooley, Thomas. Of Queen's County, New York. In 
1776 he contumaciously refused three times to bear arms in the 
company of the district in which he lived, and challenged his 
captain to fight a duel ; committed to jail by the Provincial 
Congress as " a person whose going at large is dangerous to 
the liberties of America." He died in Queen's County, in 
1824, aged seventy-six. 

Woolsey, Benjamin Muirson. An officer of cavalry in 
the Queen's Rangers. At the peace he settled in New Bruns- 
wick, and was a Major in the militia. He returned to the 
United States. 

Woolton, William. Inspector of his Majesty's Customs 
in America. Died in England in 1781. 

Worden, Jarvis. Of North Castle, New York. Gave 
up all for his loyalty, and was a grantee of St. John, New 
Brunswick, in 1783. He died at Greenwich, King's County, 


in that Province, in 1842, aged eighty-six, and was buried, 
by his desire, on his own farm. 

Wormeley, Ralph, Jr. Of Virginia. Member of the 
Council of the Colony. In April, 1776, he was arrested and 
examined, at Williamsburgh, by the Committee of Safety, 
relative to a letter to John Grymes, which was intercepted ; 
and as, in the opinion of the Committee, the epistle afforded 
full proof of his enmity to the Whigs, and of a readiness to 
join their enemies whenever called upon, he was required to 
give bond, with approved security, in the sum of ten thou- 
sand pounds, conditioned to be of good behavior, to remain in 
Virginia, and to appear when required before the Whig au- 
thorities. In May he presented a petition to the Virginia 
Convention, which caused that body to assign narrow and 
specific limits to his abode, and to renew the bond and security 
for the same amount. To remove to the place prescribed, 
he was allowed twenty days. He died in Virginia, in 1806, 
aged sixty-four. 

Worthlngton, John, LL. D. Of Springfield, Massachu- 
setts. Born at Springfield in 1719 ; graduated at Yale Col- 
lege in 1740. The late President Dwight, in speaking of 
him, said that he was " a lawyer of the first eminence, and 
a man who would have done honor to any town and any 
country." As early as 1757 Mr. Worthington was a Colonel 
in the Militia of Massachusetts, an office which, at that war- 
like period, was one of marked distinction and influence. In 
1765 he was member of a Committee of the House of Repre- 
sentatives to consider Governor Bernard's Speech ; and the 
year after he assisted in the preparation of an Address of 
thanks to the King for the repeal of the Stamp Act. In 1769 
Hutchinson wrote him to ask if he would accept the place of 
Attorney-General. In 1770 he was associated with Hancock, 
John Adams, and other Whigs, to draft a Message to the Gov- 
ernor, on the subject of removing the troops from Boston to 
Castle William ; again, in 1771, his name occurs in the Re- 
port of a Committee of the House, to answer Hutchinson, 
on assuming the Executive chair ; and in 1772 he was con- 


nected with Resolutions relative to grants of money for the 
support of the Government of the Province. In 1774 he was 
appointed a Mandamus Councillor, but declined that perilous 
honor ; the Courts were interrupted the same year, and he 
retired from the bar. In the events that rapidly followed, the 
Whigs forced him to kneel and ask forgiveness for "his Tory- 
ism." But, in favor in 1791, he was one of the Commission- 
ers to ascertain the boundary-line between Massachusetts and 
Connecticut. As an executor of the will of Ephraim Wil- 
liams, the founder of Williams College, he performed his duties 
in a manner to entitle him to grateful remembrance. He died 
at Springfield, in the year 1800, aged eighty-one. Mary, his 
widow, died at the same place, in 1812, at the age of eighty. 
One of his daughters married the pure and gifted Fisher 
Ames ; another was the wife of Jonathan Bliss, a Loyalist, 
who is noticed in these pages. Hon. Seth Ames, a Judge of 
the Superior Court of Massachusetts, is a grandson. 

Wragg, William. Of South Carolina. He was born in 
1714, and was educated and fitted for the practice of the law 
in England. After returning to South Carolina he was a 
member of the Assembly and of the Council for many years. 
In 1769 he declined the appointment of Chief Justice of the 
Colony, that he might give evidence to those whose political 
course he opposed that his own conduct was not influenced 
by the hope of official distinction. Refusing to take an oath 
prescribed by the Provincial Congress, he was compelled to 
go into banishment. He embarked for Europe in the summer 
of 1777, but perished on the passage, at the age of sixty-three. 
He possessed an ample fortune ; and until the Revolutionary 
controversy commenced was held in the highest consideration. 
That he was a gentleman of talents and of blameless life, was 
universally admitted. 

Wright, Sir James, Baronet. Of Georgia. He was the 
son of Judge Wright, of South Carolina. Sir James held, 
at different periods, the highest posts in Georgia, having been 
Attorney-General, Judge, and Lieutenant-Governor, before 
assuming the government of the Colony in 1761. He was 

vol. ii. 39 

458 WRIGHT. 

Governor at the beginning of hostilities, and was the last who 
administered affairs in the name of the Kino;. In writing to 
the Earl of Dartmouth, from Savannah, December, 1774, he 
said that " since the Carolina Deputies have returned from 
the Continental Congress, as they call it, every means have 
been used to raise a flame again in this Province." In the 
same letter he remarked that the proceedings of that Assem- 
bly had roused so rebellious a feeling, as that " God knows 
what the consequences may be, or what man, or whose prop- 
erty may escape." In 1776, such had been the progress of 
revolutionary principles in Georgia, that the communications 
of Sir James to the Legislature were entirely disregarded. 
Having threatened the Whigs that he would resort to military 
force to stop their proceedings, Colonel Joseph Habersham, 
a member of the Assembly, was directed to seize his person. 
Sir James gave his parole of honor to confine himself to his 
own house, but soon violated the pledge ; and making his 
escape to an armed vessel of, the Crown, in the harbor of Sa- 
vannah, he planned an attack upon the town, which proved 
unsuccessful. He embarked for England. In 1779 he was 
despatched to reassume the government of Georgia. Savan- 
nah, at this time, was in possession of the King's forces ; and 
the Whigs under General Lincoln, assisted by the French 
under Count D'Estaing, resolved to recover it. An assault 
was made October 9th, but was unsuccessful, and caused the 
assailants the loss of nearly one thousand men. The friends 
of Sir James claim, that, by his determined zeal and spirit, the 
defence of his capital was " one of the most brilliant events of 
the war in the South." This defence, it is also affirmed, would 
not have been made but for his vote in the council of war ; as 
the other members were equally divided when he decided for 
vigorous opposition to the combined force sent to Georgia, 
though very superior to that under Prevost, the Royal Gen- 
eral. Sir James before the peace was at New York. At the 
close of the war he retired to England. He owned a large 
property in Georgia, which was confiscated. From "his situ- 
ation, age, activity, and zeal, as well as abilities, he was placed 

WRIGHT. 459 

at the head of the Board of Agents of the American Loyal- 
ists," for prosecuting their claims to compensation for losses. 
His own claim occupied the attention of the Commissioners 
for a considerable time. " After a long examination of his 
case," they reported him "to have rendered eminent services 
to Great Britain ; to have lost real and personal property to 
the value of X33,702, and his office of Governor, value £1000 
per annum." During the investigation he produced letters 
from Lord George Germain and Lord Mansfield. Sir James 
died in England in 1786. Sarah, his wife, only daughter 
and heiress of Captain Maidman, of the British Army, was 
drowned on her passage to England, in 1763. 

Wright, Sir James, Baronet. Of Georgia. Son of the 
first Sir James. The Georgia Royalists were raised, in 1779, 
with the design of giving him the command ; but I do not 
find his name in connection with that corps, except at the 
siege of Savannah, when his post was in a redoubt built of 
green wood, strengthened by fillings of sand, and mounted 
with heavv cannon. He went to England, and succeeded his 
father in 1786. He himself died in 1816, without issue, when 
the title reverted to his grand-nephew, Sir James Alexander, 
who was born at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1799, who 
died unmarried in 1837, and was succeeded by his cousin, Sir 
John, the present (1852) Baronet. The wife of the subject 
of this notice was Mary, daughter of John Smith, a Governor 
of South Carolina. 

Wright, Alexander. Of South Carolina. Second son 
of the first Sir James Wright. He was born in 1751 ; and 
in 1768 married Elizabeth, only child and heiress of John 
Izard, of South Carolina. He, I conclude, was the Alexan- 
der Wright, who, with Mr. Powell, attempted to obtain the 
signatures of Loyalists to a petition for the pardon of Colonel 
Isaac Hayne, which was unsuccessful in consequence of the 
positive refusal of the Attorney-General [see Sir Egerton 
Leiyli]. At the close of the Revolution Mr. Wright settled 
in Jamaica. He is mentioned as a gentleman of "known and 
just influence." 

460 WRIGHT. 

Wright, Charles. Of Georgia. Youngest son of the 
first Sir James. In 1778 attainted and estate confiscated. 
After the Revolution he was an officer in the Sixty-Fourth 
Regiment of the British Army. He died in England in 1816. 
The Confiscation Act of South Carolina contains the same 

Wright, Jermyn. Of Georgia. Brother of the first Sir 
James Wright. In 1776 he was in command of a fort on the 
St. Mary's River, which became a general rendezvous for the 
Tories of that section. The post was assailed, but the Whigs 
were defeated. A severe pen calls it a "nest of villains"; 
another account is, that Wright's force consisted of the ne- 
groes of the family and of other planters in the neighborhood. 
In 1778 he was attainted, and lost his estate. His name ap- 
pears in the Confiscation Act of South Carolina, in 1782. 

Wright, Daniel. Of Northampton, Massachusetts. Mer- 
chant. Went to Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1776. Was a Loy- 
alist Associator, at New York, in 1782, to settle at Shelburne, 
in that Province, with his family of four persons. Returned, 
and in 1789 rights of citizenship were restored by Act of the 
Legislature. Justus Wright was his brother. 

Wright, Philemon. Of Woburn, Massachusetts. He 
went to Lower Canada, and in 1806 was the founder of Hull. 
The patent was issued to him and his associates ; but he pur- 
chased a number of shares, from time to time, and in the end 
became a large proprietor in the township. 

Wright, Justus. Of Massachusetts. A magistrate. 
Went to England ; and was appointed Barrack-Master of 
Upper Canada in 1791. He was preparing to embark for 
that Colony, to enter upon his duties, when, December 9th, 
of that year, he died at London, while seated in a chair. A 
Mr. Wright, his son, is (September, I860,) living at Keene, 
New Hampshire. 

Wright, Elias. Of New York. Went to New Bruns- 
wick in 1788 ; was a grantee of St. John, and became a 
magistrate. He died at Beaver Harbor, on the Bay of Fun- 
dy, in 1825, aged seventy-six. 

WYER. 461 

Wyer, David. Of Falmouth, Maine. He was bred to 
the sea, and became a ship-master. His residence was at 
Charlestown, Massachusetts, while thus employed, but he re- 
moved to Falmouth, and was an officer of the Customs. At 
the beginning of the Revolution he was still in office, and with 
all the officers of the revenue of that port (Thomas Child only 
excepted, who was a Whig) abandoned the country. His 
loss in the conflagration of Falmouth was inconsiderable, be- 
ing estimated at only £67. During the military possession of 
the town by Thompson, and preceding that event, he was re- 
quired to give his presence before the Board of War as being 
a Tory. 

Wyer, David, Jr. Of Falmouth, Maine. Son of David 
Wyer. He was born at Charlestown, Massachusetts, in 1741, 
and graduated at Harvard University in 1758. In 1762 he 
was admitted to the bar, and commenced the practice of law 
at Falmouth. Until the year 1774, he and Theophilus Brad- 
bury, who removed from Newbury, Massachusetts, were the 
only lawyers who resided in that town, and of course they 
were ever antagonists. It is said, too, that their characters 
were as opposite as their position in Court. " Bradbury," 
(says the diligent Willis, in his ' History of Portland,') 
" was grave and dignified in his deportment, while Wyer 
was full of gayety and wit, the shafts of which did not al- 
ways fall harmless from his adversary ; the life of the former 
was marked by steadiness and uniformity, that of the latter 
was desultory and irregular ; one was distinguished by genius,, 
the other by method ; they both had qualities to elevate them 
in society, and give them a fair rank in the courts. Brad- 
bury was more of a special pleader, and by the weight of his 
character and manners had great influence with the Court 
and Jury ; but Wyer often carried his point by the vigorous 
sallies of his wit, and when he lost the jury, he frequently 
gained the laugh and the audience." They were also of op- 
posite sects in religion, and of different parties in politics. 

On the testimony of Governor Sullivan, and other lawyers 
who practised in Maine prior to the Revolution, Daniel Davis, 


462 WYER. 

Esq., said of Wyer, that " he was a high-minded, sterling 
fellow, of strong talents, an able and eloquent advocate, and 
extremely independent in his opinions and character." Mr. 
Wyer kept his office in his house, which was in Congress 
Street, nearly opposite the North School-house. This house 
was not burned in 1775, and is now (or was until a short 
time) standing. If without the regular appointment and com- 
mission of Attorney of the Crown, Mr. Wyer acted in that 
capacity when occasion required the services of such an officer 
in the courts of Maine. He died in 1776, at Stroudwater, to 
which place he removed after the burning of Falmouth, at the 
age of thirty-five, of an epidemic which prevailed at that time, 
and which carried off many persons old and young. His wife 
was a Miss Russell, a niece of Thomas Russell. Mrs. Wyer 
and two children survived him. One of the latter, a daugh- 
ter, married Captain Samuel Waite, of Portland. The three 
were living in that city in 1833. 

Wyer, Thomas. Of Falmouth, Maine. Brother of David 
Wyer, Jr. He was born at Charles town, Massachusetts, 
June 15, 1744, and removing to Falmouth with his father, 
was also employed as an officer of the Customs. He lost 
£325 in real and personal estate by the burning of the town 
in 1775. In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. In 1781 
he was in New York, where he was settled for the time with 
his wife. In 1784 he went to St. Andrew, New Brunswick, 
with other Loyalists, and continued there until his decease. 
He was an Agent of the British Government for settling and 
allotting lands to adherents of the Crown in the Revolution, 
the first Sheriff of Charlotte County, a Judge of the Com- 
mon Pleas, and Deputy Colonial Treasurer. For several 
years after the Revolution, the Loyalists claimed that all the 
islands in Passamaquoddy Bay were within the British domin- 
ions ; and Mr. Wyer, as Sheriff, ordered the inhabitants of 
Moose Island (now Eastport) to transact their legal business 
at St. Andrew. The Court of Sessions went so far, indeed, 
as to appoint constables and other officers, and to summon 
jurymen. During these attempts to exercise jurisdiction over 

WYNN. - YORK, 463 

citizens of the United States, Mr. Samuel Tuttle was arrested 
and put in jail. He steadily refused to acknowledge the au- 
thority of his Majesty's officials, and was finally released. 
These border difficulties ceased only when commissioners of 
the two nations determined that vexed question, " Which is 
the true river St. Croix ? " 

Mr. Wyer died February 24, 1824. He had a numerous 
family. His wife was a daughter of Jeremiah Pote, a fellow- 
Loyalist. The only son who survived him, Thomas Wyer, a 
member of her Majesty's Council, Justice of the Common 
Pleas, member of the Board of Education, Commissioner of 
Wrecks, and Lieutenant-Colonel in the militia, died at St. 
Andrew, December, 1848, aged sixty-nine. The family ac- 
count is that the senior Wyer was a graduate of Harvard 
University, but his name is not to be found in the catalogue. 

Wynn, William. Of Duchess County, New York. In 
1783 he retired to New Brunswick, where he remained nine- 
teen years. He removed to Upper Canada, and died at 
Queenstown in 1834. 

Yates, Richard. Of New York. Member of the Vestry 
of Trinity Church in 1782. I find mention of Colonel Rich- 
ard Yates, a Colonel and a Loyalist in England, 1811, as of 
Arlington Court, Gloucester County. 

Yeamans, John. Of Duchess County, New York. Re- 
moved to New Brunswick in 1783. He was the first mem- 
ber of the Assembly returned from the county of Queens, 
and held a seat in that body for many years. At the time of 
his decease, he was the presiding magistrate of Queen's Coun- 
ty. He died in 1824, aged eighty-nine. His son, Peter Yea- 
mans, Esq., is (1847) a Major of militia, and a magistrate of 
the same county. 

York. Of North Carolina. Saymore or Seymour, au- 
thorized, January, 1776, by Governor Martin to erect the 
King's standard, to enlist and array in arms the loyal subjects 
of Guilford County, and " to oppose all Rebels and traitors." 
Lyman and Robinson or Robertson, captains in the battle of 
Cross Creek ; taken prisoners and confined in Halifax Jail, 


but sent finally to Maryland. The latter broke out of prison, 
September, 1776, and was advertised as having " red hair 
curled on his neck, remarkable large lips, and bad teeth," 
and as " a very chattering fellow." 

Yorke, Thomas. Of Philadelphia. His estate was con- 
fiscated, and he was attainted and banished. In a memorial 
dated at London in 1794, he represented to the British Gov- 
ernment that he had not been able to recover debts due to 
him in America at the time of his banishment, and he prayed 
for redress. 

Young, John. Of Philadelphia. Governor Tryon, in 
commending him to Sir William Howe for a commission in 
the army, said that " Mr. John Young, a gentleman of prop- 
erty and character in the Colony of Pennsylvania, puts him- 
self under your protection. His loyalty to his Sovereign in- 
duced him to fly from persecution," &c. Young himself, in 
an account of his adventure, related that, " Having long ab- 
horred the new form of government erecting in America, on 
the ruins of the constitution of my country, and disdaining to 
submit to it, on the 24th of January, 1776, I set off in com- 
pany with my friend, Mr. Baynton, from Philadelphia, the 
place of our birth, for New York," &c. He was arrested on 
his journey to Boston, conveyed to New York, and sent home 
under guard, by the Committee of Safety, who state in their 
records that he " had entered as a volunteer in the ministerial 
service contrary to the will of his father." Attainted of trea- 
son in 1779. 

Young, William. Of Pennsylvania. Settled in New 
Brunswick, and died at Carleton, in 1804, aged forty-nine, 
leaving nine children. 

Young, George. Of Maine. Grantee of St. John, New 
Brunswick, in 1788 ; died at that city, in 1827, aged seventy- 

Young, Ephraim. Was one of the first settlers of St. 
Andrew, New Brunswick, and lived there before the erection 
of a frame-house by any one. He died at St. George, in that 
Province, in 1841, aged eighty-eight. His wife, with whom 


he lived sixty-six years, survived him. His descendants are 
thirteen children, one hundred and eight grandchildren, one 
hundred and forty great-grandchildren, and three great, great- 

Young, . Of Little Lakes, (now the town of War- 
ren,) New York. Founded a small colony, which was known 
as Young's Settlement, of which he continued to be the head 
man. In 1778, a party of Whigs plundered and burned his 
habitation, in retaliation for similar deeds of the Tories, at the 
secluded hamlet of Andrus-town, in the vicinity. This per- 
son, possibly, was Frederic Young, who, in 1775, signed a 
Declaration of loyalty. 

Younge, Thomas. Of Georgia. The " richest man and 
greatest Tory in Georgia, except the Governor." June 4th, 
1779, — the King's birthday — a party of British officers dined 
with him, when he and his guests, or a part of them, were 
seized by a party who landed from boats, and carried prisoners 
to Newbern, North Carolina. The moderate Whigs disap- 
proved of the act ; but Governor Nash wrote Washington 
that it was justifiable in retaliation, and that he should encour- 
age similar enterprises unless overruled. Attainted of treason 
and estate confiscated. 

Younghusband, George and Robert. Were grantees 
of St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783. The first was a mem- 
ber of the Loyal Artillery, in 1795, and an Alderman of the 
city in 1803. 

Zabriskie, John. A magistrate, of New Jersey. His 
estate was confiscated during the war ; and by an Act of 
December, 1783, it was given to Major-General Baron Steu- 
ben, in reward for his services. John Zabriskie, Jr., was a 
member of the Bergen County Committee of Correspondence 
in 1774, as was also Peter Zabriskie. 

Zedwitz, Herman. A Lieutenant-Colonel in the Conti- 
nental Army. In June, 1775, he petitioned the New York 
Provincial Congress to be allowed to raise a regiment of six 
hundred men in Pennsylvania. In August of 1776 he was 
discovered in a correspondence with Governor Tryon, of New 

466 ZUBLY. 

York. The object of this correspondence, it appeared, was to 
obtain a large sum of money, to be immediately sent him on 
condition of his giving the Royal commander information of 
the strength and situation of the army of Congress, agreeably 
to a promise which he had made to Tryon previous to his ac- 
cepting the commission. He confessed, at his trial, that he 
had written to Tryon, and that the letter produced was his ; 
but he averred that his end was not treasonable, and that his 
aim was to draw from the Royal coffers the sum of £2000 
sterling, to reimburse himself for expenditures in raising a 
regiment in Germany for the Marquis of Granby, which re- 
mained unpaid. His life was saved by a casting vote. He 
was, however, dismissed from the army, and declared inca- 
pable of holding any military office under the United States. 
His perfidy, it seems, was made known by a German, who 
had charge of a communication to Governor Tryon, but who 
carried it immediately to Washington. In November, 1776, 
the Continental Congress ordered his confinement in the State 
Prison at Philadelphia. In 1777 he was visited at Easton, 
Pennsylvania, by Hancock, who expressed the opinion that 
"this unhappy man was disordered in his senses." He was 
then languishing in prison without means of support. 

Zubly, John Joachim, D. D. He was the first minister 
of the Presbyterian Church in Savannah, Georgia. He was 
a man of great learning, of vigorous and penetrating mind. 
In 1775 he was a member of the Provincial Congress of Geor- 
gia that assembled at Tondee's Long Room, Savannah, July 
4th ; and preached a sermon in his own church before that 
body on the alarming state of American affairs, for which 
a committee was appointed to return him the thanks of the 
Congress. He appears to have been an active member, and 
to have assented to the measures which were adopted. On the 
7th of July he was selected as one of the delegates of Geor- 
gia to the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, a fact which 
shows that he possessed the confidence of his associates. He, 
however, expressed his surprise at the choice ; said that he 
thought himself to be an improper person on many accounts, 

ZUBLY. 467 

and declared that he would not go unless he had the approba- 
tion of his people ; whereupon a committee was appointed to 
request their consent. In the subsequent proceedings he as- 
sisted to prepare a letter to the President of the Continental 
Congress, and an Address to the Governor of Georgia. The 
task of framing a Petition to the King was assigned to his 
individual pen. His name is attached to an appeal to the in- 
habitants of Georgia, dated July 25th, in which it is said that 
" A civil war in America is begun ; several engagements have 
already happened ;" and at the close an earnest recommenda- 
tion is made for "a steady perseverance in the cause of lib- 
erty.' ' His congregation having given their assent that he 
should attend the deliberations at Philadelphia, he declared 
his willingness to undertake the duty, and returned his thanks 
for the honor conferred and the faith reposed by his asso- 
ciates. He took his seat in the Continental Congress accord- 

John Adams relates, (October, 1775,) that, " A few days 
ago, in company with Doctor Zubly, somebody said there was 
nobody on our side but the Almighty. The Doctor, who . . . 
speaks but broken English, quickly replied, ' Dat is enough, 
dat is enough ' ; and, turning to me, says he : ' It puts me in 
mind of a fellow who once said, — The Catholics have on their 
side the Pope, and the King of France, and the King of Spain, 
and the King of Sardinia, and the King of Poland, and* the 
Emperor of Germany, &c, &c, &c. But as to those poor 
devils, the Protestants, they have nothing on their side but 
God Almighty.' ' But he was soon detected in a corre- 
spondence with the Royal Governor of Georgia. A copy of his 
letter was obtained, and Mr. Chase, of Maryland, denounced 
him, in open Congress, as a traitor. Doctor Zubly denied the 
charge, and called upon his accuser for the proofs. But he 
did not wait for the nature of his offence to be established, 
for he immediately fled. Mr. Houston, one of his colleagues, 
was directed to pursue him, and to counteract the evils to be 
apprehended from his defection. The remainder of Dr. Zu- 
bly's life was embittered in consequence of his separation from 



his Whig friends, and he was involved in most unhappy dis- 
putes. He died at Savannah, before the close of hostilities, 
in July of 1781. His property was forfeited under the Con- 
fiscation Act. 



Abercrombie, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Addresser 
of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. 

Abrams, Robert. Of Georgia. In 1778 attainted, and property 

Achincloss, Thomas and Archibald. Of New Hampshire. The 
first, May, 1775, wrote a Submission, which was published, and in which 
he expressed his sorrow that " any part of his conduct should have given 
uneasiness to any friends of America." In 17 78 both were proscribed 
and banished. 

Achinson, Alexander. In 1782 he was a Lieutenant in the Royal 
Fencible Americans. 

Ackerman. The following went to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, at the 
peace : Of New Jersey, John, with his family of seven, and two servants ; 
Richard, with his family of seven ; and John William, with his family 
of three. Town lots were granted to each. Of New York, John, who 
was unmarried, and aged twenty-five years. 

Ackerson. Three of this name who belonged to New York went to 
Shelburne, Nova Scotia, at the peace : John and Abraham, each with 
a family of four, and Edward, aged twenty-two, and unmarried. Two, 
also, went from New Jersey : Thomas and John, each with a family of 
six. Grants of land were made to all. The last-mentioned John lost 
£900 in consequence of his loyalty. 

Ackland, Philip. Of Rhode Island. At the peace, accompanied 
by his family of four persons, and by two servants, he went from New 
York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted him fifty acres 
of land, one town and one water lot. His losses in consequence of his 
loyalty were estimated at £225. 

Acre, Thomas. Of Boston. At the peace, accompanied by his fam- 
ily, he went from New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown 
granted him one farm, one town and one water lot. 

Adair, Robert. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, 
and was one of the grantees of that city. 

Adams. Of Massachusetts. Joseph, of Townsend, physician, (the same, 
I suppose, who graduated at Harvard University in 1748,) and who was 
proscribed and banished in 1778. Of Connecticut. Jabez and James, 
who were members of the Reading Association, and pledged "to defend, 
maintain, and preserve, at the risk of their lives and property, the pre- 

VOL. II. 40 


rogatives of the Crown and the privileges of the subject from the attacks 
of any rebellious body of men, any Committees of Inspection, of Corre- 
spondence," &c. 

Adamson, George and John. Of South Carolina. The first of 
Charleston, and an Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton after the surrender 
of that city. John held a commission under the Crown. Both banished, 
and estates confiscated. 

Addison, A. Of Maryland. Went to England in 1779, and was a 
member of the Loyalist Association, London. 

Affleek, Thomas. Of Philadelphia. In 1777 he was ordered to be 
sent prisoner to Virginia, for disaffection to the Whig cause. 

Aikins, Samuel. In 1782 a Loyalist Associator at New York to set- 
tle at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, the following year, with his family of seven 

Airey, John. Of Philadelphia. Employed in the Post-office. At- 
tainted of treason, and estate confiscated. 

Albertson. Of New York. Derrick, of Long Island, acknowl- 
edged allegiance in 1776; and was plundered, in 1783, by a party of 
marauders, who, among other articles, carried off" his wedding shirt. 
Of Pennsylvania. Walton, attainted by proclamation ; but relieved in 

Albright, John. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. 

Albus, George. In 1782 he was an officer of cavalry in the Queen's 

Aldington, John. In 1782 he was a Captain in the Guides and 

Aldis, Nathan. Of Wrentham, Massachusetts. Abandoned the 
country. Died previous to December, 1781. 

Aldworth, Samuel. Of New York. Gunsmith. At the peace, 
accompanied by his family of four persons, he went from New York to 
Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted him fifty acres of land, 
one town and one water lot. 

Alexander. Of Maryland. Robert, who went to England. When, 
in 1783, it was ascertained that the State Legislatures refused to comply 
with the recommendation of Congress to restore the confiscated estates of 
Loyalists, he was appointed agent for those of Maryland, to present and 
prosecute their claim for compensation of the British Government. He 
was in, London in 1788, and on the 2d of July signed an Address to the 
King. Charles. Of Norfolk, Virginia. In May, 1775, the Whig Com- 
mittee published him as inimical to America, and recommended that all 
dealings with him should be discontinued. John. Of Craven, North 
Carolina. His property was confiscated in 1779. James. Of Georgia. 
A teacher of music, whose losses in consequence of his loyalty were £500. 
At the peace, accompanied by his family of five and two servants, he went 
to Shelburne, Nova Scotia. Another James, of Georgia, unmarried, aged 
thirty-four years, went to the same place at the same time. 

Allason, John. Of Virginia. In July, 1776, a refugee, with his 
family, on board the brigantine Maria, one of the vessels of Lord Dun- 
more's fleet on the coast of Virginia. 

Allee, Prestly. Of Duck Creek, Delaware. Husbandman. In 
1778- he was required by law to appear and be tried for treason, on or 
before August 1st, or suffer the loss of his property. 

Allen. Of Boston. Jeremiah and Ebenezer were arrested by 
order of the Council of Massachusetts, in 1776 ; the latter, with his family 


of seven persons, embarked for Halifax, Nova Scotia, the same year. Of 
New Jersey. John, at the peace, with his family of six, went to Shel- 
burne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted him one town lot ; he was 
old and infirm. Three others, all unmarried, went to the same place: 
namely, John, aged thirty-four; Lawrence, twenty-five ; and Thomas, 
twenty-two. Of Philadelphia. James, also, went to Shelburne, with his 
family of four, and received grants of fifty acres of farm land, one town 
and one water lot. 

Allicock, Charles John. In 1782 he was a Lieutenant of Cavalry 
in the South Carolina Royalists. 

Allison, Robert and William. The first, of South Carolina, was 
amerced twelve per cent, of the value of his estate ; the other, of New 
York, at the peace, accompanied by his family of three persons, went to 
Shelburne, Nova Scotia. 

Almond, William and John. Of Brandywine, Delaware. Were 
required to surrender themselves on or before August 1st, 1778, and abide 
legal trial for treason, or suffer the loss of their property, both real and 

Alsop, Richard. Of Queen's County, New York. In October, 1 776, 
he acknowledged himself a loyal and well-affected subject. In April, 1 779, 
the same name appears as an Addresser of Lieutenant-Colonel Sterling. 

Alston. Of this name, George, of North Carolina, whose estate was 
confiscated. John and Philip, who were in Florida after the war. 

Alstyn, P. Van. Of New York. In 1775 a magistrate at Kinder- 
hook. In 1780 a Captain in Cuyler's corps, and stationed on Long Island. 

Althouse, John, Jr. He was an Ensign in the same corps the same 
year. It is believed that he is still (1845) living. 

Alwood, Joseph and Silas. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, in 
1783, and received grants of city lots. 

Ambrose, Robert. Of Marblehead, Massachusetts. An Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774. 

Ancrum, William. Of Charleston, South Carolina. An Addresser 
of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780. He was banished in 1782, and his prop- 
erty was confiscated. 

Anderson. Of South Carolina. John, after the surrender of Charles- 
ton, in 1780, accepted of employment under the Crown. In 1782 he was 
a Lieutenant, and at the peace a Captain in the King's Rangers, Caro- 
lina. His estate was confiscated. Abraham, of Delaware, a mariner; 
was required by the Act of that State, in 1778, to surrender himself for 
trial for treason, on or before a certain day, or his property would be 
forfeited. Samuel, of Maryland ; a Captain in the Queen's Rangers. 
Stephen, of Chester County, Pennsylvania ; attainted, and estate confis- 
cated. Besides these, four of this name went to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, 
at the peace: John, of New York, and John, of New Jersey, each with 
a family of four persons ; Peter, of Rhode Island, aged twenty-seven 
years, and unmarried ; and William, of North Carolina, with a family 
of five. Lands were granted to all but John, of New York. The losses 
of William, in consequence of his loyalty, were estimated at £500. 

Andes, Conrad. At the peace, accompanied by his family of four 
persons, he went from New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the 
Crown granted him one town lot. His losses in consequence of his loyalty 
were estimated at £300. 

Andrews. Three of this name went to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, at 
the peace, and received grants of land there : John, of Boston, with a 
family of three and three servants ; George, of New York, with a family ; 


and John, of Philadelphia, unmarried, and aged thirty-four. The losses 
of John, of Boston, in consequence of his loyalty, were estimated at £500. 
Besides these, William, of Chester County, Pennsylvania, was attainted 
of treason, and lost his estate by confiscation. 

Anents, Stephen. Of New Jersey. At the peace, accompanied by 
his family of five persons, he went from New York to Shelburne, Nova 
Scotia, where the Crown granted him fifty acres of land, one town and 
one water lot. His losses in consequence of his loyalty were estimated at 

Annelly, Thomas. Of New Jersey. At the peace, accompanied by 
his family, he went from New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the 
Crown granted him one town lot. 

Annods, Basset. In 1776 he embarked at Boston for Halifax with 
the British Army. 

Anstrtjther, William. Major in the Royal Garrison Battalion in 

Anterbard, Martin. Of New York. Merchant. At the peace he 
went from New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted 
him one farm, one town, and one water lot. He was thirty years of age, 
and unmarried. 

Anthony, John. Of New York. At the peace, accompanied by his 
family of seven persons, he went from New York to Shelburne, Nova Sco- 
tia, where the Crown granted him one town lot. 

Antill, John. Of New York, and Postmaster of the city. An Ad- 
dresser of Lord and Sir William Howe. A Loyalist of this name married 
a granddaughter of Governor Colden, was a Major in the New Jersey Vol- 
unteers, and at the peace settled in Canada. 

Aplin, James. Of Rhode Island. He was educated to the bar. His 
father, John Aplin, an Englishman, was also a lawyer, and took fees on 
both sides of a case ; was discovered, and " between two days up kelog and 
scud for Connecticut"; as says the late S. Thurber, in the "Annals of 

Apple, Christian. Of Philadelphia. In 1778 appointed Barrack 
Chimney-Sweeper of the Royal Army. At the peace, accompanied by 
his family, he went from New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the 
Crown granted him one town lot. 

Appleby. Of New York. Elnathan and Joseph, of Westchester, 
Protesters against the Whigs at White Plains, in 1775; Thomas ac- 
knowledged allegiance to Lord and Sir William Howe the next year; 
Benjamin, a grantee of St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783; John, a 
" Cow-boy," settled in New Brunswick, and died there about the year 
1825; Sarah, his widow, deceased in that Province in 1828; and John, 
who also settled in New Brunswick, and died at Hampstead, in 1847, aged 
eighty-three. James, of New Jersey, and Robert, of Philadelphia, 
went to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, at the peace, and were grantees of land 
there. James had a